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Chemical process safety : fundamentals with applications

Author: Daniel A Crowl; Joseph F Louvar
Publisher: Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, ©2011.
Series: Prentice-Hall international series in the physical and chemical engineering sciences.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 3rd edView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Crowl, Daniel A.
Chemical process safety.
Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, ©2011
(DLC) 2011004168
(OCoLC)676726134
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Daniel A Crowl; Joseph F Louvar
ISBN: 9780132762489 013276248X 9780132762502 0132762501
OCLC Number: 741112846
Description: 1 online resource (xxiv, 723 pages) : illustrations.
Contents: Preface xv About the Authors xviiOn the Cover xviiiNomenclature xix Chapter 1: Introduction 11-1 Safety Programs 21-2 Engineering Ethics 41-3 Accident and Loss Statistics 41-4 Acceptable Risk 121-5 Public Perceptions 141-6 The Nature of the Accident Process 151-7 Inherent Safety 201-8 Seven Significant Disasters 23Suggested Reading 31Problems 32 Chapter 2: Toxicology 372-1 How Toxicants Enter Biological Organisms 382-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from Biological Organisms 412-3 Effects of Toxicants on Biological Organisms 422-4 Toxicological Studies 432-5 Dose versus Response 442-6 Models for Dose and Response Curves 502-7 Relative Toxicity 562-8 Threshold Limit Values 562-9 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond 58On-Line Resources 59Suggested Reading 60Problems 60 Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene 653-1 Government Regulations 663-2 Industrial Hygiene: Anticipation and Identification 783-3 Industrial Hygiene: Evaluation 843-4 Industrial Hygiene: Control 99On-Line Resources 109Suggested Reading 109Problems 110 Chapter 4: Source Models 1194-1 Introduction to Source Models 1194-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole 1224-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank 1264-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes 1314-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes 1404-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes 1464-7 Flashing Liquids 1634-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling 1694-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases 1704-10 Conservative Analysis 172Suggested Reading 173Problems 174 Chapter 5: Toxic Release and Dispersion Models 1855-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion 1865-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models 1905-3 Dense Gas Dispersion 2095-4 Dense Gas Transition to Neutrally Buoyant Gas 2195-5 Toxic Effect Criteria 2255-6 Effect of Release Momentum and Buoyancy 2335-7 Release Mitigation 234Suggested Reading 235Problems 236 Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions 2456-1 The Fire Triangle 2456-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions 2476-3 Definitions 2476-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors 2496-5 Limiting Oxygen Concentration and Inerting 2606-6 Flammability Diagram 2626-7 Ignition Energy 2706-8 Autoignition 2706-9 Auto-Oxidation 2716-10 Adiabatic Compression 2726-11 Ignition Sources 2736-12 Sprays and Mists 2746-13 Explosions 275Suggested Reading 304Problems 305 Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions 3177-1 Inerting 3187-2 Static Electricity 3337-3 Controlling Static Electricity 3567-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments 3637-5 Ventilation 3677-6 Sprinkler Systems 3707-7 Miscellaneous Concepts for Preventing Fires and Explosions 374Suggested Reading 374Problems 375 Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity 3818-1 Background Understanding 3828-2 Commitment,Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards 3848-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters 3908-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards 416Suggested Reading 418Problems 418 Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs 4299-1 Relief Concepts 4309-2 Definitions 4329-3 Location of Reliefs 4339-4 Relief Types and Characteristics 4369-5 Relief Scenarios 4439-6 Data for Sizing Reliefs 4449-7 Relief Systems 444Suggested Reading 452Problems 453 Chapter 10: Relief Sizing 45910-1 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Liquid Service 46010-2 Conventional Spring-Operated Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 46610-3 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Liquid Service 47010-4 Rupture Disc Reliefs in Vapor or Gas Service 47110-5 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief 47210-6 Pilot-Operated and Bucking-Pin Reliefs 48110-7 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions 48110-8 Venting for Fires External to Process Vessels 48810-9 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids 492Suggested Reading 496Problems 497 Chapter 11: Hazards Identification 50511-1 Process Hazards Checklists 50811-2 Hazards Surveys 50811-3 Hazards and Operability Studies 52411-4 Safety Reviews 53011-5 Other Methods 537Suggested Reading 538Problems 538 Chapter 12: Risk Assessment 54912-1 Review of Probability Theory 55012-2 Event Trees 56412-3 Fault Trees 56912-4 QRA and LOPA 577Suggested Reading 588Problems 588 Chapter 13: Safety Procedures and Designs 59713-1 Process Safety Hierarchy 59813-2 Managing Safety 59913-3 Best Practices 60013-4 Procedures-Operating 60013-5 Procedures-Permits 60113-6 Procedures-Safety Reviews and Accident Investigations 60313-7 Designs for Process Safety 60413-8 Miscellaneous Designs for Fires and Explosions 61513-9 Designs for Runaway Reactions 61513-10 Designs for Handling Dusts 616Suggested Reading 617Problems 618 Chapter 14: Case Histories 62114-1 Static Electricity 62214-2 Chemical Reactivity 62614-3 System Designs 63114-4 Procedures 63714-5 Training 64214-6 Conclusion 645Suggested Reading 646Problems 646 Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 649 Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 653 Appendix C: Detailed Equations for Flammability Diagrams 659Equations Useful for Gas Mixtures 659Equations Useful for Placing Vessels into and out of Service 664 Appendix D: Formal Safety Review Report for Example 10-4 669 Appendix E: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 679 Appendix F: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals 681 Appendix G: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances 687 Index 695
Series Title: Prentice-Hall international series in the physical and chemical engineering sciences.
Responsibility: Daniel A. Crowl, Joseph F. Louvar.

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