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|Doplňující formát:||Online version:
Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.
New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts 
Thomas Hobbes; Sterling P Lamprecht
|Popis:||211 pages ; 20 cm.|
|Obsahy:||I. Liberty : Of the state of men without civil society : That the beginning of civil society is from mutual fear ; That men by nature are all equal ; Whence the will of mischeiving each other ariseth ; The discord arising from comparison of wills ; From the appetite many have to the same thing ; The definition of right ; A right to the end gives a right to the means necessary to that end ; By the right of nature, every man is judge of the means which tend to his own preservation ; By nature all men have equal right to all things ; This right which all men have to all things is unprofitable ; The state of men without civil society is a mere state of war: the definitions of peace and war ; War is an adversary to man's preservation ; It is lawful for any man, by natural right, to compel another whom he hath gotten in his power, to five caution of his future obedience ; Nature dictates the seeking after peace --
Of the law of nature concerning contracts : That the law of nature is not an agreement of men, but the dictate or reason ; That the fundamental law of nature is to seek peace, where it may be had, and where not, to defend ourselves ; That the first special law of nature is not to retain our right to all things ; What it is to quit our rights; what to transfer it ; That in transferring of our right, the will of him that receives it is necessarily required ; No words but those of the present tense transfer any right ; Words of the future, if there be some other tokens to signify will, are valid in the translation of right ; In matters of free gift, our right passeth not from us through any words of the future ; The definition of contract and compact ; In compacts, our right passeth from us through word of the future ; Compacts of mutual faith in the state of nature are of no effect and vain; but not so in civil government ; That no man can make compacts with beasts, nor yet with God without revelation ; Nor yet make a vow to God ; That compacts oblige not beyond our utmost endeavor ; By what means we are freed from our compacts ; That promises extorted through fear of death, in the state of nature, are valid ; A later compact, contradicting the former, is invalid ; A compact not to resist him that shall prejudice my body is invalid ; A compact to accuse one's self is invalid ; The definition of swearing ; That swearing is to be conceived in that form which he useth that takes the oath ; An oath superadds nothing to obligation which is made by compact ; An oath ought not to be pressed, but where the breach of compacts may be kept private, or cannot be punished but from God himself --
Of the other laws of nature : The second law of nature is to perform contracts ; That trust is to be held with all men without exception ; What injury is ; Injury can be done to none but those with whom we contract ; The distinction for justice into that of men, and that of actions ; The distinction of commutative and distributive justice examined ; No injury can be done to him that is willing ; The third law of nature, concerning ingratitude ; The fourth law of nature, that every man render himself useful ; The fifth law, of mercy ; The sixth law, that punishments regard the future only ; The seventh law, against reproach ; The eighth law, against pride ; The ninth law, of humility ; The tenth, of equity, or against acceptance of persons ; The eleventh, of things to be had in common ; The twelfth, of things to be divided by lot ; The thirteenth, of birthright and first possession ; The fourteenth, of the safeguard of them who are mediators for peace ; The fifteenth, of constituting an umpire ; The sixteenth, that no man is judge in his own cause ; The seventeenth, that umpires must be without all hope of reward from those whose cause is to be judged ; The eighteenth, of witnesses ; The nineteenth, that there can no contract be made with an umpire ; The twentieth, against gluttony, and all such things as hinder the use of reason ; The rule by which we may presently know, whether what we are doing be against the law of nature or of conscience ; The laws of nature are sometimes broke by doing things agreeable to those laws ; The laws of nature are unchangeable ; Whosoever endeavors to fulfill the laws of nature, is a just man ; The natural and moral law are one ; How it comes to pass, that what hath been said of the laws of nature, is not that same with what philosophers have delivered concerning the virtues ; The law of nature is not properly a law, but as it is delivered in holy writ --
II. Dominion : Of the causes and first beginning of civil government : That the laws of nature are not sufficient to preserve peace ; That the laws of nature, in the state of nature, are silent ; That the security of living according to the laws of nature consists in the concord of many persons ; That the concord of many persons is not constant enough for a lasting peace ; The reason why the government of certain brute creatures stands firm in concord only, and why not of men ; That not only consent, but union also, is required to establish the peace of mean ; What union is ; In union, the right of all men is conveyed to one ; What civil society is ; What a civil person is ; What it is to have the supreme power, and what to be a subject ; Two kinds of cities, natural and by institution --
