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Cell membrane transport : principles and techniques

Author: Arnošt Kotyk; Karel Janáček, Dr.
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, [1975]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2d edView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Kotyk, Arnošt.
Cell membrane transport.
New York : Plenum Press, [1975]
(OCoLC)643726129
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Arnošt Kotyk; Karel Janáček, Dr.
ISBN: 0306307995 9780306307997
OCLC Number: 1176043
Description: xxi, 583 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Structural Aspects.- 1. Composition and Structure of Cell Membranes.- 1.1. Cell Envelopes and Membranes.- 1.2. Chemical Composition of the Plasma Membrane.- 1.3. Fine Structure of the Plasma Membrane.- Kinetic Aspects.- 2. Transport in Homogeneous Liquid Phase.- 2.1. Mass Flow and Diffusion.- 2.1.1. Introductory Definitions.- 2.1.2. The Laws of Diffusion.- 2.2. Migration and Electrodiffusion of Ions.- 3. Passive Membrane Transport of Nonelectrolytes.- 3.1. Permeation by Simple Diffusion.- 3.2. Mediated Diffusion and Related Phenomena.- 3.2.1. General Considerations.- 3.2.2. Model I.- 3.2.2.1. Estimation of Transport Parameters.- 3.2.3. Model II.- 3.2.3.1. Estimation of Transport Parameters.- 3.2.4. Model III.- 3.2.5. Model IV.- 3.2.6. Inhibition of Mediated Diffusion.- 3.2.7. Noncarrier Mechanisms.- 3.2.7.1. Solution by Lieb and Stein.- 3.2.7.2. Solution by Lefevre.- 4. Permeation of Ions and Water.- 4.1. Permeation of Ions and Membrane Potentials.- 4.1.1. Introduction.- 4.1.2. Equilibrium of Ions across Membranes.- 4.1.3. Nonequilibrium Membrane Potentials and Ion Fluxes.- 4.2. Transport of Water.- 4.2.1. Ideal Semipermeable Membrane.- 4.2.2. Membrane Permeable to the Solute.- 5. Active and Coupled Uphill Transport.- 5.1. Active Transport.- 5.1.1. Criteria.- 5.1.2. Kinetics.- 5.1.2.1. Regular Model.- 5.1.2.2. Self-Regulating Model.- 5.1.2.3. Energetics.- 5.1.2.4. Pump-and-Leak Models.- 5.2. Coupled Transport.- 6. Kinetics of Tracer Exchange.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Compartment in a Steady State, Communicating with One Other Compartment.- 6.2.1. Compartment and a Reservoir.- 6.2.2. Closed System of Two Compartments.- 6.3. Compartment in a Steady State, Communicating with Two Other Compartments.- 6.3.1. Compartment with Irreversible Outflow.- 6.3.2. Compartment with Reversible Outflow.- 6.4. Two Compartments and a Reservoir.- 6.4.1. Two Compartments in Parallel.- 6.4.2. Two Compartments in Series.- 6.5. Nonsteady-State Compartments.- 7. Special Types of Transport.- 7.1. Sorption Theories.- 7.2. Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis.- Molecular Aspects.- 8. Molecular Basis of Transport.- 8.1. Nature of Transporting Molecules.- 8.2. Movement of the Carrier.- 8.3. Binding Proteins.- 8.3.1. Double Labeling of Inducible Transport Proteins.- 8.3.2. Binding of Inhibitors to the Transport Protein.- 8.3.3. Search for Binding Affinity.- 8.3.3.1. Sulfate.- 8.3.3.2. Phosphate.- 8.3.3.3. Sodium and Potassium.- 8.3.3.4. Calcium.- 8.3.3.5. Leucine and leucine-isoleucine-valine (LIV).- 8.3.3.6. Histidine.- 8.3.3.7. Basic Amino Acids.- 8.3.3.8. Glutamine.- 8.3.3.9. Cystine.- 8.3.3.10. Tryptophan.- 8.3.3.11. Phenylalanine.- 8.3.3.12. Arginine.- 8.3.3.13. d-Galactose.- 8.3.3.14. d-Ribose.- 8.3.3.15. l-Arabinose.- 8.3.3.16. d-Glucose.- 8.3.3.17. Other Binding Proteins.- 8.3.3.18. Binding Proteins and Chemotaxis.- 8.4. Energy-Driven Transport.- 8.4.1. Oxidoreductive Transport.- 8.4.2. The Phosphotransferase System.- 8.4.3. Na+,K+-Activated Adenosinetriphosphatases.- 8.4.4. Ion-Coupled Transport.- Methodological Aspects.- 9. Incubation and Separation Techniques.- 9.1. Incubation.- 9.1.1. Types of Incubators and Flasks.