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Cellular interactions

Author: Hans F Linskens; A A Ager
Publisher: Berlin u.a. : Springer, 1984.
Series: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., vol. 17.
Edition/Format:   Print book
Volume 17.

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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Hans F Linskens; A A Ager
ISBN: 3540127380 9783540127383 0387127380 9780387127385
OCLC Number: 230636966
Description: XVIII, 743 S. : ill.
Contents: 1 Introduction.- 2 Cellular Interaction: a Brief Conspectus.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Cell Surface.- 2.3 The Plant Cell Wall.- 2.4 Cell-Cell Communication: Plant and Animal Situations Compared...- 2.5 Specific Interactions: Models and Theories.- 2.6 Self and Non-Self.- 2.7 Secondary Responses.- 2.8 Types of Cellular Interaction in Plants.- References.- 3 Evolutionary Aspects of the Eukaryotic Cell and Its Organelles.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 The Origin of the Eukaryotic Cell.- 3.1.2 The Acquisition of Eukaryotic Features.- 3.1.3 The Origin of Eukaryotic Organelles.- 3.2 Group 1: Endomembrane Organelles.- 3.2.1 The Endomembrane System.- 3.2.2 Dictyosomes.- 3.2.3 Microbodies.- 3.2.4 Vacuoles and Lysosomes.- 3.2.5 Ejectile Organelles.- 3.3 Group 2: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts.- 3.3.1 The Endosymbiotic Hypothesis.- 3.3.2 Mitochondria - Their Possible Ancestry.- 3.3.3 Modification Within the Protoeukaryotic Host.- 3.3.4 Chloroplasts.- 3.4 Other Organelles.- 3.4.1 The Nucleus.- 3.4.2 Hypotheses on the Origin of the Nucleus.- 3.4.3 Microtubules.- 3.4.4 Speculations and Sequences of Origin.- 3.5 Metabolic Interactions.- 3.5.1 Fermentations and Oxygen.- 3.5.2 Aerobic Organisms, Endosymbiosis and the Integration of Metabolism.- 3.5.3 Protein Synthesis and Nuclear Control.- 3.5.4 Chloroplast Metabolism.- 3.5.5 Photorespiration: Three Cooperating Organelles.- 3.6 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 4 Autotrophic Eukaryotic Freshwater Symbionts.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Taxonomic Position of Symbiotic Partners.- 4.3 The Location of Autotrophic Partners.- 4.4 Physiological Features of Symbiotic Partners and Their Association...- 4.5 Self-Regulation and Partner-Coordination in Endosymbiotic Systems.- 4.6 Specifity of Cell Recognition and Symbiotic Partnership.- 4.7 Ecology of Endosymbiotic Systems.- References.- 5 Autotrophic Eukaryotic Marine Symbionts.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Symbiont Genera and Species.- 5.2.1 RANGE.- 5.2.2 Systematics.- 5.3 Cellular Relationships of Symbionts and Hosts.- 5.3.1 Recognition and Selection.- 5.3.2 Placement.- 5.3.3 Regulation.- 5.4 Primary Production.- 5.4.1 Photosynthesis.- 5.4.2 Endosymbiotic Exchange of Carbon and Nitrogen.- 5.5 Ecology.- 5.6 Conclusions.- 5.7 Addendum - Prochloron (by R.A. Lewin).- References.- 6 Endosymbiotic Cyanobacteria and Cyanellae.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Taxonomy and Localization.- 6.2.1 Multicellular Hosts.- Bryophytes.- Pteridophytes.- Gymnosperms.- Angiosperms.- Sponges.- Tunicates.- Others.- 6.2.2 Unicellular Hosts.- Geosiphon pyriforme.- Amoebae and Apoplastidal Algae.- Diatoms.- Cyanidium caldarium.- 6.3 Physiology.- 6.3.1 Nitrogen Metabolism.- 6.3.2 Carbon Metabolism.- 6.4 Symbiosis-Specific Features.- 6.4.1 Morphology.- 6.4.2 Physiology, Behavioural and Ecological Features.- 6.4.3 Regulation and Host-Symbiont Specificity.- 6.5 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Epiphytism at the Cellular Level with Special Reference to Algal Epiphytes.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Dispersal and Contact of Algal Epiphytes.- 7.2.1 Vegetative Propagules.- 7.2.2 Thallus Fragmentation as Dispersal Mechanisms.- 7.2.3 Spores.- 7.3 Specificity of Epiphytic Relationship.- 7.3.1 Specificity of Brown Algal Epiphytes and Basiphytes.- 7.3.2 Specificity of Red Algal Epiphytes on Brown Algal Basiphytes.- 7.3.3 Specificity of Red Algae as Epiphytes and Basiphytes.- 7.3.4 Seagrasses and Algal Epiphytes.- Non-Specific Epiphytes.- Specific Epiphytes.- 7.4 Ion Exchange and Nutrient Transfer Between Basiphyte and Epiphyte.- 7.4.1 Experimental Translocation of Radioactive Compounds.- Algae as Epiphytes and Basiphytes.- The Special Case of Ascophyllum nodosum and Polysiphonia lanosa.- Algae Epiphytic on Seagrasses.- Effect of Epiphytes on Eelgrass Photosynthesis.- 7.4.2 Implications of Seasonality of Epiphytes.- 7.5 Defence of Basiphytes Against Epiphytes.- 7.5.1 Self-Cleaning Process of Actively Growing Basiphytes.- 7.5.2 Production of Antibiotics by Basiphytes.- 7.6 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Genetics of Recognition Systems in Host-Parasite Interactions.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Gene-for-Gene Hypothesis.- 8.3 Genetic Fine Structure.- 8.3.1 Rust Resistance in Flax.- 8.3.2 The Rust Melampsora lini.- Sexuality.- Genetics of Virulence.- 8.4 Mutation Studies.- 8.4.1 Host Plants.- 8.4.2 Mutation in Pathogens.- 8.5 The Recognition Mechanism.- 8.5.1 Models Involving Phytoalexin Synthesis.- 8.5.2 Models and Their Implications.- 8.5.3 Some Simpler Bacterial Systems.- 8.5.4 Application of Molecular Genetics to Fungal Systems.- 8.6 Non-Host Resistance.- References.- 9 The Mycorrhizal Associations.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Initiation of Infection.- 9.3 Structure and Development of Myorrhizal Roots.- 9.4 Fine Structural Relationship Between the Symbionts.- 9.5 Specificity in Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.- 9.6 Effectiveness of Mycorrhizal Infection.- 9.7 Compatibility and Effectiveness.- 9.8 Recognition.- 9.9 Ecological Aspects of Mycorrhizal Infection.- References.- 10 Plant-Bacterial Interactions.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Incompatible Interactions.- 10.2.1 Characteristics of the Hypersensitive Reaction.- 10.2.2 Factors that Affect Expression of the Hypersensitive Response.- 10.2.3 Attachment of Bacteria to Plant Cell Walls: A Requirement for Induction of the HR?.- 10.2.4 Cell-Wall Components Involved in Attachment.- 10.3 Compatible Interactions.- 10.3.1 The Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Plant Interaction.- 10.3.2 The Rhizobium-Legume Interaction.- 10.3 2.1 Attachment of Rhizobia to Plant Cell Walls.- 10.3 2.2 The Role of Extracellular Polysaccharides in Specificity of Rhizobia.- 10.3 2.3 The Role of Lipopolysaccharides in Specificity of Rhizobia.- 10.3 2.4 The Lectin Receptor Hypothesis.- 10.4 Concluding Remarks - The Potential for Manipulating Plant-Bacterial Interactions.- References.- 11 Cellular and Molecular Recognition Between Higher Plants and Fungal Pathogens.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Recognition of the Host by the Parasite.- 11.2.1 Spore Germination.- 11.2.2 Chemotaxis and Recognition.- 11.2.3 Zoospore Binding to Root Surfaces.- 11.2.4 Recognition and Tropisms.- 11.3 Recognition of the Pathogen by the Host: Resistance Triggering.- 11.3.1 The Genetic Argument.- 11.3.2 Evolution of Resistance and Its Implications for Recognition.- 11.3.3 Pathogen Cognons as Modulators of Host Defence.- Polysaccharide Elicitors.- Protein and Glycoprotein Elicitors.- Other Elicitors.- Specificity Factors.- 11.3.4 Recognition of Pathogen Cognons and Their Modes of Action.- 11.3.5 Conclusions: Models for Specific Recognition.