Of the right of him, whether council or one man only, who hath the supreme power in the city : There can no right be attributed to a multitude out of civil society, nor any action to which they have not under seal consented ; The right of the greater number consenting, is the beginning of a city ; That every man retains a right to protect himself according to his own free will, so long as there is no sufficient regard had to his security ; That a coercive power is necessary to secure us ; What the sword of justice is ; That the sword of justice belongs to him who hath the chief command ; That the sword of war belongs to him also ; All judicature belongs to him too ; The legislative power is his only ; The naming of magistrates and other officers of the city belongs to him ; Also the examination of all doctrines ; Whatsoever he doth is unpunishable ; That the command his citizens have granted is absolute, and what proportion of obedience is due to him ; That the laws of the city bind him not ; That no man can challenge a propriety to anything against his will ; By the laws of the city only we come to know what theft, murder, adultery, and injury is ; The opinion of those who would constitute a city, where there should not be any one endued with an absolute power ; The marks of supreme authority ; If a city be compared with a man, he that hath the supreme power is in order to the city, as the human soul is in relation to the man ; That the supreme command cannot by right be dissolved through their consents by whose compacts it was first constituted --
Of the three kinds of government: democracy, aristocracy, monarchy : That there are three kinds of government only: democracy, aristocracy, monarchy ; That oligarchy is not a diverse form of government distinct from aristocracy, nor anarchy any form at all ; That a tyranny is not a diverse state from a legitimate monarchy ; That there cannot be a mixed state, fashioned except there be certain times and places of meeting prefixed, is dissolved ; In a democracy, the intervals of the times of meeting must be short, or the administration of government during the interval committed to some one ; In a democracy, particulars contrast with particulars to obey the people; the people is obliged to no man ; By what acts aristocracy is constituted ; In an aristocracy the nobles make no compact, neither are they obliged to any citizen or to the whole people ; The nobles must necessarily have their set meetings ; By what acts monarchy is constituted ; Monarchy is by compact obliged to none for the authority it hath received ; Monarchy is ever in the readiest capacity to exercise all those acts which are requisite to good government ; What king on sin that is, and what sort of men are guilty of it, when the city performs not its office towards citizens, nor the citizens towards the city ; A monarch made without limitation of time hath power to elect his successor ; Of limited monarchs ; A monarch, retaining his right of government, cannot by any promise whatsoever be connecessary to the exercise of his authority ; How a citizen is freed from subjection Of the rights of lords over their servants : What lord and servant signify ; The distinction of servants, into such as upon trust enjoy their natural liberty. or slaves and such as serve being imprisoned or bound in fetters ; The obligation of a servant arises from the liberty of body allowed him by his lord ; Servants that are bound are not by any compacts tied to their lords ; The lord may sell his servant, or alienate him by testament ; The lord cannot injure his servant ; He that is lord of the lord is lord also of his servants ; By what means servants are freed ; Dominion over beasts belongs to the rights of nature --
Of the right of parents over their children, and of hereditary government : Paternal dominion ariseth not from generation ; Dominion over infants belongs to him or her who first hath them in their power ; Dominion over infants is originally the mother's ; The exposed infant is his from whom he receives his preservation ; The child that hath one parent a subject and the other a sovereign, belongs to him or her in authority ; In such conjunction of man and woman as neither hath command over the other, the children are the mother's, unless by compact or civil law it be otherwise determined ; Children are no less subject to their parents than servants to their lords and subjects to their princes ; Of the honor of parents and lords ; Wherein liberty consists, and the difference of subjects and servants ; There is the same right over subjects in an hereditary government which there is in an institutive government ; The question concerning the right of succession belongs only to monarchy ; A monarch may by his will and testament dispose of his supreme authority ; Or give it, or sell it ; A monarch dying without testament is ever supposed to will that a monarch should succeed him ; And some one of his children ; And a male rather than female ; And the eldest rather than the younger ; And his brother, if he want issue, before all others ; In the same manner that men succeed to the power, do they also succeed to the right of succession --
