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Cargo Access Equipment for Merchant Ships

Author: I L Buxton; R P Daggitt; J King
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1978.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: I L Buxton; R P Daggitt; J King
ISBN: 9781468482454 1468482459 9781468482430 1468482432
OCLC Number: 853271469
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: 1 The Early Development of Hatch Covers.- 1.1 Introduction to the access problem.- 1.2 Early hatch covers.- 1.3 Failings of wooden hatch covers.- 1.3.1 Safety and security.- 1.3.2 Cargo.- 1.3.3 Maintenance.- 1.4 The coming of steel hatch covers.- 1.5 Steel hatches after 1927.- 2 Cargoes and Ships.- Summary.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Dry bulk trades.- 2.2.1 Iron ore.- 2.2.2 Coal.- 2.2.3 Grain.- 2.2.4 Bauxite and phosphates.- 2.2.5 Forest products.- 2.2.6 Steel products.- 2.2.7 Other bulk commodities.- 2.3 Bulk liquid trades.- 2.4 Break-bulk general cargo.- 2.5 Unitized cargo.- 2.5.1 Containers.- 2.5.2 Pallets.- 2.5.3 Roll-on/roll-off trades.- 2.5.4 Barges.- 2.6 Cargo handling.- 2.6.1 Derricks.- 2.6.2 Cranes.- 2.6.3 Other shipboard cargo transfer equipment.- 2.6.4 Gearless vessels.- 2.6.5 Temporary cargo gear.- 2.6.6 Horizontal loading.- 2.6.7 Port handling facilities.- 2.6.8 Cargo stowage.- 2.7 General arrangement of ships.- 2.7.1 Hull form and dimensions.- 2.7.2 Location of the machinery space.- 2.7.3 Deck layout.- 2.8 Dry cargo ship types.- 2.8.1 Ore and bulk carriers.- 2.8.2 Combination carriers.- 2.8.3 Multi-purpose and general cargo ships.- 2.8.4 Cellular container ships.- 2.8.5 Ro-Ro/unit-load vessels.- 2.8.6 Ro-Ro vessels.- 2.8.7 Vehicle carriers.- 2.8.8 Barge carriers.- 3 The Influence of Cargo Access Equipment on Ships' Performance.- Summary.- 3.1 The cost of time in port.- 3.2 Delays in port.- 3.3 Benefits of reduced time in port.- References.- 4 General Requirements for Access Equipment.- Summary.- 4.1 Regulatory requirements.- 4.1.1 Rules governing cargo access equipment.- 4.1.2 1966 International Load Line Convention.- 4.1.3 Freeboard.- 4.1.4 Freeboard deck.- 4.1.5 Weathertightness and watertightness.- 4.1.6 Statutory regulations.- 4.2 Vertical loading ships.- 4.2.1 Hatches and tonnage.- 4.2.2 Tween-deck ships with exempt spaces.- 4.2.3 Universal Tonnage Measurement System.- 4.3 Horizontal loading ships.- 4.3.1 Roll-on/roll-off ships.- 4.3.2 Openings in vehicle deck.- 4.3.3 Bow, side and stern doors.- 4.3.4 Collision bulkheads.- 4.3.5 Other watertight bulkheads.- 4.4 Operational requirements.- 4.5 General considerations for access equipment.- 4.5.1 Coaming height.- 4.5.2 Cover stowage.- 4.5.3 Deck openings.- 4.5.4 Drainage.- 4.5.5 Lashing of cargo.- 4.5.6 Maintainability.- 4.6 Fabrication and installation.- 4.7 Safety.- References.- 5 Access Equipment in Vertical Loading Ships.- Summary.- 5.1 Types of hatch covers.- 5.1.1 Definitions used in the text.- 5.2 Single pull covers.- 5.2.1 Description.- 5.2.2 Operation.- 5.2.3 Construction.- 5.2.4 Stowage.- 5.2.5 Cleating arrangements.- 5.2.6 Weathertightness.- 5.2.7 Drive systems.- 5.2.8 Weight.- 5.2.9 Applications.- 5.3 Folding covers (hydraulic or wire-operated).- 5.3.1 Description.