- 9.1.2. Gaseous Phases Used for Incubation.- 9.2. Separation of Cells and Tissues.- 9.2.1. Handling of Macroscopic Objects.- 9.2.2. Handling of Microscopic Objects.- 9.2.2.1. Centrifugation Techniques.- 9.2.2.2. Filtration Techniques.- 9.2.2.3. Chemical Termination.- 9.3. Work with Isolated Membranes and Their Components.- 9.3.1. Preparation of Membranes.- 9.3.2. Release of Membrane Components.- 9.3.2.1. Proteins.- 9.3.2.2. Lipids.- 9.3.3. Physicochemical Probes into Membrane Structure.- 9.3.3.1. X-Ray Techniques.- 9.3.3.2. Infrared Spectroscopy.- 9.3.3.3. Optical Rotatory Dispersion (ORD) and Circular Dichroism (CD).- 9.3.3.4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- 9.3.3.5. Electron Spin Resonance.- 9.3.3.6. Fluorescence Spectroscopy.- 9.3.3.7. Thermal Analysis.- 10. Estimation of Solute Penetration.- 10.1. Analysis of the Incubation Medium.- 10.2. Water of Cells and Tissues.- 10.3. Intercellular Space.- 10.4. Estimation of Intracellular Composition.- 10.4.1. Preparation of Cells and Tissues for Analysis.- 10.4.2. Chemical Analysis.- 10.4.2.1. Analysis of Elementary Composition.- 10.4.2.2. Analysis of Organic Compounds.- 10.4.3. Radioactive Isotopes.- 10.4.3.1. Gas-Flow Counters.- 10.4.3.2. Crystal Scintillators.- 10.4.3.3. Liquid Scintillators.- 10.4.3.4. Doubly Labeled Samples.- 10.5. Cytological Methods.- 10.5.1. Autoradiography.- 10.5.1.1. Autoradiography of Soluble Compounds.- 10.5.2. Other Techniques.- 10.6. Estimation of Solutes in Living Cells.- 10.6.1. Microelectrodes.- 10.6.2. Estimation of Intracellular pH by Acid Dye Distribution.- 10.7. Estimation of Membrane Transport by Nonspecific Methods.- 10.7.1. Densitometry.- 10.7.2. Indirect Cytolytic Method.- 11. Interpretation of Transport Data.- 11.1. Initial Rates.- 11.2. Inhibition of Transport.- 11.3. Activation of Transport.- 11.4. Some Less Common Cases.- 11.5. Analysis of Exponential Curves.- 11.6. Uptake of Metabolized Substrates.- 12. Bioelectrical Measurements.- 12.1. Introduction.- 12.2. Transepithelial Potential Differences and Short-Circuit Current Technique.- 12.3. Intracellular Potential Measurements Using Microelectrodes.- 12.4. Cation-Sensitive Glass Microelectrodes.- 13. Volume Flow Measurements.- 13.1. Volume Flow between Cell and Its Surroundings.- 13.1.1. Determination of Volume Flow from Cell Weight Changes.- 13.1.2. Estimation of Cell Volume.- 13.2. Transcellular Volume Flow and Flow across Cell Layers.- 13.2.1. Determination Based on the Change of Concentration of an Impermeant Substance.- 13.2.2. Determination Based on Weighing.- 13.2.3. Determination Based on Direct Volume Measurement.- 14. Use of Artificial Membranes.- 14.1. Introduction.- 14.2. Membrane Materials.- 14.3. Formation of Membranes.- 14.4. Design of Experimental Chambers.- 14.5. Liposomes.- 14.6. Electrical Measurements.- 14.7. Electrical Measurement Apparatus.- 14.8. Properties of Artificial Membranes.- 14.8.1. Electrical Properties.- 14.8.2. Permeability of Artificial Membranes.- 14.8.2.1. Water.- 14.8.2.2. Ions.- 14.8.2.3. Nonelectrolytes.- 15. Assay of Transport Proteins.- 15.1. Equilibrium Dialysis and Ultrafiltration.- 15.2. Ultracentrifugation.- 15.3. Column Chromatography.- 15.4. Conductometry.- 15.5. Other Methods.- Comparative Aspects.- 16. Bacteria.- 16.1. Introduction.- 16.2. Sugars.- 16.2.1. Escherichia coli.- 16.2.2. Other Bacteria.- 16.3. Amino Acids.- 16.3.1. Escherichia coli.- 16.3.2. Other Bacteria.- 16.4. Other Organic Compounds.- 16.5. Cations.- 16.5.1. Univalent.- 16.5.2. Bivalent and Tervalent.- 16.6. Anions.- 17. Yeasts and Fungi.- 17.1. Introduction.- 17.2. Sugars.- 17.2.1. Monosaccharides.- 17.2.1.1. Baker's Yeast.- 17.2.1.2. Other Yeast Species.- 17.2.1.3. Fungi.- 17.2.2. Oligosaccharides.- 17.3. Polyols.- 17.4. Amino Acids.- 17.4.1. Yeasts.- 17.4.2. Fungi.- 17.5. Organic Acids.