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Bricks, sand, and marble : U.S. Army Corps of Engineers construction in the Mediterranean and Middle East, 1947-1991

Author: Robert P Grathwol; Donita M Moorhus; Center of Military History.; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers.
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : Center of Military History, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army : [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.], 2009.
Series: U.S. Army in the Cold War series.; CMH pub., 45-2-1.
Edition/Format:   Book : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
Synopsis: The work of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in military construction in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East created the infrastructure that made the U.S. policies of deterrence and containment possible. This work included not only construction in support of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force in these areas but also work executed on behalf of Middle East allies paid for with funds they provided.  Read more...
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Grathwol, Robert P., 1939-
Bricks, sand, and marble.
1 online resource (xxi, 672 p.)
(OCoLC)609418892
Material Type: Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Robert P Grathwol; Donita M Moorhus; Center of Military History.; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers.
OCLC Number: 440562881
Notes: Shipping list no.: 2010-0183-P.
Description: xxi, 672 p. : ill., maps ; 25 cm.
Contents: Foreword --
Authors --
Preface --
Part 1: Mediterranean And The Origins Of The Cold War --
1: Army engineers in the Mediterranean, 1942-1952 --
Army engineers in Greece, 1947-1949 --
Army engineers in Turkey --
US engineer group in 1950 --
Beginning work --
Broadening military construction under the US engineer group --
Administrative and procedural issues in Turkey --
Middle East district in Libya and Saudi Arabia, 1950-1951 --
Preliminary planning and mobilization --
Construction in Libya --
Construction in Saudi Arabia --
Administrative issues at Wheelus and at Dhahran --
2: Moroccan air-base Program, 1950-1954 --
Planning for Moroccan bases --
Mobilizing the east Atlantic district --
Negotiating new sites --
Emergency construction underway --
Inadequate funding and recurring delays --
Congressional investigations --
Assessing the Moroccan program --
3: Shifting the locus of work, 1952-1957 --
Organizing the Mediterranean division --
Middle East district in Libya and Saudi Arabia, 1951-1952 --
Converting the cost-plus-fixed-fee contract in Morocco --
Transferring operations in Turkey --
Mediterranean division at mid-decade --
Middle East district --
New construction at Asmara --
Mediterranean division's center of gravity changes --
Changing priorities in the Middle East --
Trans-East district in Pakistan --
Gulf district in Iran --
Relocating the Mediterranean division to Italy --
Part 2: Mediterranean Division In Italy, 1957-1972 --
4: Headquarters and the southern district, 1957-1960 --
Operating from Livorno --
Southern district, 1957-1960 --
Waning activity in North Africa --
Southern district work in Europe --
Disposing of surplus materials --
Closing the soutern district --
5: Trans-East and Gulf districts, 1958-1960 --
Trans-East district construction program --
Living and working in Pakistan --
Overhead costs --
Potential work in Burma --
Prospects in Saudi Arabia --
Royal Saudi air force training in Riyadh --
Deactiviating the trans-east district --
Gulf district in Iran --
Living conditions and support facilities --
Managing the work --
Gulf district projects under construction --
Mehrabad and Hamadan --
6: Gulf district, 1961-1967 --
Work centered in Iran --
Kharg Island --
Construction in Hamadan --
Regimental combat team installations --
Gendarmerie and national police projects --
Construction at Mashhad --
Standards of design and construction in Iran --
Gulf district outside Iran --
Work in Pakistan --
Burma --
Gulf district and Saudi Arabia, 1961-1963 --
Training for the Royal Saudi air force --
Repairing the Dhahran air terminal --
Highways in Afghanistan --
Kandahar-Spin Baldak highway --
Kabul Kandahar highway --
Herat-Islam Qala highway --
Declining workload --
7: Mediterranean Division, 1961-1966 --
Program under Mediterranean division management --
Troposcatter --
USAHOME --
Support for NATO's southern flank --
Somalia --
New work in Saudi Arabia --
Television program --
Engineer assistance agreement --
Ordnance and vehicle support program --
Relocation to Camp Darby --
Mediterranean division in 1966 --
8: Developing the Saudi Arabian programs, 1967-1972 --
Waning operations in the Mediterranean --
NATO countries --
Work in North Africa --
Operations in Saudi Arabia --
Saudi Arabia district --
Completing the Saudi television network --
Radio broadcast facilities --
Building cantonments for ministry of defense and aviation --
Khamis Mushayt --
Tabuk --
Saudi Arabia mobility program, 1967-1973 --
First years --
Maintenance --
Supply --
Training --
Ordnance corps center and school --
