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Chemical mixtures and combined chemical and nonchemical stressors : exposure, toxicity, analysis, and risk

Author: Cynthia V Rider; Jane Ellen Simmons; Linda S Birnbaum
Publisher: Cham, Switzerland : Springer, [2018] ©2018
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Exposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors is the rule, not the exception. Nevertheless, it continues to be a significant challenge in toxicology and risk assessment to thoroughly take mixtures into account. In this book, both basic and advanced concepts for considering mixtures are discussed, from initial-exposure characterization through the evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures.  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Cynthia V Rider; Jane Ellen Simmons; Linda S Birnbaum
ISBN: 9783319562346 3319562347
OCLC Number: 1023628326
Description: 1 online resource (xiv, 556 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Contents: Intro; Foreword; Acknowledgments; Contents; Chapter 1: Introduction; 1.1 To Study Mixtures or Not to Study Mixtures, That Is the Question; 1.1.1 Mixtures Are Reality; 1.1.2 What Mixtures Are Being Studied?; 1.1.3 Additional Mixture Terminology; 1.1.3.1 Terms to Identify the Combined Exposure or Mixture of Interest; 1.1.3.2 Terms to Describe the Joint Action of Exposures; 1.1.3.3 Terms to Describe Exposure or Risk; 1.2 Challenges in Mixtures Research; 1.3 Progress to Date and Future Directions; 1.4 Flow of Book Sections; References; Part I: Combined Exposures. Chapter 2: Biomonitoring to Assess Exposures to Mixtures of Environmental Chemicals2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Biomonitoring Overview; 2.3 Analytical Aspects of Biomonitoring; 2.4 Interpretation of Biomonitoring Data; 2.5 Population-Based Biomonitoring Surveys; 2.6 Conclusions; References; Chapter 3: Considerations for Measuring Exposure to Chemical Mixtures; 3.1 Introduction: Measuring Chemical Stressors in the Environment; 3.2 Exposure to Common Chemical Mixtures; 3.2.1 Why Characterize Exposure to Chemical Mixtures? 3.2.2 How to Characterize Chemical Mixtures in the Environment: What Are the Options?3.2.2.1 Existing Technologies for Measuring Chemical Exposures in the Field; 3.2.2.1.1 Traditional Methods; 3.2.2.1.2 Passive Sampling; 3.2.2.1.3 Limitations of Passive Sampling:; 3.2.2.2 Existing Technologies for Measuring Chemical Exposures in the Lab; 3.2.2.2.1 Traditional Methods: Which Chemicals Are Measured?; 3.2.2.2.2 Unmonitored and Infrequently Monitored Chemicals: Approaches for Identification and Toxicity Exploration; 3.3 Considerations for Assessing Exposure to Chemical Mixtures. 3.3.1 Field Methods: Appropriate Sampling Techniques3.3.1.1 Spatial Considerations: Stationary (or Population-Based) vs. Individual; 3.3.1.2 Temporal Considerations: Temporality of Sampling Should Match Temporality of Exposure; 3.3.1.2.1 Time-Integrated Concentration vs. Grab Sample; 3.3.1.3 Bioavailability: Fraction of Chemicals Sampled Should Match the Fraction to Which the Individual Is Exposed; 3.3.1.4 Measuring the External Aspect of Chemical Exposure; 3.3.2 Lab Methods; 3.3.2.1 Which Chemicals Should Be Measured?; 3.3.2.1.1 Example Chemical Class: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). 3.3.2.2 Accounting for Transformations of Chemicals in the Environment, Between the Source and the Exposure3.3.2.3 Considerations for Assessing Exposures to Mixtures of Environmental Chemicals; 3.3.2.3.1 Limited Data on Mixture Interactions; 3.3.2.3.2 Risk Assessment of Mixtures: Appropriateness of Assuming Additivity?; 3.3.2.3.3 Importance of Looking for Risk-Driving Chemicals; 3.3.3 Summary of Considerations for Interpreting Data from Exposure Assessment Studies; 3.4 Case Study: Ingestion and Inhalation/Personal; 3.4.1 Introduction: PAHs and NGE.
Responsibility: Cynthia V. Rider, Jane Ellen Simmons, editors ; foreword by Linda S. Birnbaum.

Abstract:

In this book, both basic and advanced concepts are discussed for considering mixtures from initial exposure characterization through evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures.  Read more...

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