- 5.3.2 Operation.- 5.3.3 Construction.- 5.3.4 Stowage.- 5.3.5 Cleating.- 5.3.6 Weathertightness.- 5.3.7 Drive systems.- 5.3.8 Weight.- 5.3.9 Applications.- 5.4 Direct pull covers.- 5.4.1 Description.- 5.4.2 Operation.- 5.4.3 Construction.- 5.4.4 Stowage.- 5.4.5 Cleating.- 5.4.6 Weathertightness.- 5.4.7 Drive system.- 5.4.8 Weight.- 5.4.9 Applications.- 5.5 Roll stowing covers - 'Rolltite'.- 5.5.1 Description.- 5.5.2 Operation.- 5.4.3 Construction.- 5.5.4 Stowage.- 5.5.5 Cleating.- 5.5.6 Weathertightness.- 5.5.7 Drive systems.- 5.5.8 Weight.- 5.5.9 Applications.- 5.6 Side and end rolling covers.- 5.6.1 Description.- 5.6.2 Operation.- 5.6.3 Construction.- 5.6.4 Stowage.- 5.6.5 Cleating.- 5.6.6 Weathertightness.- 5.6.7 Drive systems.- 5.6.8 Weight.- 5.6.9 Applications.- 5.7 Lift and roll covers (piggy-back).- 5.7.1 Description.- 5.7.2 Operation.- 5.7.3 Construction.- 5.7.4 Stowage.- 5.7.5 Cleating.- 5.7.6 Weathertightness.- 5.7.7 Drive systems.- 5.7.8 Weight.- 5.7.9 Applications.- 5.8 Sliding tween-deck covers.- 5.8.1 Description.- 5.8.2 Operation.- 5.8.3 Construction.- 5.8.4 Stowage.- 5.8.5 Cleating and weathertightness.- 5.8.6 Drive systems.- 5.8.7 Weight.- 5.8.8 Applications.- 5.9 Pontoon covers.- 5.9.1 Description.- 5.9.2 Operation.- 5.9.3 Construction.- 5.9.4 Stowage.- 5.9.5 Cleating.- 5.9.6 Weathertightness.- 5.9.7 Drive systems.- 5.9.8 Weight.- 5.9.9 Applications.- 5.10 Telescopic covers.- 5.10.1 Description.- 5.10.2 Operation.- 5.10.3 Construction.- 5.10.4 Stowage space.- 5.10.5 Cleating.- 5.10.6 Weathertightness.- 5.10.7 Applications.- 5.11 Flexible rolling covers.- 5.11.1 Description.- 5.11.2 Operation.- 5.11.3 Construction.- 5.11.4 Stowage.- 5.11.5 Cleating and weathertightness.- 5.11.6 Drive systems.- 5.11.7 Applications.- 5.12 Miscellaneous covers.- 5.12.1 Deep tank covers.- 5.12.2 Beams and boards covers.- 5.12.3 Tank hatches.- 6 Access Equipment for Horizontal Loading Ships.- Summary.- 6.1 Design philosophy.- 6.1.1 Traffic movements.- 6.1.2 Cargo handling methods.- 6.1.3 Cargo handling methods in different types of ships.- 6.2 Ro-Ro access equipment.- 6.3 Ramps.- 6.3.1 General.- 6.3.2 Slopes or gradients.- 6.3.3 Ramp width.- 6.3.4 Ramp length.- 6.3.5 Quay pressure.- 6.3.6 Construction.- 6.3.7 Heeling.- 6.3.8 Stowage.- 6.3.9 Types of external ramps.- 6.3.10 Types of internal ramps.- 6.4 Bow openings.- 6.4.1 Bow visors.- 6.4.2 Bow doors.- 6.4.3 Use of how access.- 6.5 Elevators.- 6.5.1 General considerations.- 6.5.2 Types of elevators.- 6.5.3 Powering systems.- 6.5.4 Control systems.- 6.5.5 Sealing.- 6.5.6 Use of elevators in ships.- 6.6 Side doors.- 6.6.1 General.- 6.6.2 Types of side doors.- 6.6.3 Use of side ports in ships.- 6.7 Bulkhead doors.- 6.7.1 General.- 6.7.2 Types of bulkhead doors.- 6.7.3 Applications.- 6.8 Car decks.- 6.8.1 General.- 6.8.2 Types of car deck.- 6.8.3 Applications.- 6.9 Dimensions and weights.- References.- 7 Ship Design and Selection of Access Equipment - Bulk Cargo.- Summary.- 7.1 Access equipment for ships carrying dry bulk cargoes.- 7.1.1 Range of bulk cargoes.- 7.1.2 Large bulk carriers.- 7.1.3 Medium and small bulk carriers.- 7.1.4 Ore carriers.- 7.1.5 Combination carriers.- 7.1.6 Forest product carriers.- 7.1.7 Other specialized bulk carriers.