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The caring motivation : an integrated theory

Author: Ofra Mayseless
Publisher: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2016.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : First editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
Caring is all around us and is manifested in diverse settings such as parenting, friendships, voluteering, altruism, mentoring, teaching, pet adoption, and gardening. The study of caring, the giving end of our relations, has been dispersed among a large variety of research paradigms (e.g., evolution, brain research, attachment theory, feminism, altruism, volunteering, parenting, social support, prosocial  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Ofra Mayseless
ISBN: 9780199913619 0199913617
OCLC Number: 944242095
Description: xiv, 422 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: I. Introduction --
Caring as motivation --
Caring as fundamental --
Caring as manifested in diverse domains --
Individual differences --
Why is this book necessary? --
The organization of this book --
Part I: Conceptual frameworks regarding caring --
Part I Introduction --
2. Spiritual views of caring: Caring as divine --
Christianity --
Buddhism --
Judaism and Kabbalah --
Contemporary spiritualities --
Chapter conclusion --
3. Evolutionary approaches to caring/caregiving --
Parental care --
Caring for nonprogeny --
Caring for in-group vs. out-group members --
Selective investment theory --
Developmental processes related to caring in our evolutionary history --
Individual differences --
Chapter conclusion --
4. Empathic processes as key experiences in caring --
Evolutionary development of empathic processes --
Empathy --
Concern, compassion, and sympathy --
the motivation to care --
Modulation of empathic responses --
Chapter conclusion --
5. Biological bases of caregiving --
Animal studies --
Neurohormonal basis of human caring --
Oxytocin in human parenting and caring --
Oxytocin and caring in romantic relations --
Oxytocin and caring with strangers --
Modulation of oxytocin's effects on caring processes --
Genetics and caring --
Chapter conclusion --
6. Attachment theory and caregiving --
The concept of behavioral systems --
Caregiving as a behavioral system in parenting --
Caregiving in romantic relations --
The importance of warmth and emotional bonding in caregiving --
A broader view of caregiving --
Chapter conclusion --
7. Feminist perspectives --
Caring as the sphere of women --
Caring and mothering are not freely chosen by women --
Women and caregiving are devalued and deemed inferior in patriarchal society --
Mothering as a way to subordinate women and relegate them to an inferior status in patriarchal society --
The idealistic and "natural" perception of mothering as another way of subduing women --
Mothering as involving ambivalence --
love and hate --
Mothering as involving thinking and sophistication based on practice --
How do women become caregivers? --
Why patriarchal society adopted a negative evaluation of women, mothering, and caregiving --
Masculinity and femininity --
Reconciliation and utopian projections into the future --
Chapter conclusion --
Part I Conclusion --
Part II: Manifestations of caring and caregiving in different domains and contexts --
Part II Introduction --
8. Caring for familiar others --
Caring in parent-child relations --
Compassionate love and social support --
Caregiving in romantic relations --
an attachment perspective --
"Caregiving" --
caring for other with mental or physical health problems --
Chapter conclusions --
9. Caring for strangers: Conceptual perspectives --
Generativity --
Prosocial behavior --
Altruism --
Chapter conclusion --
10. Caring for strangers: Examples of caring and nurturance --
Volunteering --
Money donations and generosity --
Mentoring --
Chapter conclusion --
11. Caring for nonhuman entities --
Caring for pets --
Caring for plants and gardens --
Caring for inanimate objects and abstract entities --
Chapter conclusion --
12. Caring in different social roles and contexts --
Caring in teaching and schools --
Caring in the workplace --
caring as a profession (the helping professions) --
Caring in the workplace --
caring in organizations (organizational citizenship behaviors) --
Leadership and caring --
Apology, forgiveness, and reconciliation: coping with transgressions in dyadic relations, groups, and nations --
Chapter conclusion --
Part II Conclusion --
Part III: The development of caring and individual differences --
Part III Introduction --
13. The development course of the motivation to care: Ontogenic development of caring --
The early incipience of the motivation to care --
Childhood and adolescence --
the powerful role of socialization --
Adolescence --
puberty, loyalty in peer groups, caring bonds, and caring in romantic relations and across differences --
Adulthood --
primacy of caring bonds and generativity --
Chapter conclusions --
14. Individual differences in caring --
The development of individual differences in caring --
Prosocial personality disposition --
Multidimensionality of prosocial behavior --
Individual differences in how people care --
caring styles --
Chapter conclusion --
15. Sex/gender differences in caregiving --
Evolutionary and biological accounts --
"Fight or flight" vs. "tend and befriend" approaches to stress --
Feminist and psychoanalytic approaches --
Anthropological and cross-cultural perspectives --
What can we make of men's and women's caring? A proposed resolution --
Chapter conclusion --
Part III Conclusion --
Part IV: A conceptual model of caring as a motivation --
Part IV Introduction --
16. The "caring motivational system": Fundamental, innate, complex, and sophisticated (Composition and operation) --
Caring as fundamental --
The nature of the caring motivation as a complex and sophisticated motivational system --
Kinds of involvement and care --
Intrinsic motivation and autonomous vs. controlled regulation as part of the caring motivation --
The importance of conscious decisions and unconscious instinctual processes --
The interplay between the caring motivational system and other motivational systems --
The importance of balanced and judicious enactment of care --
The universal path of development of the caring motivation --
Chapter conclusions --
17. The "Caring motivational system": General, encompassing, diverse, and flexible (Similarity and diversity) --
Caring as a general motivation --
similarity across different domains and targets --
Caregiving targets organized as a fuzzy set --
Diversity, flexibility, and multidimensionality --
distinctions among the different manifestations of caring --
Interrelations among the different manifestations of caring in the same person (within-individual diversity and flexibility) --
Prevalence of prosocial predispositions and the advantage of interindividual diversity --
Chapter conclusion --
18. Tying the diverse conceptual perspectives together: Ultimate and proximate causes --
Ultimate causation --
"what for" questions --
Proximal or direct causes for providing care --
an overview --
Different routes to arousing care: empathy, perspective taking, morality, and meaning/purpose --
Psychological processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of caring bonds --
Unintended consequences of caring that may sustain caring --
The parenthood paradox revisited --
Chapter conclusions --
19. The nature of the human species: Conceptual and applied implications --
The shift in zeitgeist regarding the centrality of care and the wish to give --
The caring motivational system in the context of major human dichotomies --
Caring as a reflection of our daimon --
Caring and our sense of life's meaning and purpose --
Caring as self-actualization --
Caring as reflecting our spiritual core --
Implications for research --
Applied implications --
Chapter conclusions --
20. Summary and major contributions --
Summary of the main tenets of my conceptual perspective on caring --
The main contributions of this volume and the suggested conceptual model --
Final concluding remarks.
Responsibility: Ofra Mayseless.