- 17.6. Nitrogenous Compounds.- 17.7. Other Organic Compounds.- 17.8. Cations.- 17.8.1. Univalent.- 17.8.2. Bivalent.- 17.9. Anions.- 18. Algae and Higher Plants.- 18.1. Introduction.- 18.2. Membrane Potentials.- 18.3. Ion Contents and Activities.- 18.4. Ion Fluxes.- 18.5. Active Transport.- 18.6. Sources of Energy and Transport Mechanisms.- 18.7. Effects of Light on Membrane Potential Differences.- 18.8. Ion Translocations across the Chloroplast Membrane.- 18.9. Electrical Properties.- 18.10. Transport of Water.- 18.11. Transport of Sugars.- 18.12. Transport in Higher Plants.- 19. Erythrocytes.- 19.1. Introduction.- 19.2. Sugars.- 19.2.1. Monosaccharides.- 19.2.2. Disaccharides.- 19.3. Amino Acids.- 19.4. Other Organic Compounds.- 19.5. Cations.- 19.5.1. Univalent.- 19.5.2. Bivalent.- 19.6. Anions.- 20. Muscle.- 20.1. Introduction.- 20.2. Morphology.- 20.3. Distribution of Ions and Membrane Potentials.- 20.4. Transport of Sugars and Amino Acids.- 21. Nerve.- 21.1. Introduction.- 21.2. Distribution and Fluxes of Ions.- 21.3. Passive Electrical Properties of Nerve Fibers.- 21.4. Action Potential and Its Propagation.- 21.5. Permeability to Nonelectrolytes.- 22. Epithelial Layers of Anurans.- 22.1. Actively Transported Ions.- 22.2. Origin of the Spontaneous Transepithelial Potential and Localization of the Potential Gradients.- 22.3. Transport Processes in Anuran Skins and Bladders as Related to the Structural Organization of the Tissues.- 22.3.1. Entry of Sodium across the Outward-Facing Mem- branes of the Transporting Epithelial Layers.- 22.3.2. Extrusion of Sodium across the Inward-Facing Membranes of Epithelial Cells and Accumulation of Potassium.- 22.3.3. The Path of Osmotically Driven Water Flow across Anuran Epithelial Layers.- 22.4. Metabolic Relations of the Active Sodium Transport in Anuran Skins and Bladders.- 22.5. Hormonal Regulations of Transport Processes in Anuran Epithelial Layers.- 23. Intestine.- 23.1. Introduction.- 23.2. Sugar Absorption.- 23.2.1. Monosaccharide Transport.- 23.2.2. Disaccharidase-Related Transport Systems.- 23.3. Protein Absorption.- 23.3.1. Amino Acid Transport.- 23.3.2. Interaction between Amino Acid and Sugar Transport.- 23.4. Transport of Ions and Water.- 23.4.1. Univalent Cations and Anions.- 23.4.2. Bivalent Cations.- 23.4.3. Water.- 23.5. Interaction between the Transport of Nonelectrolytes and of Sodium.- 23.6. Absorption of Lipids.- 23.6.1. Pinocytosis.- 23.6.2. Diffusion.- 23.6.3. Chylomicrons.- 24. Kidney.- 24.1. Methods of Studying Transport Processes in the Nephron.- 24.2. Proximal Convoluted Tubule.- 24.2.1. Morphology.- 24.2.2. Electrical Properties.- 24.2.3. Permeability Properties.- 24.2.3.1. Water and Ion Transport.- 24.2.3.2. Transport of Organic Compounds.- 24.2.4. Energy Sources for Transport.- 24.2.5. Physical Factors.- 24.3. Pars Recta of the Proximal Tubule.- 24.4. Thin Part of the Loop of Henle.- 24.5. Thick Part of the Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle.- 24.6. Distal Tubule.- 24.6.1. Morphology.- 24.6.2. Electrical Properties.- 24.6.3. Permeability Properties.- 24.6.3.1. Transport of Water and Ions.- 24.6.3.2. Transport of Organic Compounds.- 24.7. Cortical Portion of the Collecting Duct.- 24.7.1. Electrical Properties.- 24.7.2. Permeability Properties.- 24.7.2.1. Water and Ions.- 24.7.2.2. Organic Compounds.- 24.8. Medullary Portion of the Collecting Duct.- 24.8.1. Electrical Properties.- 24.8.2. Permeability Properties.- 24.8.2.1. Water and Ions.- 24.8.2.2. Organic Compounds.- 25. Tumor Cells.- 25.1. Sugars.- 25.2. Amino Acids.- 25.3. Ions.
Responsibility: by Arnošt Kotyk and Karel Janáček ; in collaboration with the staff of the Laboratory [for Cell Membrane Transport, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences].
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