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Building pathology : deterioration, diagnostics, and intervention

Author: Samuel Y Harris
Publisher: New York : Wiley, ©2001.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Harris, Samuel Y.
Building pathology.
New York : Wiley, ©2001
(OCoLC)606546597
Online version:
Harris, Samuel Y.
Building pathology.
New York : Wiley, ©2001
(OCoLC)607823614
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Samuel Y Harris
ISBN: 0471331724 9780471331728
OCLC Number: 44869005
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xviii, 654 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: 1.1 Statement of the Problem 4 --
1.2 Problem-Solving Process 6 --
1.2.1 Structured Problem Solving 7 --
1.2.2 Establishing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 7 --
1.2.3 Establishing the Search Pattern 9 --
1.3 Statement of Objectives 10 --
Chapter 2 Mechanisms and Diagnostics 12 --
2.1 Building Pathology and Diagnostics 12 --
2.1.1 Deterioration as a Natural Process 13 --
2.1.2 Monitoring and the Time Budget 14 --
2.2 Mechanisms and Degradation Model 15 --
2.2.1 Deterioration Mechanism 16 --
2.2.2 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 22 --
2.3 Complex Mechanisms and Diagnostics 23 --
2.3.1 Typical Mechanism Combinations 24 --
2.3.2 Variable Environmental Effects: A Dynamic Approach 25 --
2.3.3 Integrated Systems and Complex Pathogenesis 27 --
Structural Systems 28 --
Closure 29 --
Vertical Closure System 29 --
Horizontal Closure System 29 --
Utilities Systems 30 --
Power Supply 31 --
Hydraulic Supply 31 --
Environmental Modification System 31 --
Heating and Cooling 32 --
Humidity Control 32 --
Ventilation 32 --
Protection Systems 33 --
Security 33 --
Emergency 33 --
2.4 Impact of Material Standards over Time 34 --
2.4.1 Myth of Modern Materials 35 --
2.5 Intervention Methodologies 36 --
2.5.1 Client as Commander 37 --
2.5.2 Approaches 39 --
Abstention 40 --
Mitigation 41 --
Reconstitution 41 --
Substitution 42 --
Circumvention 43 --
Acceleration 44 --
2.6 Intervention Matrix 44 --
Chapter 3 Structural Systems 57 --
3.1 Functional Definition 57 --
3.2 Components Description 58 --
3.3 Materials Pathology 58 --
3.3.1 Differential Deformations 58 --
Thermal Variation 61 --
Hygroscopic Variation 64 --
Isotropy 66 --
Homogeneity 67 --
Mechanical Variation 69 --
Combined Variation 71 --
3.3.2 Crack Formation, Extension, and Coalescence 72 --
3.3.3 Mechanical Mechanisms 72 --
Composite Materials 73 --
Stress Gradients 78 --
Combined Stress 79 --
Principle Stresses 80 --
Deformation and Crack Formation 81 --
Permanent Set and Plastic Deformation 90 --
Strain Hardening 93 --
Creep 94 --
3.3.4 Biological Mechanisms 95 --
Fungal Action and Other Microbial Activity 98 --
Termites and Other Insects 115 --
Formosan Termite 121 --
Battle against the Formosan 127 --
3.4 Systemic Pathology 130 --
3.4.1 Differentiation between Deformation and Failure 135 --
3.5 Pathology of Common Structural Elements 136 --
3.5.1 Foundations and Retaining Structures 136 --
Shallow Foundations 140 --
Differential Settlement 141 --
Heaving 144 --
Lateral Sliding 151 --
Other Lateral Retention Problems 163 --
Other Shallow Foundation Problems 168 --
Moving Water 176 --
Deep Foundations 182 --
Superstructures 188 --
Compression Elements 191 --
Columns 195 --
Walls 208 --
Exterior Walls 211 --
Interior Walls and Partitions 216 --
Tension Elements 218 --
Spanning Members 223 --
Rafters, Joists, Girders and Other Beams 225 --
Trusses 248 --
Cantilevers 254 --
Arches and Catenaries 255 --
Connections 261 --
Fixed Connections 262 --
Released Connections 273 --
