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Catalysis : from principles to applications

Author: Matthias Beller; Albert Renken; R A van Santen
Publisher: Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, [2012]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
"This advanced textbook ... covers all the essential principles, ranging from catalytic processes at the molecular level to catalytic reactor design and includes several case studies illustrating the importance of catalysts in the chemical industry."--Page 4 of cover.

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Matthias Beller; Albert Renken; R A van Santen
ISBN: 9783527323494 352732349X
OCLC Number: 809069933
Description: xxii, 642 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
Contents: <p>List of Contributors XVII <p>Preface XXI <p>Part I Basic Concepts 1 <p>1 Catalysis in Perspective: Historic Review 3 Rutger van Santen <p>1.1 History of Catalysis Science 3 <p>1.2 The Development of Catalytic Processes: History and Future11 <p>1.3 Fundamental Catalysis in Practice 13 <p>1.4 Catalyst Selection 13 <p>1.5 Reactor Choice 16 <p>1.6 Process Choice 17 <p>References 19 <p>Further Reading 19 <p>2 Kinetics of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions20 Rutger van Santen <p>2.1 Physical chemical principles 20 <p>2.2 The Lock and Key Model, the Role of Adsorption Entropy27 <p>2.3 Equivalence of Electrocatalysis and Chemocatalysis30 <p>2.4 Microkinetics; the Rate-Determining Step 32 <p>2.5 Elementary Rate Constant Expressions for Surface Reactions34 <p>2.6 The Pressure Gap 36 <p>2.7 The Materials Gap 39 <p>2.8 Coupling of Catalytic Reaction and Inorganic Solid Chemistry42 <p>2.9 In situ Generation of Organo-Catalyst 42 <p>2.10 The Compensation Effect 44 <p>References 46 <p>3 Kinetics in Homogeneous Catalysis 48 Detlef Heller <p>3.1 Principles of a Catalyst and Kinetic Description48 <p>3.2 Catalyst Activity 54 <p>3.3 Catalyst Activation and Deactivation 58 <p>References 64 <p>4 Catalytic Reaction Engineering Principles 67 Albert Renken and Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker <p>4.1 Preface 67 <p>4.2 Formal Kinetics of Catalytic Reactions 68 <p>4.3 Mass and Heat Transfer Effects 77 <p>4.4 Homogenous Catalysis in Biphasic Fluid/Fluid Systems103 <p>References 108 <p>Part II The Chemistry of Catalytic Reactivity111 <p>5 Heterogeneous Catalysis 113 Rutger van Santen <p>5.1 General Introduction 113 <p>5.2 Transition Metal Catalysis 114 <p>5.3 Solid Acids and Bases 132 <p>5.4 Reducible Oxides 143 <p>References 150 <p>6 Homogeneous Catalysis 152 Matthias Beller, Serafino Gladiali, and Detlef Heller <p>6.1 General Features 152 <p>References 169 <p>7 Biocatalysis 171 Uwe Bornscheuer <p>7.1 Introduction 171 <p>7.2 Examples 176 <p>7.3 Summary/Conclusions 194 <p>References 194 <p>8 Electrocatalysis 201 Timo Jacob <p>8.1 Introduction 201 <p>8.2 Theory 203 <p>8.3 Application to the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) onPt(111) 207 <p>8.4 Summary 212 <p>References 213 <p>9 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis 216 Guido Mul <p>9.1 Introduction 216 <p>9.2 Applications of Photocatalysis 219 <p>9.3 Case Studies 220 <p>9.4 Concluding Remarks 228 <p>References 228 <p>Part III Industrial Catalytic Conversions 231 10 Carbonylation Reactions 233 <p>Matthias Beller <p>10.1 General Aspects 233 <p>10.2 Hydroformylation 234 <p>10.3 Other Carbonylations of Olefins and Alkynes 238 <p>10.4 Carbonylations of Alcohols and Aryl Halides 244 <p>References 246 <p>11 Biocatalytic Processes 250 Uwe Bornscheuer <p>11.1 Introduction 250 <p>11.2 Examples 253 <p>11.2.1 General Applications 253 <p>11.3 Case Study: Synthesis of Lipitor Building Blocks257 <p>11.4 Conclusions 259 <p>References 259 <p>12 Polymerization 261 Vincenzo Busico <p>12.1 Introduction 261 <p>12.2 Polyolefins in Brief 262 <p>12.3 Olefin Polymerization Catalysts 264 <p>12.4 Olefin Polymerization Process Technology 273 <p>12.5 The Latest Breakthroughs 280 <p>References 285 <p>13 Ammonia Synthesis 289 Jens Rostrup-Nielsen <p>13.1 Ammonia Plant 289 <p>13.2 Synthesis 291 <p>13.3 Steam Reforming 295 <p>13.4 Conclusions 299 <p>Abbreviations 299 <p>References 299 <p>14 Fischer Tropsch Synthesis in a ModernPerspective 301 Hans Schulz <p>14.1 Introduction 301 <p>14.2 Stoichiometry and Thermodynamic Aspects 304 <p>14.3 Processes and Product Composition 308 <p>14.4 Catalysts, General 311 <p>14.5 Reaction Fundamentals 313 <p>14.6 Concluding Remarks 323 <p>References 323 <p>15 Zeolite Catalysis 325 Rutger van Santen <p>15.1 Introduction 325 <p>15.2 The Hydrocracking Reaction; Acid Catalysis 325 <p>15.3 Lewis Acid Lewis Base Catalysis; HydrocarbonActivation 332 <p>15.4 Selective Oxidation; Redox Catalysis 333 <p>15.5 Framework-Substituted Redox Ions 335 <p>References 339 <p>16 Catalytic Selective Oxidation Fundamentals,Consolidated Technologies, and Directions for Innovation341 Fabrizio Cavani <p>16.1 Catalytic Selective Oxidation: Main Features 341 <p>16.2 Catalytic Selective Oxidation: What Makes the Developmentof an Industrial Process More Challenging (and Troublesome) thanOther Reactions 353 <p>16.3 Catalytic Selective Oxidation: the Forefront in theContinuous Development of More-Sustainable Industrial Technologies355 <p>16.4 The Main Issue in Catalytic Oxidation: the Control ofSelectivity 356 <p>16.5 Dream Reactions in Catalytic Selective Oxidation: a FewExamples (Some Sustainable, Some Not Sustainable) 359 <p>16.6 A New Golden Age for Catalytic Selective Oxidation?361 <p>16.7 Conclusions: Several Opportunities for More SustainableOxidation <p>Processes 363 <p>References 363 <p>17 High-Temperature Catalysis: Role of Heterogeneous,Homogeneous, and Radical Chemistry 365 Olaf Deutschmann <p>17.1 Introduction 365 <p>17.2 Fundamentals 366 <p>17.3 Applications 372 <p>17.4 Hydrogen Production from Logistic Fuels by High-TemperatureCatalysis 378 <p>17.5 High-Temperature Catalysis in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells380 <p>References 385 <p>18 Hydrodesulfurization 390 Roel Prins <p>18.1 Introduction 390 <p>18.2 Hydrodesulfurization 391 <p>18.3 The C-X Bond-Breaking Mechanism 393 <p>18.4 Structure of the Sulfidic Catalyst 393 <p>18.5 Hydrodenitrogenation 397 <p>18.6 Determination of Surface Sites 398 <p>References 398 <p>Part IV Catalyst Synthesis and Materials 399 <p>19 Molecularly Defined Systems in Heterogeneous Catalysis401 Fernando Rasc'on and Christophe Cop'eret <p>19.1 