A comparison between three kinds of government, according to their several inconveniences : A comparison of the natural state with the civil ; The conveniences and inconveniences of the ruler and his subjects are alike ; The praise of monarchy ; The government under one cannot be said to be unreasonable in this respect, namely, because one hath more power than all the rest ; A rejection of their opinion who say that a lord with his servants cannot make a city ; Exactions are more grievous under a popular state than a monarchy ; Innocent subjects are less exposed to penalties under a monarch than under the people ; The liberty of single subjects is not less under a monarch than under a people ; It is no disadvantage to the subjects, that they are not all admitted to public deliberations ; Civil deliberations are unadvisedly committed to great assemblies, by reason of the unskillfulness of the most part of men ; In regard of eloquence ; In regard of faction ; In regard of the unstableness of the laws ; In regard of the want of secrecy ; That these inconveniences adhere to democracy, forasmuch as men are naturally delighted with the esteem of wit ; The inconveniences of a city arising from a king that is a child ; The power of generals is an evident sign of the excellence of monarchy ; The best state of a city is that where the subjects are the ruler's inheritance ; The nearer aristocracy draws to monarchy, the better it is; the further it keeps from it, the worse --
Of the internal causes tending to the dissolution of any government : That judging of good and evil belongs to private persons, is a seditious opinion ; That subjects do sin by obeying their princes, is a seditious opinion ; That tyrannicide is lawful, is a seditious opinion ; That those who have the supreme power are subject to the civil laws, is a seditious opinion ; That the supreme power may be divided, is a seditious opinion ; That faith and sanctity are not acquired by study and reason, but always supernaturally infused and inspired, is a seditious opinion ; That each subject hath a propriety or absolute dominion of his own goods, is a seditious opinion ; Not to understand the difference between the people and the multitude, prepares toward sedition ; Too great a tax of monies, though never so just and necessary, prepares toward sedition ; Ambition disposeth us to sedition ; So doth the hope of success ; Eloquence alone without wisdom, is the only faculty needful to raise seditions ; How the folly of the common people, and the elocution of ambitious men, concur to the destruction of a commonwealth --
Concerning the duties of them who bear rule : The right of supreme authority is distinguished from its exercise ; The safety of the people is the supreme law ; It behoves princes to regard the common benefit of many, not the peculiar interest of this or that man ; That by safety is understood all many of conveniences ; A query, whether it be the duty of kings to provide for the salvation of their subjects' souls, as they shall judge best according to their own consciences ; Wherein the safety of the people consists ; That discoverers are necessary for the defence of the people ; That to have soldiers, arms, garrisons, and monies in readiness in tie of peace, is also necessary for the defence of the people ; A right instruction of subjects in civil doctrines is necessary for the preserving of peace ; Equal distribution of public offices conduces much to the preservation of peace ; It is natural equity that monies be taxed according to what every man spends, not what he possesses ; It conduceth to the preservation of peace to keep down ambitious men ; And to break factions ; Law whereby thriving arts are cherished and great costs restrained, conduce to the enriching of the subject ; That more ought not to be defined by the laws than the benefit of the prince and his subjects requires ; That greater punishments must not be inflicted than are prescribed by the laws ; Subjects must have right done them against corrupt judges --
Of laws and trespasses : How law differs from counsel ; How from covenant ; How from right ; Division of laws into divine and human; the divine, into natural and positive; and the natural, into the laws of single men and of nations ; The division of human, that is to say, of civil laws, into sacred and secular ; Into distributive and vindicative ; That distributive and vindicative are not species but parts of the laws ; All law is supposed to have a penalty annexed to it ; The precepts of the Decalogue of honoring parents, of murder, adultery, theft, false witness, are civil laws ; It is impossible to command aught by the civil law contrary to the law of nature ; It is essential to a law, both that itself and also the lawgiver be known ; When the law giver comes to be known ; Publishing and interpretation are necessary to the knowledge of a law ; The division of the civil law into written and unwritten ; The natural laws are not written laws; neither are the wise sentences of lawyers nor custom laws of themselves, but by the consent of the supreme power ; What the word sin, most largely taken, signifies ; The definition of sin ; The difference between a sin of infirmity and malice ; Under what kind of sin atheism is contained ; What treason is ; That by treason, not the civil but the natural laws, are broken ; And that therefore it is to be punished, not by the right of dominion, but by the right of war ; That obedience is not rightly distinguished into active and passive --
III. Religion : Of the kingdom of God by nature : The proposition of the following contents ; