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Carabid beetles in their environments : a study on habitat selection by adaptations in physiology and behaviour

Author: Hans Ulrich Thiele
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1977.
Series: Zoophysiology and ecology, v. 10.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Thiele, Hans Ulrich.
Carabid beetles in their environments.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, 1977
(OCoLC)645921361
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Hans Ulrich Thiele
ISBN: 0387083065 9780387083063 3540083065 9783540083061
OCLC Number: 3072578
Notes: Includes indexes.
Description: xvii, 369 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 Variations in the Body Structure of Carabids in Adaptation to Environment and Mode of Life.- A. Macromorphological Variations.- B. Micromorphological Variations.- 2 Quantitative Investigations on the Distribution of Carabids.- A. Methods.- B. The Carabid Fauna of Forests.- C. The Distribution of Carabids in Open Country.- I. The Carabids of Cultivated Land.- 1. The Carabid Fauna of Arable Areas.- 2. Carabid Fauna and Crop Plants.- 3. The Influence of the Preceding Crop on the Carabid Population.- 4. The Carabid Fauna of Permanent Forms of Cultivated Land.- 5. The Influence of Soil Type on the Carabid Fauna of Agricultural Land.- 6. Concerning the Origin of the Carabid Fauna of Cultivated Land.- II. The Carabid Fauna of Heaths and Sandy Areas.- III. The Carabid Fauna of Moors.- IV. Carabids of the Litoraea Zones (Coastal and Shore Habitats).- Carabids of the Salt Marshes: a Biological Land-Sea Boundary.- V. Carabids of the Steppes, Dry Grasslands and Savannas.- D. General Remarks Concerning the Distribution and Structure of Carabid Communities in Different Habitats.- 3 The Connections Between Carabids and Biotic Factors in the Ecosystem.- A. Inter- and Intraspecific Competition.- I. Interspecific Competition.- II. Mutual Predation.- III. Intraspecific Competition 65 Experiments on Intraspecific Competition (Interference).- IV. The Theory of Regulation of Population Density by Competition and Other Biotic Factors.- B. Positive Intraspecific Relationships.- I. Aggregation.- II. The Mechanism Underlying Social Behaviour: Pheromones.- III. The Significance of Aggregation.- IV. Care and Provision for the Brood and Its Ecological Significance.- C. Parasites of the Carabids.- I. A Survey of Parasites Found in Carabids Arranged Systematically.- II. The Role of Parasites in Distribution of Carabids and in the Regulation of Their Population Density.- D. The Predators of Carabids.- I. A Survey of the Most Common Species Preying on Carabids.- 1. Insectivores: Hedgehogs and Shrews.- 2. Insectivores: The Mole (Talpa europaea).- 3. Bats.- 4. Rodents-Mice.- 5. Birds.- 6. Birds of Prey and Owls.- 7. Frogs and Toads.- 8. Ants (Formicidae).- 9. Predacious Flies-Asilidae.- 10. Araneae (Spiders).- II. What Part is Played by Predators in Regulating the Distribution and Population Density of Carabids?.- E. Defence Mechanisms of Carabids.- I. Mimicry in Carabids.- II. The Biochemical Defence Weapons of Carabids.- The "Explosive Chemistry"1 Variations in the Body Structure of Carabids in Adaptation to Environment and Mode of Life.- A. Macromorphological Variations.- B. Micromorphological Variations.- 2 Quantitative Investigations on the Distribution of Carabids.- A. Methods.- B. The Carabid Fauna of Forests.- C. The Distribution of Carabids in Open Country.- I. The Carabids of Cultivated Land.- 1. The Carabid Fauna of Arable Areas.- 2. Carabid Fauna and Crop Plants.- 3. The Influence of the Preceding Crop on the Carabid Population.- 4. The Carabid Fauna of Permanent Forms of Cultivated Land.- 5. The Influence of Soil Type on the Carabid Fauna of Agricultural Land.- 6. Concerning the Origin of the Carabid Fauna of Cultivated Land.- II. The Carabid Fauna of Heaths and Sandy Areas.- III. The Carabid Fauna of Moors.- IV. Carabids of the Litoraea Zones (Coastal and Shore Habitats).- Carabids of the Salt Marshes: a Biological Land-Sea Boundary.- V. Carabids of the Steppes, Dry Grasslands and Savannas.- D. General Remarks Concerning the Distribution and Structure of Carabid Communities in Different Habitats.- 3 The Connections Between Carabids and Biotic Factors in the Ecosystem.- A. Inter- and Intraspecific Competition.- I. Interspecific Competition.- II. Mutual Predation.- III. Intraspecific Competition 65 Experiments on Intraspecific Competition (Interference).- IV. The Theory of Regulation of Population Density by Competition and Other Biotic Factors.- B. Positive Intraspecific Relationships.- I. Aggregation.- II. The Mechanism Underlying Social Behaviour: Pheromones.- III. The Significance of Aggregation.- IV. Care and Provision for the Brood and Its Ecological Significance.- C. Parasites of the Carabids.- I. A Survey of Parasites Found in Carabids Arranged Systematically.- II. The Role of Parasites in Distribution of Carabids and in the Regulation of Their Population Density.- D. The Predators of Carabids.- I. A Survey of the Most Common Species Preying on Carabids.- 1. Insectivores: Hedgehogs and Shrews.- 2. Insectivores: The Mole (Talpa europaea).- 3. Bats.- 4. Rodents-Mice.- 5. Birds.- 6. Birds of Prey and Owls.- 7. Frogs and Toads.- 8. Ants (Formicidae).- 9. Predacious Flies-Asilidae.- 10. Araneae (Spiders).- II. What Part is Played by Predators in Regulating the Distribution and Population Density of Carabids?.- E. Defence Mechanisms of Carabids.- I. Mimicry in Carabids.- II. The Biochemical Defence Weapons of Carabids.- The "Explosive Chemistry" of the Bombardier Beetles.- III. Sound Production by Carabids.- F. Nutrition of Carabids.- I. Laboratory Observations on Choice of Food.- II. Nutrition in the Field, as Revealed by Analyses of the Contents of the Digestive Tract.- III. Oligophagous Predators.- 1. Cychrus.- 2. Notiophilus.- 3. Calosoma.- 4. Dyschirius.- 5. Nebria complanata.- 6. Consumption of Insect Eggs by Carabids.- IV. Quantities of Food Consumed by Adult Carabids.- V. How do Carabids Recognize Their Prey? An Analysis of the Releasing Stimuli.- VI. Phytophagous Carabids.- VII. The Nutrition of Carabid Larvae.- Quantities of Food Consumed by Carabid Larvae.- The Prey-Capture Behaviour of Carabid Larvae.- VIII. Parasitic Carabids.- IX. Concluding Remarks on Carabid Nutrition.- G. Parameters in Reproduction and Development Which are of Importance for the Biology of Populations.- I. Fecundity.- II. Life Span.- H. The Importance of Carabids for Production in Ecosystems.- 4 Man and the Ground Beetles.- A. The Importance of Ground Beetles to Man.- I. Ground Beetles as Entomophages and Potential Benefactors.- 1. Experiments on Pest Destruction Using Ground Beetles.- 2. The Influence of Ground Beetles on the Invertebrate Fauna of Cultivated Ecosystems.- 3. Do Ground Beetles from Hedges, Groups of Trees and Wind-Breaks Influence the Pest Fauna of Adjacent Cultivated Areas?.- 4. Can the Ground Beetles be Used in Biological Pest Control?.- II. Damage Done by Ground Beetles.- 1. Ground Beetles as Crop Pests.- 2. Ground Beetles as Conveyors (Vectors) of Disease.- B. The Influence of Man on Ground Beetles.- I. The Influence of the Methods of Husbandry Employed on Cultivated Land.- 1. Methods of Cultivation on Agricultural Land.- 2. Methods of Cultivation in Forests.- II. The Effect of Insecticides on Carabids.- 1. Laboratory Experiments.- 2. Influence of Insecticides on Carabids in the Field.- III. The Effect of Herbicides on Carabids.- IV. The Influence of Industrial and Traffic Exhaust Gases on Carabids.- V. Carabids in the City.- VI. Carabids as Bioindicators of Anthropogenic Influences: Future Possibilities.- 5 The Differences in Distribution of Carabids in the Environment: Reactions to Abiotic Factors and Their Significance in Habitat Affinity.- A. Climatic Factors.- I. Temperature and Orientation in the Environment.- 1. Experimental Method.- 2. Preferred Temperature and Habitat Affinity.- 3. The Physiological Basis of Thermotaxis.- 4. Cold Resistance.- 5. Heat Resistance.- 6. The Influence of Temperature on the Developmental Stages.- II. Humidity and Orientation in the Environment.- 1. Experimental Method.- 2. Preferred Humidity and Habitat Affinity.- 3. The Physiological Basis of Moisture Preference.- 4. Resistance to Desiccation.