- References.- 12 Mating Systems in Unicellular Algae.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Cellular Interactions Effecting Gametic Differentiation Erogens. Contact-Induced Gametogenesis.- 12.2.1 Erogens.- 12.2.2 Contact-Induced Gametogenesis.- 12.3 Chemotaxis. Erotactins (Sirenins). Chemotropism. Chemotropins.- 12.4 Sex Cell Contact.- 12.4.1 The Mating Type Reaction and Its Molecular Basis.- The Isoagglutinins (IA's).- The Mating Type Substances.- 12.5 Inactivation of Agglutinins During Gamete Contact.- 12.6 Correlations Between Mating Type Reaction and Pairing.- 12.7 Termination of the Mating Type Reaction by Pairing.- 12.8 Sexual Incompatibility Between Species Resulting from Taxon-Specific or Defective Intercellular Communication and Contact Systems.- References.- 13 Colony Formation in Algae.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Non-Coenobic Colonies.- 13.3 Coenobic Colonies.- 13.3.1 Motile Coenobic Colonies.- Family Volvocaceae.- Family Astrephomenaceae.- Family Spondylomoraceae.- Family Haematococcaceae.- 13.3.2 Non-Motile Coenobic Colonies.- Reproduction by Non-Motile Spores.- Reproduction by Motile Spores.- 13.4 Summary.- References.- 14 Cellular Interaction in Plasmodial Slime Moulds.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Fusion Between Amoebae.- 14.2.1 Physarum polycephalum.- 14.2.2 Didymium iridis.- 14.2.3 Conclusions Concerning Interactions Between Amoebae of Myxomycetes.- 14.3 Somatic Incompatibility Between Plasmodia.- 14.3.1 Physarum polycephalum.- 14.3.2 Didymium iridis.- 14.3.3 Conclusions Concerning Somatic Incompatibility.- References.- 15 Cell Interactions in the Cellular Slime Moulds.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Spore Germination.- 15.3 Growth Phase.- 15.4 Social Phase.- 15.5 Pattern Formation.- 15.6 Culmination.- 15.7 Acrasins.- 15.8 Signal-Receptor Interaction.- 15.9 Cyclic GMP as Mediator.- 15.10 Conclusions.- References.- 16 Sexual Interactions in the Lower Filamentous Fungi.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Chytridiomycetes.- 16.3 Oomycetes.- 16.4 Zygomycetes.- 16.5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 17 Barrage Formation in Fungi.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Intraspecific Barrages.- 17.2.1 Barrages Associated with Homogenic Incompatibility.- 17.2.2 Barrages Associated with Heterogenic Incompatibility.- Podospora anserina.- Wood-Destroying Basidiomycetes.- Comparable Phenomena in Other Fungi.- 17.3 Interspecific Barrages.- 17.4 Intergeneric Barrages.- 17.5 Biological Significance of Barrage Formation.- References.- 18 Physiological Interactions Between the Partners of the Lichen Symbiosis.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.1.1 The Lichen Components.- The Algal Partner.- The Fungal Partner.- 18.1.2 The Lichen Thallus.- Fungus-Alga Relation.- 18.2 Alga-Fungus Interactions.- 18.2.1 Carbohydrate Metabolism.- Carbohydrate Efflux.- Transfer of Carbohydrates.- Uptake and Conversion of Transferred Carbohydrate by the Mycobiont.- 18.2.2 Nitrogen Metabolism.- Nitrogen and Amino Acid Analysis of Whole Thalli.- Nitrogen Fixation.- 18.3 Other Effects of Symbiosis.- 18.3.1 Effects of Symbiosis on the Algal Partner.- Cyanobacterial Phycobionts.- Eukaryotic Phycobionts.- Cell-Wall Modifications.- 18.3.2 Effect of Symbiosis on the Fungal Partner.- Concentric Bodies.- Secondary Metabolic Products "Lichen Substances".- The Cell Wall of the Mycobionts.- 18.4 Interactions Between Lichen Symbionts.- 18.4.1 Selectivity and Recognition: General Considerations.- 18.4.2 Selectivity in Lichens.- Identification of Phycobionts.- Resynthesis in Vitro.- Selectivity at the Contact Phase.- Resynthesis in Situ.- 18.5 Concluding Remark.