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The Blood of sheep : composition and function

Author: Michael Blunt
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1975.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Blood of sheep.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1975
(OCoLC)692052780
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Michael Blunt
ISBN: 0387072349 9780387072340 3540072349 9783540072348
OCLC Number: 1230740
Description: xiii, 224 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: Distribution and Dynamics of Body Fluids in Sheep.- A. Energy, Water, Salt Relations.- I. Water.- II. Water Compartments.- 1. Total Body Water.- 2. Extracellular Volume.- Extracellular Volume in Sheep.- 3. Plasma Protein Space.- 4. Blood Volume.- a) Blood Volume and the Spleen.- b) Blood Volume in the Feto-Placental Unit.- B. Dynamics of Fluid Spaces.- I. Adult Fluid Spaces.- II. Total Body Water and Water Turnover.- C. Factors Modulating Body Composition and Water Turnover.- I. Genetics and Breed.- II. Seasonal Pasture.- III. Age and Fluid Distribution.- IV. Impact of Environment on Extracellular Components.- 1. Latitude.- 2. Effects of Blood Intake.- 3. Nutrition.- 4. Pregnancy.- 5. Lactation.- 6. Adaptation.- 7. Salt Pastures.- 8. Removal of Insulation.- 9. Starvation.- 10. Dehydration.- D. Summary.- References.- Cellular Elements of Ovine Blood.- A. Embryonic Development.- B. Fetus.- C. Birth to Maturity.- D. Adult Values.- I. Bone Marrow.- II. Peripheral Blood.- 1. Erythrocyte.- a) Erythrocyte Values.- b) Some Properties of Ovine Red Cells.- c) Genetic Control of Erythrocyte Numbers.- d) Production of Erythrocytes.- ?) Hormonal Control.- ?) Nutritional Requirements.- ?) Environmental Factors.- e) Lifespan and Destruction.- 2. Leukozyte Values.- 3. Platelets and Blood Coagulation.- References.- Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism.- A. Composition of Plasma of Fed Adult Sheep.- I. Carbohydrate, Polyols and Water-Soluble Acids.- II. Lipids.- III. Long-Chain Fatty Acids.- IV. Enzymes in Plasma.- B. Cellular Elements in the Adult Sheep.- I. Carbohydrate.- Metabolism.- II. Lipids.- III. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA).- IV. Factors Affecting Erythrocyte Composition.- C. Factors Affecting Plasma Composition.- I. Fasting.- II. Dietary Change.- III. Pregnancy.- IV. Lactation.- V. Other Factors.- 1. Seasonal Variation.- 2. Reproductive Cycle.- 3. Hormones.- 4. Stress.- 5. Concentration of Plasma Metabolites at Different Sites.- VI. Changes Related to the Age of the Animal.- 1. Fetus.- 2. The Young Lamb.- References.- Mineral Metabolism.- A. Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium.- I. Normal Metabolism of Calcium.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Calcium in Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- II. Normal Metabolism of Phosphorus.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus in Blood, Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- III. Normal Metabolism of Magnesium.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Magnesium in Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- IV. Disturbances of Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium Metabolism.- 1. Lambs.- 2. Pregnant Ewes.- 3. Lactating Ewes.- 4. Other.- B. Trace Elements.- I. Cobalt.- II. Copper.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Copper in the Blood, Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Irradiation.- 3. Kinetics and Homeostasis.- III. Fluorine.- IV. Iodine.- V. Iron.- VI. Lead.- VII. Selenium.- VIII. Silica.- IX. Zinc.- Hormones.- A. Pituitary Hormones.- I. Growth Hormone (GH).- II. Prolactin.- III. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH).- IV. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH).- V. Lipotrophic Hormone (LPH).- VI. Thyrotrophic Hormone (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH).- VII. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH).- VIII. Luteinizing Hormone (LH).- IX. Oxytocin and Arginine Vasopressin.- B. Pancreatic Hormones.- I. Insulin.- II. Glucagon.- C. Thyroid Hormones.- Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine.- D. Gastro-Intestinal Hormones.- I. Gastrin.- II. Secretin.- III. Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin).- IV. Enteroglucagon (Gut Glucagon).- V. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP).- VI. Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP).- VII. Motilin.- E. Adrenal Corticosteroid Hormones.- I. Cortisol and Corticosterone.- II. Aldosterone and Deoxycorticosterone.- F. Gonadal Hormones.- I. Oestrogens.- II. Phyto-Oestrogens.- III. Progesterone.- IV. Androgens.- V. Relaxin.- VI. Placental Lactogen.- VII. Prostaglandins.- VIII. Interrelation of Hormones during the Oestrous Cycle in the Sheep.- IX. Interrelations of Hormones during Pregnancy and Parturition.