- III. Light and Orientation in the Environment.- 1. Experimental Method.- 2. Preferred Light Intensity and Habitat Affinity.- 3. Orientation Using Silhouettes on the Horizon.- 4. The Role of Form Perception in the Search for Living Quarters.- 5. Astronomical Orientation.- IV. A Survey of the Microclimatic Requirements of Carabids from Different Habitats.- B. Chemical Factors.- I. pH Value of the Soil.- II. The Sodium Chloride Content of the Soil.- III. The Calcium Content of the Soil.- C. Distribution of Carabids and Environmental Structure.- I. The Substrate.- II. Environmental Resistance.- III. The Sense of Gravity.- D. The Behaviour of Carabids to Water and Their Resistance to Inundation.- I. Carabids Hunting in Water.- II. The Resistance of Carabids to Inundation.- III. Carabids of the Tidal Zone of Rocky Coasts.- IV. Swimming Carabids.- 6 Ecological Aspects of Activity Patterns in Carabids.- A. Daily Rhythmicity in Carabids.- I. The Control of Daily Rhythmicity by Endogenous Factors.- II. The Role of Exogenous Factors as Zeitgebers.- III. The Importance of Daily Rhythmicity in Habitat-Binding.- IV. Does Moulting in Carabids Exhibit a Daily Rhythmicity?.- B. Annual Rhythms in Activity, Reproduction, and Development.- I. Types of Annual Rhythms in Carabids.- II. The Adaptation of the Activity and Reproduction Rhythms to the Annual Cycle of Environmental Factors.- III. The Regulation of Annual Rhythms by External Factors.- 1. Spring Breeders With no Larval Dormancy but Obligatory Dormancy in the Adults (Parapause) Mainly Governed by Photo-period.- 2. Spring Breeders With no Larval Dormancy but a Facultative Dormancy in the Adults Governed by Photoperiod (Photoperiodic Quiescence).- 3. Autumn Breeders With a Thermic Hibernation Parapause at the Larval Stage and no Dormancy in the Course of Adult Development.- 4. Autumn Breeders With a Thermic Hibernation Parapause in the Larvae and a Photo-periodic Aestivation Parapause in the Adults.- 5. Species With Unstable Conditions of Hibernation and Potentially Lacking Dormancy.- 6. Species Requiring Two Years to Develop.- 7. Summary of Results Concerning the Control of Annual Rhythms by External Factors.- IV. The Hormonal Regulation of Annual Rhythmicity.- V. Time Measurement in Photoperiodism of Carabids.- VI. The Behaviour of Carabids in Winter.- 7 Choice of Habitat: The Influence of Connections Between Demands Upon Environmental Factors and Activity Rhythms.- 8 Dispersal and Dispersal Power of Carabid Beetles.- A. Speed of Locomotion of Carabids.- B. Concerning the Flight of Carabids.- C. Anemohydrochoric Dispersal.- D. The Role of Aerial Dispersal in the Post-Glacial Expansion of Carabids.- E. Contemporary Processes Involved in the Expansion of Carabids to Land Freshly Available for Colonization.- F. The Adaptive Significance of Dispersal Processes.- 9 Ecological Aspects of the Evolution of Carabids.- A. Geological Age of the Adephaga and Carabids: Fossil Evidence.- B. Centres of Development and the Routes of Dispersal of Carabids.- C. The Fossil History of Carabids in the Central European Pleistocene.- D. The Evolution of Carabids on Oceanic Islands.- E. Possible Clues as to the Evolution of Carabids from Studies on Behaviour and Parasitism.- F. Concluding Remarks Concerning the Evolution of the Carabids.- G. Digression: Studies on Genetics and Population Genetics of Carabids.- 10 Concerning the Reasons Underlying Species Profusion Manifest by the Carabids.- A. Powers of Dispersal and Speciation.- B. The Ecological Niche of the Carabids.- C. Potential Competitors for the Carabid Niche.- I. Insects.- II. Spiders-the Lycosidae Family.- III. Chilopods.- IV. Opiliones.- D. Differentiation of the Physiology and Behaviour of the Carabids.- 1. Differences in the Daily Time of Activity.- 2. Differences in Activity Season.- 3. Physiological Adaptations to Abiotic Factors.- E. Physiological Differentiation in Carabids Compared With Other Animal Groups.- 11 Summary.- References.- Systematic Index of Cited Families, Subfamilies, Tribes, and Genera.- Species Index.
Series Title: Zoophysiology and ecology, v. 10.
Responsibility: Hans-Ulrich Thiele.

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