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Burning crosses, hangman's nooses, and the like : state statutes that proscribe the use of symbols of fear and violence with the intent to threaten

Author: Kathleen Ann Ruane; Charles Doyle; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Publisher: [Washington, D.C.] : Congressional Research Service, 2007.
Series: CRS report for Congress, RL34200.
Edition/Format:   eBook : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Almost half of the states outlaw cross burning with the intent to threaten as such. A few of these statues cover the display of hangman's noses and other symbols of intimidation as well. Moreover, the same misconduct also frequently falls under more general state prohibitions on coercion, terroristic threats, harassment, or hate crimes. Some of these laws feature a hate crime element without which conviction is not  Read more...
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Material Type: Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Kathleen Ann Ruane; Charles Doyle; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
OCLC Number: 175167415
Notes: "October 5, 2007."
Title from title screen (viewed October 18, 2007).
Description: 17 pages : digital, PDF file.
Details: Mode of access: World Wide Web.; System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Series Title: CRS report for Congress, RL34200.
Responsibility: Kathleen Ann Ruane, Charles Doyle.

Abstract:

Almost half of the states outlaw cross burning with the intent to threaten as such. A few of these statues cover the display of hangman's noses and other symbols of intimidation as well. Moreover, the same misconduct also frequently falls under more general state prohibitions on coercion, terroristic threats, harassment, or hate crimes. Some of these laws feature a hate crime element without which conviction is not possible; others do not. In either case, there are obvious First Amendment implications.

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