Construction --
Personnel and funding --
Extending the program, 1969-1973 --
Mediterranean division in 1972 --
Part 3: Army Engineers In Saudi Arabia, 1972-1988 --
9: New programs and organizational changes, 1972-1977 --
Burgeoning workload --
Continuing work, 1972-1975 --
Saudi ordnance corps program --
Questions concerning the role of corps --
Contonments at Khamis Mushayt and Tabuk --
Third cantonment --
New medical center and general hospital for the ministry of defense and aviation --
Other projects for the ministry of defense and aviation --
Funding the projects --
Emergency water system repair in Jiddah --
Transition to the Middle East division --
Handling the growing volume of materials --
Staffing for the expanding workload --
Reorganizing engineering responsbilities --
Implementing the move to Saudi Arabia --
Locating the division rear in Virginia --
New staff in Berryville --
Middle East division's initial years --
New districts --
Engineer logistics command --
10: Programs for the Ministry of defense and aviation in the 1970s and 1980s --
Upgrading Khamis Mushayt and Tabuk --
Medical support facilities --
Schools --
Area comander's headquaters --
VIP complexes and family housing --
Providing the infrastructure --
Closing out the projects --
Peace Hawk and Peace Sun --
Headquarters complexes --
Royal Saudi air force headquarters complex --
Ministry of defense and aviaiton headquarters complex --
Executive office building --
Design and construction of the headquarters complex --
Officiers club in Riyadh --
Designing medical centers --
11: Modernization of the Saudi Arabian Navy and National Guard --
Saudi naval expansion program --
Initiating the program --
Ports at Jiddah and Jubayl --
Headquarters of the Royal Saudi naval forces --
Naval program constrained --
Modernizing the Saudi Arabian national guard --
Design phase --
Headquarter complex --
Military cities at Al Qasim and Al Hasa --
Construction phase --
Training facilities at Khash, al An --
Request for a camel racetrack --
Building the headquarters --
Ground settlement problems --
12: King Abdulaziz military academy --
Beginning construction --
Procuring equipment, furniture, and furnishings --
Getting the program on track, 1981-1983 --
Completing the academy --
13: King Khalid military city --
New master plan --
Cost-plus-award-fee contracting --
Preparing a cost-plus-award-fee contract --
Finding the right contractor --
Progress at Ras al Mishab --
Organizing for the construction --
Mobilization of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium --
Responsibilities of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium --
Life support --
Construction support --
Management assistance and support --
Supervising the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium --
Controversy over management --
CS-squared --
Tensions over management decisions --
Implications for progress --
Network analysis system --
Shortcoming of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium --
Allegations of corruption --
Ending the cost-plus-award-fee contract --
Completing King Khalid military city --
Packaging construction tasks --
Pace of construction, 1981-1983 --
Facing crises in funding --
Completing first brigade facilities, 1984 --
Part 4: Changing Geopolitics In The Middle East --
New US policy --
Adjusting the work in Saudi Arabia --
Iran-Iraq war --
Collapse of bipolar geopolitics --
Iraq's attack on Kuwait --
14: Reorienting the engineer effort, 1981-1986 --
Middle East division in the region --
Jordan --
Oman --
Design for the Oman program --
Masirah Island construction --
Khasab --
Seeb --
Thamarit --
Program status in Oman by the mid-1980s --
Kuwait --
Bahrain --
Egypt --
Sudan --
Other occasional work --
Refocusing the organization, 1981-1986 --
Extending the engineer assistance agreement --
Adjusting staff size --
Managing work from forward and rear --
Relocating command authority --
15: From division to Middle East/Africa projects office, 1985-1991 --
Transition to the Middle East/Africa projects office --
Agruments for division status --
Status of projects in December 1985 --
Adjusting to a new entity --
Ordnance program division --
Closing out the Saudi program under the Middle East/Africa projects office --
Projects throughout the region --
Oman --
Kuwait --
Bahrain --
Egypt --
Sudan --
Voice of America --
Africa civic action --
Department of defense dependent schools --
Status at the end of the decade --
Major administrative actions, 1986-1991 --
Lifecycle project management --
Rethinking the future of the Middle East/Africa projects office --
International events intervene --
Transatlantic division --
Typing up loose ends --
Coming full circle --
Conclusion: Army engineers overseas: challenges, opportunities, and changing times --
Bibliography --
Abbreviations --
Index.
Series Title: U.S. Army in the Cold War series.; CMH pub., 45-2-1.
Other Titles: Bricks, sand, and marble :
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers construction in the Mediterranean and Middle East, 1947-1991
Responsibility: by Robert P. Grathwol, Donita M. Moorhus.

