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The Byzantine patriarchate, 451-1204.

Author: George Every
Publisher: London, S.P.C.K., 1962.
Edition/Format:   Book : English : [2d ed., rev.]View all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Every, George.
Byzantine patriarchate, 451-1204.
London, S.P.C.K., 1962
(OCoLC)555718466
Online version:
Every, George.
Byzantine patriarchate, 451-1204.
London, S.P.C.K., 1962
(OCoLC)608514422
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: George Every
OCLC Number: 386292
Description: 204 pages illustrations 22 cm
Contents: 1. Byzantine civilization --
Byzantium is not the Roman Empire in decline, but a development of Greek civilization within the Roman empire; absorbing oriental elements in a Christian humanism, embodied in a liturgical order of worship and labor, unified, restrained, and subtle in diplomacy --
2. Heresy and church order --
Standards of orthodoxy were arrived at after controversies in which the emperors played a principal part, ecclesiastical boundaries followed civil, and theology expressed conflicting ideas of the perfection of human nature --
3. Alexandria, Constantinople, and Rome --
The council of Chalcedon (451) was rejected by Egypt, Armenia, and part of Syria --
A compromise proposed in 480 was repudiated at Rome, where a party developed a theory of Roman authority accepted with qualifications at Constantinople in 518, when the compromise collapsed --
4. Justinian and all the churches --
New attempts to reconcile Egypt with Rome in 533-6 and 544-53 developed an Orthodox synthesis, but alienated communities on the border of the empire from Aquileia in Northern Italy to Nisibis in Mesopotamia --
5. The "Watery union" --
After new barbarian invasions (567-602) had isolated Rome from the East, new attempts at peace in Armenia, Syria, and Egypt met with temporary success (622-40) but criticism from Rome (649) could not be silenced and was admitted (681) --
6. The struggled with Islam --
Islam began as an extreme Christian heresy that attracted nomads from Bactria to Morocco, but left the Christian agricultural communities tributary and isolated from one another --
The Arab conquests (635-720) helped to separate Rome from Constantinople geographically by making the sea routes hazardous, and theologically by presenting a new challenge to the Greek mind 7. Iconodulia --
This was met by a new fusion of Christianity and Greek ritual within a liturgical pattern derived from the early church --
This was criticized in detail by those who distrusted Greeks in Asia and in the West --
8. Iconoclasm --
A military revolution brought the Asiatic critics into power (717), hostile to Roman law and Greek art --
Latin, Greek, and Syrian Christians criticized them --
Monks and civil officials defeated them (787), but then fell out after victory (759), and so restored power to Asiatic soldiers with a more moderate program (815-42) --
9. The Franks, Rome, and Byzantium --
Meanwhile the western church under the leadership of the Franks (from 754) grew into a separate and self-conscious entity, critical of Greek theology (794, 825) --
Rome stood between East and West (809) --
After 858 she intervened in new conflicts between monks and officials at Constantinople --
10. Byzantium, the Slavs, and Rome --
These were complicated by the success of Byzantine missions in Moravia and Bulgaria (863-5) --
Roman intervention in Bulgaria (866-9) was denounced at Constantinople (867) --
In 879 a settlement recognized the autonomy of the Bulgarian church --
11. Rome and Constantinople in the tenth century --
This was confirmed in 899 and 923-7 despite opposition in East and West --
In Italy Byzantine influence prevailed from 904 until the collapse of Bulgaria (969-72) and new German incursions led to fresh conflicts --
12. The Roman Question --
These were aggravated by the Norman invasion of south Italy, and by the reformation of the Roman church by German popes between 1046 and 1058 --
After 1059 the Roman church allied with the Normans, who conquered Byzantine territory, but in 1089 a reconciliation was attempted 13. The Crusades --
This led to the first crusade on a larger scale than the pope expected, and to new Norman conquests at Antioch (1098), as well as to the Latin occupation of Jerusalem (1099) --
The Byzantines tried to recover Antioch (1164) and their Italian outposts (1151-73) --
The Latins lost Jerusalem (1187), but captured Cyprus (1189) and Constantinople (1203-4) --
14. The nature of the schism --
There was no general schism in or before 1089, but a conflict in Italy and Constantinople, where the pope was no longer commemorated in the diptychs --
This did not affect Antioch in 1054-60, or Jerusalem before 1187 --
The schism at Antioch in 1100 was local, and the general schism grew gradually with the exercise and rejection of papal claims --
These were met by theological objections to the filioque, and to Latin Eucharistic doctrine and practice --
Appendix: Table of emperors, patriarchs of Constantinople, and popes.

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