Chapter 4 Vertical Closure Systems 283 --
4.1 Functional Definition 283 --
4.2 Components and Description 284 --
4.3 Material Pathology 285 --
4.3.1 Freeze-Thaw Cycling 285 --
Thermal Transmission 286 --
Through Solid, Homogeneous, Single Layers 295 --
Through Multiple Layers 298 --
Temperature and Moisture Gradients 302 --
Thermal Inertia and Thermal Lag 304 --
Conductivity and Heating Rate 311 --
Solar Gain and Emissivity 312 --
Properties of Liquids 316 --
Water Absorption 317 --
Adsorption 321 --
Hydration 325 --
Hydrolysis 326 --
Pore Absorption 327 --
Internal and Interstitial Condensation 334 --
Moisture Mass and Content Delay 335 --
Freezing Water and Ice 337 --
Freeze-Thaw Scenario 339 --
Lateral Motive Forces 344 --
Froste Progression 354 --
Crack Initiation and Propagation 361 --
Pressure Release and Air Entrainment 366 --
Intervention in Freeze-Thaw Cycling 369 --
4.3.2 Rising Damp and Salt Decay 377 --
Solutions and Salts 379 --
Chlorides 383 --
Nitrates 384 --
Sulfates 384 --
Carbonates 384 --
Evaporation and the Evaporative Engine 385 --
Efflorescence and Subflorescence 391 --
Efflorescence 391 --
Subflorescence 392 --
Other Salt-Related Decay Mechanisms 392 --
Salt Decay 393 --
Rising Damp 398 --
Acid Rain and Other Pollutants 405 --
4.3.3 Hazards of Cleaning 411 --
Particle Adhesion and Removal 413 --
Cleaning Methods 415 --
Water Cleaning 416 --
Abrasive Cleaning 420 --
Chemical Cleaning 422 --
Long-Term Effects of Cleaning 423 --
4.4 Systemic Pathology 424 --
4.4.1 How Walls Leak Water 425 --
4.4.2 Wall Types 426 --
Single-Layer Systems 427 --
Thick Single-Layer Systems 428 --
Thin Single-Layer Systems 429 --
Permeable Single Layers 429 --
Impermeable Single Layers 431 --
Thick Single-Layer Systems 433 --
Multiple-Layer Systems 438 --
Drained Cavity Systems 438 --
Pressure-Equalized Systems 454 --
Openings and Details 463 --
Why Leaks Are Detrimental 472 --
4.4.3 Pathology of Vertical Closure Thermodynamics 478 --
Thermal Insulation 478 --
Infiltration and Air Seals 480 --
Vapor Barriers and Condensation 483 --
Thermal Retrofits of Walls 486 --
4.4.4 Vertical Closure Pathology 487 --
Chapter 5 Horizontal Closure Systems 489 --
5.1 Functional Definition 489 --
5.2 Components and Description 490 --
5.2.1 Roof Types 490 --
5.3 Materials Pathology 494 --
5.3.1 Differential Thermal Movement 495 --
5.3.2 Corrosion and Galvanic Action 507 --
Process of Alloying and Refining 508 --
Rates of Corrosion 512 --
Conversion Process 515 --
Sacrificial Process 520 --
5.3.3 UV and Ozone Degradation 527 --
5.4 Systemic Pathology 531 --
5.4.1 Systems Approach to Building Assessment 533 --
5.4.2 How Roofs Leak Water 538 --
Single-Layer Systems 540 --
Ponding 546 --
Points of Entry 547 --
Ballast 553 --
Multiple-Layer Systems 556 --
Shingle Systems 560 --
Shingle Materials 563 --
Hybrid Systems 569 --
Gutter, Leader, and Drain Problems 572 --
Summary on Roofs 578 --
5.4.2 Parapets 587 --
5.4.3 Decks and Terraces 593 --
Paving over Unoccupied Areas 593 --
Paving over Occupied Areas 601 --
5.4.4 Site Drainage Problems 604 --
Plant Damage 604 --
Site-Water Damage 605 --
Designing for Water Disposal 606 --
Water Collection and Conveyance 611 --
Chapter 6 Active Systems 618 --
6.1 Utilities Systems 618 --
6.1.1 Power Supply 619 --
6.1.2 Hydraulic Supply 622 --
6.2 Environmental Modification Systems 623 --
6.2.1 Heating and Cooling 625 --
6.2.2 Humidity Control 628 --
6.2.3 Ventilation 629 --
6.3 Protection Systems 630 --
6.3.1 Security Systems 630 --
6.3.2 Emergency Systems 632.
Responsibility: by Samuel Y. Harris.
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