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Cisco express forwarding

Author: Nakia Stringfield; Russ White; Stacia McKee
Publisher: Indianapolis, IN : Cisco Press, ©2007.
Series: Cisco Press networking technology series.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Learn the basics of Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) and gain advanced configuration, maintenance and troubleshooting skills by looking at examples.

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Nakia Stringfield; Russ White; Stacia McKee
ISBN: 1587052369 9781587052361
OCLC Number: 136293101
Description: xviii, 261 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: Part I Understanding, Configuring, and Troubleshooting CEF 3 Chapter 1 Introduction to Packet-Switching Architectures 5Routing and Switching 5 Understanding Broadcast and Collision Domains 5 Layer 3 Switching 8Understanding Router Pieces and Parts 9 Interface Processors 10 Central Processing Unit 11 Memory 11 Backplanes and Switching Fabrics 11Cisco IOS Software: The Brains 17 Memory Management 17 Interaction with Interface Processors 28Processes and Scheduling 28 Process Memory 28 Process Scheduling 29Putting the Pieces Together: Switching a Packet 35 Getting the Packet off the Network Media 35 Switching the Packet 39 Transmitting the Packet 44Hardware and Software show Commands 45Summary 48 Chapter 2 Understanding Cisco Express Forwarding 51Evolving Packet-Switching Methods 51 Process Switching 51 Fast Switching 52 What Is CEF? 53CEF Tables 54 Forwarding Information Base (FIB) 54 The Adjacency Table 60 Relating the CEF Tables 61CEF Table Entries 62FIB Entries 62Generic FIB Entries 67Interface-Specific FIB Entries 68 FIB Entries Built for a Multiaccess Network Interface 68 FIB Entries Built on a Point-to-Point Network Interface 69 FIB Entries Built on a 31-Bit Prefix Network Interface 69Special Adjacencies 69 Auto Adjacencies 70 Punt Adjacency 70 Glean Adjacency 71 Drop Adjacency 72 Discard Adjacency 73 Null Adjacency 73 No Route Adjacencies 74 Cached and Uncached Adjacencies 74 Unresolved Adjacency 75Switching a Packet with CEF 75The CEF Epoch 77Configuring CEF/dCEF 77Summary 78References 79 Chapter 3 CEF Enhanced Scalability 81Fundamental Changes to CEF for CSSR 82 Data Structures 82 Switching Path Changes 84Changes to show Commands 86 show ip cef 86 show ip cef interface 86 show ip cef summary 87 show cef state capabilities 88New show ip cef Commands 89 show ip cef tree 89 show ip cef internal 90 show ip cef switching statistics 91New show cef Commands 91CEF Event Logger 94CEF Consistency Checker 97 Passive Checkers 97 Active Checkers 97 Consistency-Checking Process 98New CEF Processes 100 FIB Manager 100 Adjacency Manager 100 Update Manager 100Summary 101 Chapter 4 Basic IP Connectivity and CEF Troubleshooting 103Troubleshooting IP Connectivity 103 Accurately Describe the Problem 104 Scoping the Network Topology 105 Reviewing the OSI Model for Troubleshooting 106 Verifying the ARP Table 108 Verifying the Routing Table 111 Troubleshooting the CEF FIB Table 116Troubleshooting Punt Adjacencies 129Understanding CEF Error Messages 131Troubleshooting Commands Reference 131Summary 133References 133 Part II CEF Case Studies 135 Chapter 5 Understanding Packet Switching on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Supervisor 720 137CEF Switching Architecture on the Cisco Catalyst 6500 137 Understanding Software-Based CEF and Hardware-Based CEF 137 Centralized and Distributed Switching 138Troubleshooting CEF on the Catalyst 6500 SUP720 Platforms 139 Simple Checking of Connectivity 139 Systematic Checking of Connectivity 141 Troubleshooting Load Sharing 148Summary 149References 149 Chapter 6 Load Sharing with CEF 163Benefits of Load Sharing 163Load Sharing with Process Switching and Fast Switching 164Comparing CEF Per-Packet and CEF Per-Destination Load Sharing 168 Understanding Per-Destination Load Sharing 168 Understanding Per-Packet Load Sharing 169 CEF Architecture and Load Sharing 171 CEF Load Sharing Across Parallel Paths 173 CEF Per-Destination Example 173 CEF Per-Packet Example 180Per-Packet Load Sharing on Hardware-Based Platforms 184CEF Per-Packet Load Sharing on the Cisco GSR Platform 185CEF Load-Sharing Troubleshooting Examples 186 CEF Per-Destination Load Sharing Overloading One Link 186 CEF Per-Packet Load Sharing Causing Performance Issues 198 Troubleshooting a Single-Path Failure with CEF Load Sharing 200 CEF Traffic-Share Allocation 202 CEF Polarization and Load-Sharing Algorithms 210Summary 214References 215 Chapter 7 Understanding CEF in an MPLS VPN Environment 217An Internet Service Provider's Simple MPLS VPN Design 217Understanding the CEF and MPLS VPN Relationship 219 Case 1: Label Disposition 221 Case 2: Label Imposition 222 Case 3: Label Swapping 224 Troubleshooting an MPLS VPN 224CEF Considerations When Troubleshooting MPLS VPN Across VariousPlatforms 225 Cisco 7200 Router with an NPE-G2 226 Cisco 7500 Router 226 Cisco Catalyst 6500 with a Supervisor 2 227 Catalyst 6500 with a Supervisor 720 3BXL 228 Cisco 12000 Series Router 231 Cisco 10000 Series Router 236CEF and MPLS VPN Load-Sharing Considerations 237 PE-CE Load Sharing: CE Multihomed to Same PE 237 PE-CE Load Sharing: Site Multihomed to Different PEs 243 Load Sharing Between P and P Devices 252 CEF and MPLS VPN Load-Sharing Platform Dependencies 253Summary 253References 254 Part III Appendix 257 Appendix A Scalability 259
Series Title: Cisco Press networking technology series.
Responsibility: Nakia Stringfield, Russ White, Stacia McKee.

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