- 7.2 Choice of type of hatch cover.- 7.2.1 Check list: considerations in selecting hatch cover types.- 7.2.2 Bulk carrier hatch covers.- 7.3 Economic evaluation of alternative equipment.- 7.3.1 Comparing costs of access equipment.- 7.3.2 Example of simple economic evaluation.- References.- 8 Ship Design and Selection of Access Equipment - General Cargo.- Summary.- 8.1 Multi-deck break-bulk ships.- 8.1.1 Conventional ships.- 8.1.2 Variants of the conventional multi-decker.- 8.2 Container ships.- 8.2.1 Cellular ships.- 8.2.2 Container ship variants.- 8.3 Roll-on/Roll-off ships.- 8.3.1 Passenger/Vehicle ferries.- 8.3.2 Short sea freight Roll-on/Roll-off ships.- 8.3.3 Deep sea Roll-on/Roll-off ships.- 8.3.4 Other Ro-Ro vessels.- 8.4 Specialized cargo vessels.- 8.4.1 Refrigerated ships.- 8.4.2 Barge carriers.- 8.4.3 Heavy lift ships.- 8.4.4 Miscellaneous ship types.- 8.5 What sorts of ships are best for general cargo?.- 8.5.1 General considerations.- 8.5.2 The cellular container ship versus the Ro-Ro.- 8.5.3 Break-hulk cargoes.- References.- 9 Specific Design Requirements for Access Equipment.- Summary.- 9.1 Hatch covers.- 9.1.1 Structural regulations.- 9.1.2 Loads.- 9.1.3 Scantlings.- 9.1.4 Deformation.- 9.2 Access equipment in horizontal loading ships.- 9.2.1 Structural regulations.- 9.2.2 Loads.- 9.2.3 Scantlings.- 9.2.4 Hull deformation.- 9.3 Advanced design techniques.- 9.4 Seals.- 9.4.1 Gasket arrangements for hatch covers.- 9.4.2 Gasket materials.- 9.4.3 Compression bars.- 9.4.4 Gasket arrangements for Ro-Ro access equipment.- 9.5 Construction materials.- 9.5.1 Higher tensile steel.- 9.5.2 Aluminium.- 9.5.3 Glass reinforced plastic.- 9.5.4 Wood.- 9.6 Miscellaneous.- 9.6.1 Fire regulations.- 9.6.2 Actuating mechanisms.- 9.6.3 Ventilators.- 9.6.4 Operation in arctic conditions.- References.- 10 Access Equipment in Service.- Summary.- 10.1 Cargo claims.- 10.1.1 Seaworthiness.- 10.1.2 Cargo claims arising from sea water entry.- 10.2 Hatch cover surveys.- 10.2.1 Pre-departure checks for hatch seals.- 10.3 Hatch cover defects.- 10.4 Some reasons for hatch leakage.- 10.4.1 Deformation of hull and hatch covers.- 10.4.2 Accidental deformation of hatches.- 10.4.3 Improper battening down.- 10.4.4 Permanent setting down of gaskets.- 10.4.5 Corrosion.- 10.4.6 Blocked drainage channels.- 10.4.7 Seals and cross joints.- 10.5 Hatch cover maintenance.- 10.5.1 Planned maintenance.- 10.5.2 Maintenance facilities provided by manufacturers.- 10.5.3 General maintenance.- 10.6 Hatch cover maintenance costs.- 10.7 Ro-Ro access equipment maintenance.- 10.8 Ship conversion.- 10.8.1 General considerations.- 10.8.2 Examples of ship conversion.- References.- 11 Recent Developments and Prospects.- Summary.- 11.1 Recent developments.- 11.1.1 Ro-Ro.- 11.1.2 Hatch covers.- 11.1.3 New ships - BORO and barge carriers.- 11.2 Influences on change.- 11.2.1 Patterns of change.- 11.2.2 Trade.- 11.2.3 Environment.- 11.2.4 Cargo form.- 11.2.5 Regulations.- 11.3 Ship types.- 11.3.1 Tug-barges.- 11.3.2 Barge carriers.- 11.3.3 Bulk carriers.- 11.3.4 Future ship types.- 11.4 Materials.- 11.5 Innovation.
Responsibility: by I.L. Buxton, R.P. Daggitt, J. King.
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