Abstract:

Synopsis: The work of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in military construction in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East created the infrastructure that made the U.S. policies of deterrence and containment possible. This work included not only construction in support of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force in these areas but also work executed on behalf of Middle East allies paid for with funds they provided. This book traces the activities of American military engineers from the reconstruction that began in Greece after World War II through the construction of air bases in North Africa, the massive building program in Saudi Arabia, and support for the liberation of Kuwait in 1991. The history provides a background of the present role and position of the United States in that vital region.

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schema:description"Foreword -- Authors -- Preface -- Part 1: Mediterranean And The Origins Of The Cold War -- 1: Army engineers in the Mediterranean, 1942-1952 -- Army engineers in Greece, 1947-1949 -- Army engineers in Turkey -- US engineer group in 1950 -- Beginning work -- Broadening military construction under the US engineer group -- Administrative and procedural issues in Turkey -- Middle East district in Libya and Saudi Arabia, 1950-1951 -- Preliminary planning and mobilization -- Construction in Libya -- Construction in Saudi Arabia -- Administrative issues at Wheelus and at Dhahran -- 2: Moroccan air-base Program, 1950-1954 -- Planning for Moroccan bases -- Mobilizing the east Atlantic district -- Negotiating new sites -- Emergency construction underway -- Inadequate funding and recurring delays -- Congressional investigations -- Assessing the Moroccan program -- 3: Shifting the locus of work, 1952-1957 -- Organizing the Mediterranean division -- Middle East district in Libya and Saudi Arabia, 1951-1952 -- Converting the cost-plus-fixed-fee contract in Morocco -- Transferring operations in Turkey -- Mediterranean division at mid-decade -- Middle East district -- New construction at Asmara -- Mediterranean division's center of gravity changes -- Changing priorities in the Middle East -- Trans-East district in Pakistan -- Gulf district in Iran -- Relocating the Mediterranean division to Italy -- Part 2: Mediterranean Division In Italy, 1957-1972 -- 4: Headquarters and the southern district, 1957-1960 -- Operating from Livorno -- Southern district, 1957-1960 -- Waning activity in North Africa -- Southern district work in Europe -- Disposing of surplus materials -- Closing the soutern district -- 5: Trans-East and Gulf districts, 1958-1960 -- Trans-East district construction program -- Living and working in Pakistan -- Overhead costs -- Potential work in Burma -- Prospects in Saudi Arabia -- Royal Saudi air force training in Riyadh -- Deactiviating the trans-east district -- Gulf district in Iran -- Living conditions and support facilities -- Managing the work -- Gulf district projects under construction -- Mehrabad and Hamadan -- 6: Gulf district, 1961-1967 -- Work centered in Iran -- Kharg Island -- Construction in Hamadan -- Regimental combat team installations -- Gendarmerie and national police projects -- Construction at Mashhad -- Standards of design and construction in Iran -- Gulf district outside Iran -- Work in Pakistan -- Burma -- Gulf district and Saudi Arabia, 1961-1963 -- Training for the Royal Saudi air force -- Repairing the Dhahran air terminal -- Highways in Afghanistan -- Kandahar-Spin Baldak highway -- Kabul Kandahar highway -- Herat-Islam Qala highway -- Declining workload -- 7: Mediterranean Division, 1961-1966 -- Program under Mediterranean division management -- Troposcatter -- USAHOME -- Support for NATO's southern flank -- Somalia -- New work in Saudi Arabia -- Television program -- Engineer assistance agreement -- Ordnance and vehicle support program -- Relocation to Camp Darby -- Mediterranean division in 1966 -- 8: Developing the Saudi Arabian programs, 1967-1972 -- Waning operations in the Mediterranean -- NATO countries -- Work in North Africa -- Operations in Saudi Arabia -- Saudi Arabia district -- Completing the Saudi television network -- Radio broadcast facilities -- Building cantonments for ministry of defense and aviation -- Khamis Mushayt -- Tabuk -- Saudi Arabia mobility program, 1967-1973 -- First years -- Maintenance -- Supply -- Training -- Ordnance corps center and school -- Construction -- Personnel and funding -- Extending the program, 1969-1973 -- Mediterranean division in 1972 --"
schema:description"Synopsis: The work of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in military construction in the Mediterranean Basin and the Middle East created the infrastructure that made the U.S. policies of deterrence and containment possible. This work included not only construction in support of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force in these areas but also work executed on behalf of Middle East allies paid for with funds they provided. This book traces the activities of American military engineers from the reconstruction that began in Greece after World War II through the construction of air bases in North Africa, the massive building program in Saudi Arabia, and support for the liberation of Kuwait in 1991. The history provides a background of the present role and position of the United States in that vital region."