Abstract:

The Caring Motivation is a pioneering attempt to bring the diverse research on caring together and to examine caring as a motivation from a broad perspective that relies on these very diverse  Read more...

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"The importance of care for education and society cannot be over emphasized. In her remarkable book Professor Mayseless has made a major contribution to the field. I recommend it to all with a Read more...

 
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    schema:description "Caring is all around us and is manifested in diverse settings such as parenting, friendships, voluteering, altruism, mentoring, teaching, pet adoption, and gardening. The study of caring, the giving end of our relations, has been dispersed among a large variety of research paradigms (e.g., evolution, brain research, attachment theory, feminism, altruism, volunteering, parenting, social support, prosocial development, organizational citizenship behavior and sustainability) and this has impeded our understanding of caring. The Caring Motivation is a pioneering attempt to bring the diverse research on caring together and to examine caring as a motivation from a broad perspective that relies on these very diverse literatures. Author Ofra Mayseless underscores that we as a species have an innate, biologically driven and evolutionarily chosen, yet contextually sensitive, general motivation to care, tend, empower, and nurture. Several intriguing insights emerge, and a conceptual model of caring as a fundamental and encompassing human motivation is presented. This is the first time that such a model is discusses in detail and its presentation helps us understand core common processes of caring across diverse targets as well as unique adaptations. The model presents for the first time a comprehensive view on how caring is psychologically activated and sustained and underscores the importance of life meaning and purpose in its enactment. The book also introduces a preliminary and innovative model of the universal developmental course of the caring motivational system from infancy to adulthood. This novel and pioneering view opens up excited new arenas for research and for applications in psychotherapy, education, human growth, spirituality and religions, leadership and organizational behavior, and human sciences in general and highlights the pivotal place of care in our lives. -- from dust jacket."@en ;
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Biological bases of caregiving -- Animal studies -- Neurohormonal basis of human caring -- Oxytocin in human parenting and caring -- Oxytocin and caring in romantic relations -- Oxytocin and caring with strangers -- Modulation of oxytocin's effects on caring processes -- Genetics and caring -- Chapter conclusion -- 6. Attachment theory and caregiving -- The concept of behavioral systems -- Caregiving as a behavioral system in parenting -- Caregiving in romantic relations -- The importance of warmth and emotional bonding in caregiving -- A broader view of caregiving -- Chapter conclusion -- 7. Feminist perspectives -- Caring as the sphere of women -- Caring and mothering are not freely chosen by women -- Women and caregiving are devalued and deemed inferior in patriarchal society -- Mothering as a way to subordinate women and relegate them to an inferior status in patriarchal society -- The idealistic and "natural" perception of mothering as another way of subduing women -- Mothering as involving ambivalence -- love and hate -- Mothering as involving thinking and sophistication based on practice -- How do women become caregivers? -- Why patriarchal society adopted a negative evaluation of women, mothering, and caregiving -- Masculinity and femininity -- Reconciliation and utopian projections into the future -- Chapter conclusion -- Part I Conclusion -- Part II: Manifestations of caring and caregiving in different domains and contexts -- Part II Introduction -- 8. Caring for familiar others -- Caring in parent-child relations -- Compassionate love and social support -- Caregiving in romantic relations -- an attachment perspective -- "Caregiving" -- caring for other with mental or physical health problems -- Chapter conclusions -- 9. Caring for strangers: Conceptual perspectives -- Generativity -- Prosocial behavior -- Altruism -- Chapter conclusion -- 10. Caring for strangers: Examples of caring and nurturance -- Volunteering -- Money donations and generosity -- Mentoring -- Chapter conclusion -- 11. Caring for nonhuman entities -- Caring for pets -- Caring for plants and gardens -- Caring for inanimate objects and abstract entities -- Chapter conclusion -- 12. Caring in different social roles and contexts -- Caring in teaching and schools -- Caring in the workplace -- caring as a profession (the helping professions) -- Caring in the workplace -- caring in organizations (organizational citizenship behaviors) -- Leadership and caring -- Apology, forgiveness, and reconciliation: coping with transgressions in dyadic relations, groups, and nations -- Chapter conclusion -- Part II Conclusion -- Part III: The development of caring and individual differences -- Part III Introduction -- 13. The development course of the motivation to care: Ontogenic development of caring -- The early incipience of the motivation to care -- Childhood and adolescence -- the powerful role of socialization -- Adolescence -- puberty, loyalty in peer groups, caring bonds, and caring in romantic relations and across differences -- Adulthood -- primacy of caring bonds and generativity -- Chapter conclusions -- 14. Individual differences in caring -- The development of individual differences in caring -- Prosocial personality disposition -- Multidimensionality of prosocial behavior -- Individual differences in how people care -- caring styles -- Chapter conclusion -- 15. Sex/gender differences in caregiving -- Evolutionary and biological accounts -- "Fight or flight" vs. "tend and befriend" approaches to stress -- Feminist and psychoanalytic approaches -- Anthropological and cross-cultural perspectives -- What can we make of men's and women's caring? A proposed resolution -- Chapter conclusion -- Part III Conclusion -- Part IV: A conceptual model of caring as a motivation -- Part IV Introduction -- 16. The "caring motivational system": Fundamental, innate, complex, and sophisticated (Composition and operation) -- Caring as fundamental -- The nature of the caring motivation as a complex and sophisticated motivational system -- Kinds of involvement and care -- Intrinsic motivation and autonomous vs. controlled regulation as part of the caring motivation -- The importance of conscious decisions and unconscious instinctual processes -- The interplay between the caring motivational system and other motivational systems -- The importance of balanced and judicious enactment of care -- The universal path of development of the caring motivation -- Chapter conclusions -- 17. The "Caring motivational system": General, encompassing, diverse, and flexible (Similarity and diversity) -- Caring as a general motivation -- similarity across different domains and targets -- Caregiving targets organized as a fuzzy set -- Diversity, flexibility, and multidimensionality -- distinctions among the different manifestations of caring -- Interrelations among the different manifestations of caring in the same person (within-individual diversity and flexibility) -- Prevalence of prosocial predispositions and the advantage of interindividual diversity -- Chapter conclusion -- 18. Tying the diverse conceptual perspectives together: Ultimate and proximate causes -- Ultimate causation -- "what for" questions -- Proximal or direct causes for providing care -- an overview -- Different routes to arousing care: empathy, perspective taking, morality, and meaning/purpose -- Psychological processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of caring bonds -- Unintended consequences of caring that may sustain caring -- The parenthood paradox revisited -- Chapter conclusions -- 19. The nature of the human species: Conceptual and applied implications -- The shift in zeitgeist regarding the centrality of care and the wish to give -- The caring motivational system in the context of major human dichotomies -- Caring as a reflection of our daimon -- Caring and our sense of life's meaning and purpose -- Caring as self-actualization -- Caring as reflecting our spiritual core -- Implications for research -- Applied implications -- Chapter conclusions -- 20. 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