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Blinding as a solution to bias : strengthening biomedical science, forensic science, and law

Author: Christopher T Robertson; Aaron S Kesselheim
Publisher: Amsterdam ; San Diego, CA, USA : Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier, [2016]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Christopher T Robertson; Aaron S Kesselheim
ISBN: 9780128024607 0128024607
OCLC Number: 932174343
Description: xvi, 371 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: A primer on the psychology of cognitive bias / Carla L. Maclean and Itiel E. Dror --
Why blinding? A theory of blinding and its application to institutional corruption / Christopher T. Robertson --
From trials to trials : blinding, medicine, and honest adjudication / Scott H. Podolsky, David S. Jones, and Ted J. Kaptchuk --
Blinding in biomedical research: an essential method to reduce risk of bias / Asbjorn Hrobjartsson --
Blind peer review by academic journals / Emily A. Largent and Richard T. Snodgrass --
Clinical trial blinding in the age of social media / Paul Wicks --
The ethics of single-blind trials in biomedicine / Franklin G. Miller --
"Money blinding" as a solution to biased design and conduct of scientific research / Christopher T. Robertson and Marc A. Rodwin --
Determining the proper evidentiary basis for expert opinion : what do experts need to know and when do they know too much? / William C. Thompson --
Minimizing and leveraging bias in forensic science / Roger Koppl and Dan Krance --
What do statisticians really need to know, and when do they need to know it? / D. James Greiner --
Using blind reviews to address biases in medical malpractice / Jeffrey D. Robinson --
Mock juror and jury assessment of blinded expert witnesses / Megan S. Wright, Christopher T. Robertson, and David V. Yokum --
Disclosure discretion and selection bias in blinding of experts / Christopher T. Robertson --
Why eyes? Cautionary tales from law's blindfolded justice / Judith Resnik and Dennis Curtis --
A theory of anonymity / Jeffrey M. Skopek --
The cases for and against blindfolding the jury / Shari Seidman Diamond --
The compliance equation : creating a more ethical and equitable campaign financing system by blinding contributions to federal candidates / Bertram J. Levine and Michael Johnston --
Blinding eyewitness identifications / Brandon L. Garrett --
Blind appointments in arbitration / Sergio Puig --
Psychological obstacles to the judicial disqualification inquiry, and blinded review as an aid / David V. Yokum --
Masking information source within the Internal Revenue Service / Karie Davis-Nozemack --
Blinding the law : the potential virtue of legal uncertainty / Yuval Feldmand and Shahar Lifshitz.
Other Titles: Strengthening biomedical science, forensic science, and the law
Responsibility: Christopher T. Robertson, Aaron S. Kesselheim.

Abstract:

"What information should jurors have during court proceedings to render a just decision? Should politicians know who is donating money to their campaigns? Will scientists draw biased conclusions about drug efficacy when they know more about the patient or study population? The potential for bias in decision-making by physicians, lawyers, politicians, and scientists has been recognized for hundreds of years and drawn attention from media and scholars seeking to understand the role that conflicts of interests and other psychological processes play. However, commonly proposed solutions to biased decision-making, such as transparency (disclosing conflicts) or exclusion (avoiding conflicts) do not directly solve the underlying problem of bias and may have unintended consequences. In this book, Robertson and Kesselheim bring together a renowned group of interdisciplinary scholars to consider another way to reduce the risk of biased decision-making: blinding. What are the advantages and limitations of blinding? How can we quantify the biases in unblinded research? Can we develop new ways to blind decision-makers? What are the ethical problems with withholding information about decision-makers in the course of blinding? How can blinding be adapted to legal and scientific procedures and in institutions not previously open to this approach? Fundamentally, these sorts of questions - about who needs to know what - open new doors of inquiry for the design of scientific research studies, regulatory institutions, and courts. The volume surveys the theory, practice, and future of blinding, drawing upon leading authors with a diverse range of methodologies and areas of expertise, including forensic sciences, medicine, law, philosophy, economics, psychology, sociology, and statistics. Key features: Introduces readers to the primary policy issue this book seeks to address: biased decision-making; provides a focus on blinding as a solution to bias, which has applicability in many domains; traces the development of blinding as a solution to bias, and explores the different ways blinding has been employed; includes case studies to explore particular uses of blinding for statisticians, radiologists, and fingerprint examiners, and whether the jurors and judges who rely upon them will value and understand blinding"--Unedited summary from book cover.

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"Since the time of Ben Franklin, scientists have recognized the power of blinding to help us see the world more objectively. This collection of essays explores the complicated psychology of blinding, Read more...

 
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