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Cadmium

Author: A Bernard; Ernest C Foulkes
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1986.
Series: Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol. 80.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Cadmium.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1986
(OCoLC)565461049
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: A Bernard; Ernest C Foulkes
ISBN: 9780387160252 0387160256 3540160256 9783540160250
OCLC Number: 12803628
Description: xiv, 400 pages : illustrations.
Contents: 1 The Estimation of Cadmium in Biological Samples.- A. Brief Survey of Cadmium Chemistry.- B. Analytic Methods for Cadmium.- I. Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometry.- II. Polarography.- III. X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.- IV. Neutron Activation Analysis.- V. Isotope Dilution Method.- References.- 2 Cadmium in the Environment and its Entry into Terrestrial Food Chain Crops.- A. Introduction.- B. Natural Occurence.- C. World Production.- D. Consumption.- I. Electroplating.- II. Pigments and Chemicals.- III. Alloys.- IV. Other Uses.- E. Cadmium in Noncontaminated and Contaminated Soils.- I. Natural Levels in Soils.- II. Sources and Extent of Cadmium Contamination of Soils.- III. Soil Factors Influencing the Accumulation of Cadmium by Food Chain Crops.- F. Phytotoxic Effects of Cadmium.- G. Concentrations of Cadmium in Food Chain Crops.- H. Human Intake of Cadmium.- J. Methods to Control the Entry of Cadmium into Food Chain Crops.- K. Summary.- References.- 3 Absorption of Cadmium.- A. Introduction.- B. Routes of Exposure.- I. Lungs.- II. Skin.- III. Intestine.- C. Mechanism of Intestinal Cd Absorption.- I. General.- II. Methods of Study.- III. Kinetics.- IV. Role of the Brush Border.- V. Interaction Between Cd and Other Metals.- VI. Conclusions.- D. Control of Cd Absorption.- I. Introduction.- II. Endogenous Factors.- III. Influence of Diet.- E. Summary.- References.- 4 The Chronic Toxicity of Cadmium: Influence of Environmental and Other Variables.- A. Introduction.- B. Environmental Pollution with Cadmium and Health Effects.- I. Itai-Itai Disease.- II. An Episode in Annaka District, Japan.- III. Other Episodes in Japan.- IV. Episodes in Europe.- C. Renal Effects.- I. Renal Effects Among Residents in Cadmium-Polluted Areas in Japan.- II. Mortality Study on Residents in Cadmium-Polluted Areas.- D. Skeletal Effects of Cadmium.- I. Itai-Itai Disease.- II. Epidemiologic Studies on Residents in Cadmium-Polluted Areas.- III. Animal Experiments.- IV. Discussion at the International Conference on Cadmium-Induced Osteopathy.- E. Blood Pressure, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Heart Disease.- I. Depressed Blood Pressure.- II. Epidemiologic Studies on Mortality from Cerebrovascular Disease and Heart Disease.- F. Recovery from Cadmium-Induced Health Effects.- G. Chemical Forms of Cadmium in Food and Health Effects.- H. Elevated Sensitivity to Cadmium.- I. Aging.- II. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition.- III. Environmental Temperature.- IV. Combination of Hot Environment and Protein-Calorie Malnutrition.- J. Metal Shift in Cadmium Intoxication.- K. Biologic Monitoring of Cadmium Exposure.- I. Urinary Cadmium.- II. In Vivo Determination of Organ Cadmium.- L. Estimation of Allowable Intake of Cadmium.- I. Biologic Half-Life of Cadmium in the Renal Cortex.- II. Critical Concentration of Cadmium in the Renal Cortex.- References.- 5 Effects of Cadmium Exposure in Humans.- A. Introduction.- B. Human Exposure to Cadmium.- I. Environmental Exposure.- II. Industrial Exposure.- III. Tobacco Smoke.- C. Metabolism.- I. Absorption.- II. Distribution.- III. Excretion.- IV. Evaluation of Cadmium Exposure.- D. Acute Toxicity.- I. Acute Toxicity by Inhalation.- II. Acute Toxicity by Ingestion.- E. Chronic Toxicity.- I. Effects on the Bones.- II. Effects on the Lung.- III. Effects on the Kidney.- IV. Effects on the Cardiovascular System: Hypertension.- V. Carcinogenicity.- VI. Other Effects.- VII. Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Relationships.- References.- 6 The Nephropathy of Chronic Cadmium Poisoning.