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Catalysis in petrochemical processes

Author: Sami Matar; Manfred J Mirbach; Hassan A Tayim
Publisher: Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, ©1989.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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The field of petrochemicals started some years ago with the simple addition reaction of water to propylene for the production of isopropyl alcohol. Currently, the petrochemical industry has become a  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Sami Matar; Manfred J Mirbach; Hassan A Tayim
ISBN: 902772721X 9789027727213
OCLC Number: 17620393
Description: ix, 200 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: 1/Raw Materials and Chemicals from Carbonaceous Sources.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Raw Materials.- 1.1.1. Natural and Associated Gases.- 1.1.2. Crude Oils.- 1.1.3. Coal, Peat, Oil Shale and Tar Sands.- 1.2. Intermediates for Petrochemical Production.- 1.2.1. Ethylene, Propene and Butenes.- 1.2.2. Butadiene, Isoprene and Chloroprene.- 1.2.3. Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTX).- 1.2.4. Synthesis Gas.- References.- 2/Types of Catalysts Used in Petrochemical Processes.- 2. Introduction.- 2.1. Catalyst Types.- 2.1.1. Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 2.1.2. Homogeneous Catalysts.- 2.1.3. Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts.- 2.2. Basic Principles of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.1. Theories of Bonding in Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.2. Structure and Reactivity of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.3. Some Reaction Types Characteristic of Coordination Compounds.- 2.2.4. Requirements of Effective Catalysts.- References.- 3/Hydrogenation - Dehydrogenation Processes.- 3. Introduction.- 3.1. Hydrogenation.- 3.1.1. Hydrogenation Catalysts.- 3.1.2. Hydrogenation Reactions and Processes.- 3.2. Dehydrogenation.- 3.2.1. Dehydrogenation of C-4 and C-5 Alkanes and Alkanes.- 3.2.2. Dehydrogenation of Higher Alkanes to Monoalkenes.- 3.2.3. Catalytic Reforming of Naphtha (Production of Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes).- 3.2.4. Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene.- 3.2.5. Dehydrogenation of Alcohols.- References.- 4/Alkylation Processes.- 4. Introduction.- 4.1. Alkylation Catalysts.- 4.2. Alkylation Using Alkenes (Olefins).- 4.2.1. Alkylation of Isobutane (Production of 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane and Other Branched Alkanes).- 4.2.2. Alkylation of Benzene with Alkenes.- 4.2.3. Alkylation of Phenol with Alkenes.- 4.3. Alkylations Using Alcohols.- 4.3.1. Alkylation of Phenol with Methanol (Production of Methyl- phenols).- 4.3.2. Alkylation of Toluene with Methanol (Production of Xylenes).- 4.3.3. Alkylation of Amines with Methanol (Production of Methyl- amines).- 4.4. Alkylation Using Alkyl Halides.- References.- 5/Catalytic Oxidation Reactions.- 5. Introduction.- 5.1. Oxidation of Saturated Hydrocarbons.- 5.2. Oxidation of Olefins.- 5.2.1. Ethylene Oxidation.- 5.2.2. Propylene Oxidation.- 5.3. Oxidation of Alcohols: Methanol to Formaldehyde.- 5.3.1. Silver Process.- 5.3.2. Iron Molybdate Process.- 5.4. Oxidation of Aldehydes.- 5.4.1. Acetic Acid.- 5.5. Oxidation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons.- 5.5.1. Phenol.- 5.5.2. Maleic Anhydride.- 5.5.3. Phthalic Anhydride.- 5.5.4. Terephthalic Acid.- 5.5.5. Anthraquinone.- 5.5.6. Ammoxidation.- References.- 6/Production and Uses of Synthesis Gas.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Manufacture of Synthesis Gas.- 6.2.1. Steam Reforming.- 6.2.2. Partial Oxidation.- 6.2.3. Water Gas Shift Reaction.- 6.2.4. Synthesis gas Purification.- 6.2.5. Economics of Synthesis Gas Production.- 6.2.6. The Catalysts.- 6.2.7. Description of the Process of Steam Reforming of Natural Gas.- 6.3. Synthesis Gas as a Chemical Feedstock.- 6.3.1. Methanol Synthesis.- 6.3.2. Fischer-Tropsch and Related Synthesis.- 6.3.3. Ammonia and Related Products.- References.- 7/Oxo and Carbonylation Reactions.- 7. Introduction.- 7.1.The Oxo Process.- 7.1.1. The Mechanism of the Cobalt Carbonyl Catalyzed Hydro-formylation.- 7.2. The Carbonylation of Olefins.- 7.3. Carbonylation of Methanol to Acetic Acid.- References.- 8/Acid or Base Catalyzed Addition, Elimination and Substitution Reactions.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Mechanistic Consideration. Addition Reactions.- 8.3. Hydration of Olefins.- 8.3.1. Ethanol Production.- 8.3.2. Isopropanol Production.- 8.3.3. Higher Alcohols by Hydration of Olefins.- 8.4. Hydration of Ethylene Oxide.- 8.5. Propene Oxide and Higher Epoxides.- 8.6. Dimerization and Oligomerization of Olefins.- 8.7. Vinyl Compounds.- 8.7.1. Vinyl Chloride.- 8.7.2. Vinyl Fluoride.- 8.7.3. Vinyl Acetate.- 8.8. Acrylic Acid Derivatives.- 8.8.1. Acrylic Acid.- 8.8.2. Acrylonitrile.- 8.8.3. Allyl Compounds.- 8.8.4. Methacrylic Acid Derivatives.- 8.8.5. Miscellaneous Reactions.- References.- 9/Catalytic Polymerization.- 9. Introduction.- 9.1. Monomers, Polymers and Copolymers.- 9.2. Classification of Polymers.- 9.2.1. Plastics.- 9.2.2. Synthetic Fibers.- 9.2.3. Elastomers.- 9.3. Polymerization Reactions.- 9.3.1. Condensation Polymerization.- 9.3.2. Addition Polymerization.- 9.4. Polymerization Techniques.- 9.5. Some Important Polymers Formed by Coordination Catalysts.- 9.5.1. Production of 1-Butene.- 9.5.2. Production of Linear Alcohols.- 9.5.3. Production of ?-Olefins.- 9.5.4. Production of Linear Polyethylene.- 9.5.5. Production of Polypropylene.- 9.5.6. Polybutadiene.- 9.5.7. Polyisoprene.- 9.5.8. Trans-Polypentamer.- 9.5.9. Polychloroprene.- References.- 10/ Experimental Techniques in Catalysis.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 10.2.1. Mixing.- 10.2.2. Impregnation.- 10.2.3. Precipitation.- 10.2.4. Skeleton Catalysts.- 10.3. Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts.- 10.4. Testing Catalysts in the Laboratory.- 10.4.1. Examples of Integral Reactors.- 10.4.2. Examples of Differential Reactors.- 10.5. Preparation of Homogeneous Catalysts.- 10.6. Characterization of Homogeneous Catalysts.- 10.7. Testing of Homogeneous Catalysts 193 References.- References.
Responsibility: Sami Matar, Manfred J. Mirbach, Hassan A. Tayim.

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