- G. Biogenic Amines.- I. Catecholamines.- II. Indoleamines.- III. Histamine.- H. Renin and Angiotensin.- I. Bradykinin.- J. Erythropoietin.- K. Calcitrophic Hormones.- I. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).- II. Calcitonin.- L. Somatomedin.- References.- Genetic Markers in the Plasma and Red Blood Cells.- A. Plasma.- I. Albumin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- II. Pre-Albumin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- III. Transferrin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- IV. Esterase.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- V. Alkaline Phosphatase.- General.- VI. Allotypes.- 1. General.- a) ?2-Macroglobulin.- b) ?-L ipopr ote in.- c) Immunoglobulin.- d) Other Allotypes.- 2. Frequencies.- B. Red Blood Cells.- I. Red-Cell (Blood-Group) Antigens.- 1. General.- 2. 'Natural' Blood-Group Systems.- a) R-O System.- b) Other 'Naturally-Occurring' Antibodies.- 3. 'Immune' Blood-Group System.- a) A System.- b) C System.- c) M System.- d) D System.- e) B System.- f) X-Z System.- 4. Other Serological Types.- 5. Blood Transfusion.- 6. Frequencies.- II. Haemoglobin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- III. Carbonic Anhydrase.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- IV. 'X'Distribution and Dynamics of Body Fluids in Sheep.- A. Energy, Water, Salt Relations.- I. Water.- II. Water Compartments.- 1. Total Body Water.- 2. Extracellular Volume.- Extracellular Volume in Sheep.- 3. Plasma Protein Space.- 4. Blood Volume.- a) Blood Volume and the Spleen.- b) Blood Volume in the Feto-Placental Unit.- B. Dynamics of Fluid Spaces.- I. Adult Fluid Spaces.- II. Total Body Water and Water Turnover.- C. Factors Modulating Body Composition and Water Turnover.- I. Genetics and Breed.- II. Seasonal Pasture.- III. Age and Fluid Distribution.- IV. Impact of Environment on Extracellular Components.- 1. Latitude.- 2. Effects of Blood Intake.- 3. Nutrition.- 4. Pregnancy.- 5. Lactation.- 6. Adaptation.- 7. Salt Pastures.- 8. Removal of Insulation.- 9. Starvation.- 10. Dehydration.- D. Summary.- References.- Cellular Elements of Ovine Blood.- A. Embryonic Development.- B. Fetus.- C. Birth to Maturity.- D. Adult Values.- I. Bone Marrow.- II. Peripheral Blood.- 1. Erythrocyte.- a) Erythrocyte Values.- b) Some Properties of Ovine Red Cells.- c) Genetic Control of Erythrocyte Numbers.- d) Production of Erythrocytes.- ?) Hormonal Control.- ?) Nutritional Requirements.- ?) Environmental Factors.- e) Lifespan and Destruction.- 2. Leukozyte Values.- 3. Platelets and Blood Coagulation.- References.- Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism.- A. Composition of Plasma of Fed Adult Sheep.- I. Carbohydrate, Polyols and Water-Soluble Acids.- II. Lipids.- III. Long-Chain Fatty Acids.- IV. Enzymes in Plasma.- B. Cellular Elements in the Adult Sheep.- I. Carbohydrate.- Metabolism.- II. Lipids.- III. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA).- IV. Factors Affecting Erythrocyte Composition.- C. Factors Affecting Plasma Composition.- I. Fasting.- II. Dietary Change.- III. Pregnancy.- IV. Lactation.- V. Other Factors.- 1. Seasonal Variation.- 2. Reproductive Cycle.- 3. Hormones.- 4. Stress.- 5. Concentration of Plasma Metabolites at Different Sites.- VI. Changes Related to the Age of the Animal.- 1. Fetus.- 2. The Young Lamb.- References.- Mineral Metabolism.- A. Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium.- I. Normal Metabolism of Calcium.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Calcium in Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- II. Normal Metabolism of Phosphorus.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus in Blood, Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- III. Normal Metabolism of Magnesium.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Affecting the Concentration of Magnesium in Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Sampling Site.- 3. Kinetics.- 4. Homeostasis.- IV. Disturbances of Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium Metabolism.- 1. Lambs.- 2. Pregnant Ewes.- 3. Lactating Ewes.- 4. Other.- B. Trace Elements.- I. Cobalt.- II. Copper.- 1. Distribution in the Blood.- 2. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Copper in the Blood, Serum and Plasma.- a) Effect of Age.- b) Effect of Pregnancy, Parturition and Lactation.- c) Effect of Genotype.- d) Effect of Diet and Feeding.- e) Effect of Stress.- f) Effect of Irradiation.- 3. Kinetics and Homeostasis.- III. Fluorine.- IV. Iodine.- V. Iron.- VI. Lead.- VII. Selenium.- VIII. Silica.- IX. Zinc.- Hormones.- A. Pituitary Hormones.- I. Growth Hormone (GH).- II. Prolactin.- III. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH).- IV. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH).- V. Lipotrophic Hormone (LPH).- VI. Thyrotrophic Hormone (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH).- VII. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH).- VIII. Luteinizing Hormone (LH).- IX. Oxytocin and Arginine Vasopressin.- B. Pancreatic Hormones.- I. Insulin.- II. Glucagon.- C. Thyroid Hormones.- Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine.- D. Gastro-Intestinal Hormones.- I. Gastrin.- II. Secretin.- III. Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin).- IV. Enteroglucagon (Gut Glucagon).- V. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP).- VI. Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP).- VII. Motilin.- E. Adrenal Corticosteroid Hormones.- I. Cortisol and Corticosterone.- II. Aldosterone and Deoxycorticosterone.- F. Gonadal Hormones.- I. Oestrogens.- II. Phyto-Oestrogens.- III. Progesterone.- IV. Androgens.- V. Relaxin.- VI. Placental Lactogen.- VII. Prostaglandins.- VIII. Interrelation of Hormones during the Oestrous Cycle in the Sheep.- IX. Interrelations of Hormones during Pregnancy and Parturition.- G. Biogenic Amines.- I. Catecholamines.- II. Indoleamines.- III. Histamine.- H. Renin and Angiotensin.- I. Bradykinin.- J. Erythropoietin.- K. Calcitrophic Hormones.- I. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).- II. Calcitonin.- L. Somatomedin.- References.- Genetic Markers in the Plasma and Red Blood Cells.- A. Plasma.- I. Albumin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- II. Pre-Albumin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- III. Transferrin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- IV. Esterase.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- V. Alkaline Phosphatase.- General.- VI. Allotypes.- 1. General.- a) ?2-Macroglobulin.- b) ?-L ipopr ote in.- c) Immunoglobulin.- d) Other Allotypes.- 2. Frequencies.- B. Red Blood Cells.- I. Red-Cell (Blood-Group) Antigens.- 1. General.- 2. 'Natural' Blood-Group Systems.- a) R-O System.- b) Other 'Naturally-Occurring' Antibodies.- 3. 'Immune' Blood-Group System.- a) A System.- b) C System.- c) M System.- d) D System.- e) B System.- f) X-Z System.- 4. Other Serological Types.- 5. Blood Transfusion.- 6. Frequencies.- II. Haemoglobin.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- III. Carbonic Anhydrase.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- IV. 'X' Protein.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- V. Diaphorase.- General.- VI. Potassium Types.- 1. General.- 2. Effect of Anti-L on Active Potassium Transport in LK-Type Cells.- 3. Complement Lysis.- 4. Frequencies.- VII. Lysine and Ornithine.- General.- VIII. Reduced Glutathione.- 1. General.- 2. Frequencies.- References.- The Haemoglobins of Sheep.- A. Ontogeny.- I. Embryonic Haemoglobin.- II. Fetal Haemoglobin.- III. Haemoglobin C.- B. Haemoglobino in Hypoxia.- I. Kinetics of Hb-C Production.- 1. Anaemia.- 2. Altitude.- II. Cellular Changes Associated with Hb-C Production.- III. Hb-C in Other Species.- C. General Properties.- I. Electrophoresis.- II. Chromatography.- III. Antibody Formation.- IV. Acid Elution.- V. Solubility.- VI. Denaturation.- D. Primary Structures.- I. The ? Chains.- 1. Domestic Sheep.- 2. Other Caprini Species.- II. The ?C Chain.- 1. Domestic Sheep.- 2. Other Caprini Species.- III. The ? Chains.- IV. The ? Chains.- 1. Domestic Sheep.- 2. Goat.- 3. Aoudad.- E. Genetic Control and Synthesis.- I. Ontogeny.- II. Genetic Control.- III. Synthesis by Dormant Structural Genes.- 1. In vitro Studies.- 2. Hormonal Control.- 3. Role of Erythropoietin.- F. Functional Properties.- I. Oxygen Equilibria.- 1. Sheep.- 2. Goats.- 3. Other Caprini Species.- 4. Haemoglobin C.- 5. 2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate.- 6. Fetal Haemoglobin.- II. Cardiovascular Relationship.- References.- The Ovine Immune System.- A. Nomenclature of sleep Immunoglobulins.- B. General Properties of the Sheep Immunoglobulin Classes.- I. IgM.- II. IgG.- III. IgA.- IV. IgE.- V. IgD.- C. Origin of the Ovine Immunoglobulins.- D. The Ontogeny of the Ovine Humoral Responses.- E. The Phylogeny of the Ovine Immunoglobulins: Evolution of the Class-Defining Antigens.- F. Future Studies.- References.- Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Ovine Anaemias.- A. Parasitic Anaemias.- I. Helminthic.- 1. Trematodes.- a) Fascioliasis.- b) Schistosomiasis.- 2. Nematodes.- a) Haemonchosis.- b) Other Abomasal Parasites Causing Anaemia.- c) Parasites of the Small and Large Intestine.- II. Arthropod.- III. Protozoal.- a) Trypanosomiasis.- b) Babesiosis.- c) Anaplasmosis.- d) Eperythrozoonosis.- e) Theileriasis.- B. Bacterial Anaemias.- a) Clostridial.- b) Leptospiral.- C. Toxigenic Anaemias.- a) Copper.- b) Brassica.- c) Onion.- d) Bracken.- D. Mineral Deficiency Anaemias.- a) Copper.- b) Cobalt.- E. General Conclusions.- References.
Responsibility: edited by M.H. Blunt ; with contributions by M.H. Blunt [and others].
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