- References.- 19 Mating Systems and Sexual Interactions in Yeast.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Sexual Differentiation.- 19.2.1 Genetic Control.- 19.2.2 Molecular Basis.- Agglutination Substances.- Sex Pheromones.- Binding Substances.- 19.3 Sexual Interactions.- 19.3.1 The Process of Mating Reaction.- 19.3.2 Control of Mating Processes.- Control of Sexual Agglutinability.- Mechanism of Agglutinability Induction.- G1 Arrest Caused by Sex Pheromones.- Biochemical Changes Caused by ?-Pheromones.- 19.3.3 Interspecific and Intergeneric Sexual Interactions.- 19.4 Conclusion.- References.- 20 Cellular Interactions During Early Differentiation.- 20.1 Introduction.- 20.2 Cell Cycle and Cell Differentiation.- 20.3 Re-Differentiation in Organ and Tissue Fragments.- 20.4 Differentiation in Embryos and Embryoids.- 20.4.1 Embryos.- 20.4.2 Embryoids.- 20.5 Differentiation Within and at the Border of Apical Meristems...- 20.5.1 Root Apical Meristems.- 20.5.2 Shoot Apical Meristems.- 20.5.3 Meristems in Lower Plants.- 20.6 Onset of Vascular Differentiation.- 20.7 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 21 Cellular Recognition Systems in Grafting.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Inter-Relationships Between the Wound Reaction and Graft Formation.- 21.3 Evidence for Recognition from Investigations into Graft Compatibility and Graft Incompatibility.- 21.3.1 Incompatibility and Graft Rejection.- 21.3 2 How May Incompatibility Be Overcome?.- 21.4 Cellular Events at the Stock-Scion Interface.- 21.4.1 Initial Adhesion of Opposing Pith Cells.- Specificity of Cellular Interactions.- Nature and Mechanism of Secretion of the Adhesive.- Significance of the Attainment of Vascular Continuity.- 21.4.2 Proliferation at the Graft Interface and the Establishment of Cellular Contact.- 21.4. 3 Erosion of the Middle Lamella.- 21.4. 4 Formation of Plasmodesmata.- 21.4. 5 Development of Interconnecting Pits and the Differentiation of Cell Units.- 21.5 Cellular and Molecular Basis of a Recognition System in Grafting.- 21.5.1 Location of the Sensing Mechanism.- 21.5.2 Nature of the Sensing Mechanism.- 21.5.3 A Tentative Model.- References.- 22 Cellular Polarity.- 22.1 Introduction.- 22.2 Rise of Cell Polarity in Single Plant Cells.- 22.2.1 Segregation and Redistribution of Cellular Components: Observations on the Fucus Zygote.- 22.2.2 Electrophysiology and Morphogenesis: Transcellular Electric Fields and Ionic Currents.- 22.3 Polarity Induction.- 22.3.1 Application of Ionic and Electrical Gradients.- 22.3.2 Cell Polarization by Light.- 22.3.3 Cell Polarization by Signal Molecules.- 22.4 Cellular Polarity in Higher Plants.- 22.5 Concluding Discussion.- References.- 23 Fusion of Somatic Cells.- 23.1 Introduction.- 23.2 Preparation of Protoplasts.- 23.2.1 Preparation from Tobacco Mesophyll.- 23.2.2 Preparation from Tissue Culture Cells.- 23.3 Methods of Protoplast Fusion.- 23.3.1 Spontaneous Fusion.- 23.3.2 Sodium Nitrate Method.- 23.3.3 High pH-High Ca2+ Method.- 23.3.4 Polyethylene Glycol Method.- 23.3.5 Polyvinyl Alcohol Method.- 23.3.6 Electrical Pulse Method.- 23.4 Mechanism of Protoplast Fusion.- 23.4.1 Surface Characteristics of Protoplasts.- 23.4.2 Adhesion of Protoplasts.- High pH-High Ca2+ Method.- Polyethylene Glycol Method.- Electrically Induced Aggregation.- Lectin-Induced Aggregation.- 23.4.3 Fusion of Protoplasts.- High pH-High Ca2+ Method.- Polyethylene Glycol Method.- Electrical Pulse Method.- 23.5 Liposomes as Models of Cell Fusion.- 23.6 Conclusion.- References.- 24 Pollen - Pistil Interactions.- 24.1 Introduction.- 24.2 Cell Biology of Pollen - Pistil Interactions.- 24.2.1 The Pollen Grain.- Pollen-Wall Structure and Compartments.