- A. Introduction.- B. Uptake, Storage, and Turnover of Cadmium in the Kidneys.- C. Effects on Tubular Function.- I. Proteinuria.- II. Glucosuria and Aminoaciduria.- III. Disturbances in Mineral Metabolism.- D. Effects on Glomerular Function.- E. Diagnosis.- F. Prognosis.- G. Prevention.- References.- 7 Cadmium and the Cardiovascular System.- A. Preface.- I. Regulatory Aspects of Cardiovascular Function: Intrinsic Considerations.- II. Extrinsic Considerations.- B. Historical Overview.- C. Actions of Cadmium on the Myocardium.- I. Actions of Cadmium Affecting Myocardial Inotropism.- II. Actions of Cadmium Affecting Cardiac Excitability.- D. Vascular Actions of Cadmium.- I. Introduction.- II. Vascular Responses to Cadmium.- III. Reactivity of Vascular Tissue Following Chronic or Acute Cadmium-Treatment.- E. The Cadmium Hypertension Controversy.- I. Experimental Animal Studies.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- References.- 8 Role of Metallothionein in Cadmium Metabolism.- A. Introduction.- B. Historical Background and Chemistry of the Metallothioneins.- C. Determination of Metallothionein Concentrations in Mammalian Tissues.- D. Metallothionein and the Metabolism of Cadmium.- E. Metallothionein Synthesis in Relation to the Chronic Toxicity of Cadmium.- F. Metallothionein Synthesis in Relation to the Acute Toxicity of Cadmium.- I. Normal Animals.- II. Cd-Pretreated Animals.- G. Kidney Uptake, Metabolism and Toxicity of Exogenous Metallothionein.- H. Function of Metallothionein in the Transport of Cd from the Liver to the Kidney.- J. Normal Functions of Metallothionein and the Interactions of Cd with these Functions.- K. Function of Metallothionein in the Reproductive Toxicology of Cd: Role in Perinatal Development.- L. Metallothionein: A Limiting Factor in the Chelation Therapy of Cd Intoxication.- References.- 9 Immunotoxicity of Cadmium.- A. The Immune System.- B. Immunoassays.- C. Effects of Cadmium on Immune Responses.- I. Host Resistance.- II. Antibody Synthesis and B-Cells.- III. Cell-Mediated Immunity and T-Cells.- IV. Macrophage Function.- V. Other Immunologically Related Effects.- D. Summary.- References.- 10 The Effect of Dietary Selenium on Cadmium Cardiotoxicity.- A. Introduction.- B. Cadmium and the Heart.- C. Selenium Deficiency and Cardiomyopathy.- D. Cadmium-Selenium Interactions.- E. Cadmium-Copper Interactions.- F. Cadmium-Metallothionein Studies.- G. Investigations into the Mechanism of Cadmium Cardiotoxicity.- I. The Idea.- II. The Experiment.- H. Physiologic Studies.- J. Conclusions.- References.- 11 Cellular Resistance to Cadmium.- A. Introduction.- B. Cultured Cell Systems for Studying Cd Metabolism.- I. Use of Cultured Cell Systems to Study the Roles of Metallothionein in the Cellular Response to Cd.- II. Cd Uptake.- III. Use of Cultured Cell Systems to Study Cd Responses Other than Uptake or Cytotoxicity.- IV. Use of Freshly Cultured Blood Cells to Study Variation in Human Response to Cd.- C. Role of Metallothionein in Cellular Cd Resistance.- I. Metallothionein Production is Regulated at Several Levels.- II. Role of Metallothionein in Cellular Cd Resistance in Cultured Human Blood Cells.- D. Non-Metallothionein Mechanisms of Cellular Cd Resistance.- E. Models Describing Cd Metabolism and the Role of Metallothionein and Other Factors in Resistance and Sensitivity.- F. Future Directions.- I. Models.- II. Cd Toxicity Targets.- III. Gene Expression Domains.- IV. Non-Metallothionein Protective Mechanisms.- V. Role of Cd in Altered Gene Expression: Possible Involvement in Carcinogenesis.- VI. Extracellular Factors and Cd Responses.- VII. Role for Genetic Polymorphisms in Altered Cellular Responses to Cd.- VIII. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Expression of Metallothioneins and Other Factors.- IX. Strategies for Derivation of New Cell Systems to Define Mechanisms of Cellular Cd Resistance.- X. Variation in Human Response.- G. Summary.- References.
Series Title: Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol. 80.
Responsibility: contributors, A. Bernard [and others] ; editor, E.C. Foulkes.

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