schema:description"Part 3: Army Engineers In Saudi Arabia, 1972-1988 -- 9: New programs and organizational changes, 1972-1977 -- Burgeoning workload -- Continuing work, 1972-1975 -- Saudi ordnance corps program -- Questions concerning the role of corps -- Contonments at Khamis Mushayt and Tabuk -- Third cantonment -- New medical center and general hospital for the ministry of defense and aviation -- Other projects for the ministry of defense and aviation -- Funding the projects -- Emergency water system repair in Jiddah -- Transition to the Middle East division -- Handling the growing volume of materials -- Staffing for the expanding workload -- Reorganizing engineering responsbilities -- Implementing the move to Saudi Arabia -- Locating the division rear in Virginia -- New staff in Berryville -- Middle East division's initial years -- New districts -- Engineer logistics command -- 10: Programs for the Ministry of defense and aviation in the 1970s and 1980s -- Upgrading Khamis Mushayt and Tabuk -- Medical support facilities -- Schools -- Area comander's headquaters -- VIP complexes and family housing -- Providing the infrastructure -- Closing out the projects -- Peace Hawk and Peace Sun -- Headquarters complexes -- Royal Saudi air force headquarters complex -- Ministry of defense and aviaiton headquarters complex -- Executive office building -- Design and construction of the headquarters complex -- Officiers club in Riyadh -- Designing medical centers -- 11: Modernization of the Saudi Arabian Navy and National Guard -- Saudi naval expansion program -- Initiating the program -- Ports at Jiddah and Jubayl -- Headquarters of the Royal Saudi naval forces -- Naval program constrained -- Modernizing the Saudi Arabian national guard -- Design phase -- Headquarter complex -- Military cities at Al Qasim and Al Hasa -- Construction phase -- Training facilities at Khash, al An -- Request for a camel racetrack -- Building the headquarters -- Ground settlement problems -- 12: King Abdulaziz military academy -- Beginning construction -- Procuring equipment, furniture, and furnishings -- Getting the program on track, 1981-1983 -- Completing the academy -- 13: King Khalid military city -- New master plan -- Cost-plus-award-fee contracting -- Preparing a cost-plus-award-fee contract -- Finding the right contractor -- Progress at Ras al Mishab -- Organizing for the construction -- Mobilization of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium -- Responsibilities of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium -- Life support -- Construction support -- Management assistance and support -- Supervising the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium -- Controversy over management -- CS-squared -- Tensions over management decisions -- Implications for progress -- Network analysis system -- Shortcoming of the Morrison-Knudsen Saudi Arabia consortium -- Allegations of corruption -- Ending the cost-plus-award-fee contract -- Completing King Khalid military city -- Packaging construction tasks -- Pace of construction, 1981-1983 -- Facing crises in funding -- Completing first brigade facilities, 1984 -- Part 4: Changing Geopolitics In The Middle East -- New US policy -- Adjusting the work in Saudi Arabia -- Iran-Iraq war -- Collapse of bipolar geopolitics -- Iraq's attack on Kuwait -- 14: Reorienting the engineer effort, 1981-1986 -- Middle East division in the region -- Jordan -- Oman -- Design for the Oman program -- Masirah Island construction -- Khasab -- Seeb -- Thamarit -- Program status in Oman by the mid-1980s -- Kuwait -- Bahrain -- Egypt -- Sudan -- Other occasional work -- Refocusing the organization, 1981-1986 -- Extending the engineer assistance agreement -- Adjusting staff size -- Managing work from forward and rear -- Relocating command authority -- 15: From division to Middle East/Africa projects office, 1985-1991 -- Transition to the Middle East/Africa projects office -- Agruments for division status -- Status of projects in December 1985 -- Adjusting to a new entity -- Ordnance program division -- Closing out the Saudi program under the Middle East/Africa projects office -- Projects throughout the region -- Oman -- Kuwait -- Bahrain -- Egypt -- Sudan -- Voice of America -- Africa civic action -- Department of defense dependent schools -- Status at the end of the decade -- Major administrative actions, 1986-1991 -- Lifecycle project management -- Rethinking the future of the Middle East/Africa projects office -- International events intervene -- Transatlantic division -- Typing up loose ends -- Coming full circle -- Conclusion: Army engineers overseas: challenges, opportunities, and changing times -- Bibliography -- Abbreviations -- Index."
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