Introduction 401 <p>19.2 Single Sites: On the Border between Homogeneous andHeterogeneous Catalysis 402 <p>19.3 Conclusion and Perspectives 415 <p>References 415 <p>20 Preparation of Supported Catalysts 420 Krijn P. de Jong <p>20.1 Introduction 420 <p>20.2 Support Surface Chemistry 422 <p>20.3 Ion Adsorption 423 <p>20.4 Impregnation and Drying 425 <p>20.5 Deposition Precipitation 427 <p>20.6 Thermal Treatment 428 <p>References 429 <p>21 Porous Materials as Catalysts and Catalyst Supports431 Petra de Jongh <p>21.1 General Characteristics 431 <p>21.2 Sol-gel and Fumed Silica 433 <p>21.3 Alumina and Other Oxides 436 <p>21.4 Carbon Materials 438 <p>21.5 Zeolites 440 <p>21.6 Ordered Mesoporous Materials 442 <p>21.7 Metal-Organic Frameworks 442 <p>21.8 Shaping 443 <p>References 444 <p>22 Development of Catalytic Materials 445 Manfred Baerns <p>22.1 Introduction 445 <p>22.2 Fundamental Aspects 446 <p>22.3 Micro-Kinetics and Solid-State Properties as a KnowledgeSource in Catalyst Development 448 <p>22.4 Combinatorial Approaches and High-Throughput Technologiesin the Development of Solid Catalysts 453 <p>References 459 <p>Part V Characterization Methods 463 <p>23 In-situ Techniques for HomogeneousCatalysis 465 Detlef Selent and Detlef Heller <p>23.1 Introduction 465 <p>23.2 In-situ Techniques for Homogeneous Catalysis466 <p>23.3 Gas Consumption and Gas Formation 467 <p>23.4 NMR Spectroscopy 470 <p>23.5 IR-Spectroscopy 481 <p>23.6 UV/Vis Spectroscopy 486 <p>23.7 Summary 490 <p>References 490 <p>24 In-situ Characterization ofHeterogeneous Catalysts 493 Bert Weckhuysen <p>24.1 Introduction 493 <p>24.2 Some History, Recent Developments, and Applications495 <p>24.3 In situ Characterization of a Reactor Loaded with aCatalytic Solid 497 <p>24.4 In situ Characterization at a Single CatalystParticle Level 501 <p>24.5 Concluding Remarks 511 <p>Acknowledgments 511 <p>References 511 <p>25 Adsorption Methods for Characterization of PorousMaterials 514 Evgeny Pidko and Emiel Hensen <p>25.1 Introduction 514 <p>25.2 Physical Adsorption 514 <p>25.3 Classification of Porous Materials 517 <p>25.4 Adsorption Isotherms 517 <p>25.5 The Application of Adsorption Methods 518 <p>25.6 Theoretical Description of Adsorption 519 <p>25.7 Characterization of Microporous Materials 524 <p>25.8 Characterization of Mesoporous Materials 527 <p>25.9 Mercury Porosimetry 533 <p>25.10 Xenon Porosimetry 533 <p>References 534 <p>26 A Critical Review of Some Classical Guidelines for CatalystTesting 536 Frits Dautzenberg <p>26.1 Introduction 536 <p>26.2 Encouraging Effectiveness 536 <p>26.3 Ensuring Efficiency 537 <p>26.4 Concluding Remarks 552 <p>Appendix A: Three-Phase Trickle-Bed Reactors 552 <p>List of Symbols and Abbreviations 558 <p>References 559 <p>Part VI Catalytic Reactor Engineering 561 27 Catalytic Reactor Engineering 563 <p>Albert Renken and Madhvanand N. Kashid <p>27.1 Introduction 563 <p>27.2 Types of Catalytic Reactors 564 <p>27.3 Ideal Reactor Modeling/Heat Management 575 <p>27.4 Residence Time Distribution 587 <p>27.5 Microreaction Engineering 602 <p>References 625 <p>Index 629
Responsibility: edited by Matthias Beller, Albert Renken and Rutger van Santen.




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