- The Pollen Tube.- 24.2.2 The Pistil.- Types of Stigma.- The Style-Pathway for Pollen Tube Growth.- 24.2.3 Mating Systems in Plants: An Evolutionary Perspective.- 24.2.4 Pollination Systems in Flowering Plants.- Self-Incompatibility Systems.- Dichogamy and Other Isolating Mechanisms.- Compatible Systems.- Pollination-Stimulated Ovule Differentiation.- 24.3 Physiology of Interacting Cells and Tissues.- 24.3.1 Physiological Characteristics of Pollen.- 24.3.2 Pollen Germination and Tube Growth.- 24.3.3 Stigma Physiology Before and After Germination of Pollen..- 24.4 Molecular Aspects of Pollen - Pistil Interactions.- 24.41 The Pollen Surface.- Extracellular Pollen Proteins.- 24.4.2 The Stigma Surface and Style Mucilage.- Composition.- Function of Exudate.- 24.5 Control of Pollen - Pistil Interactions.- 24.5.1 Adhesion.- 24.5.2 Hydration.- 24.5.3 Models of Recognition and Receptors.- 24.5.4 Response.- In-Vivo Responses.- In-Vitro Responses.- Evidence for Signalling.- Pollen-Tube Growth and Gamete Competition.- Co-Adaptations of Pollen, Stigma and Biotic Pollinators.- 24.6 Conclusions.- References.- 25 Mentor Effects in Pollen Interactions.- 25.1 Introduction.- 25.2 Survey of Cases Reported.- 25.3 Hypothesized Mechanisms for Mentor Effects.- 25.4 Overall Interpretation and Conclusion.- References.- 26 Incompatibility.- 26.1 Introduction, Definitions and General References.- 26.2 Self-Incompatibility.- 26.2.1 Classification of Self-Incompatibility Systems.- Site of Formation of S-Gene Products in the Pistil.- Site of Formation of S-Gene Products in the Stamen.- Floral Polymorphism.- 26.2.2 Site of Inhibition.- 26.2.3 Genetic Control.- 26.2.4 Mutability and Structure of Self-Incompatibility Loci.- Loss of Function in Pollen and Pistil.- The Generation of New S-Alleles.- 26.2.5 Physiology and Biochemistry of Self-Incompatibility.- 26.2.6 Evolution and Distribution of Self-Incompatibility.- 26.3 Interspecific Incompatibility.- 26.3.1 Relationships to Self-Incompatibility.- Morphological Similarities.- The SI x SC Rule.- The Dual Function of the Self-Incompatibility Locus.- 26.3.2 Incongruity.- 26.3.3 Distribution of Interspecific Incompatibility.- 26.3.4 Methods for Overcoming Interspecific Incompatibility.- References.- 27 Incongruity: Non-Functioning of Intercellular and Intracellular Partner Relationships Through Non-Matching Information.- 27.1 Introduction.- 27.2 Coevolution.- 27.3 Genetics of an Intimate Partner Relationship.- 27.4 Incongruity.- 27.5 Evolution of Incongruity.- 27.6 Genetics of Incongruity.- 27.7 Nature of Incongruity.- 27.8 Revision of Visions: Incongruity and Incompatibility.- 27.9 Incongruity and the Prospects of Gene Manipulation in Higher Plants.- 27.10 Exploitation of Incongruity.- 27.11 Related Fields of Research; with Special Reference to the Host-Parasite Relationship.- 27.12 Conclusions.- References.- 28 Allergic Interactions.- 28.1 Introduction.- 28.2 Allergic Responses Caused by Plants.- 28.2.1 Atopic Allergy.- 28.2.2 Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.- 28.2.3 Other Factors Influencing Allergic Responses.- 28.3 Occurrence and Nature of Allergens.- 28.3.1 Atopic Allergens.- 28.3.2 Contact Allergens.- Sesquiterpene Lactones.- Catechols.- Quinones.- Other Contact Allergens.- Mechanism of Allergenicity.- 28.3.3 Allergenic Cross-Reactivity.- 28.4 Sites of Allergens Within the Plant.- 28.5 Role of Allergens in Plants.- 28.5.1 Atopic Allergens.- 28.5.2 Contact Allergens.- 28.6 Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.- Index of Plant Genera.
Series Title: Encyclopedia of plant physiology, N.S., vol. 17.
Responsibility: ed. by H.F. Linskens ... Contrib.: A.A. Ager ...


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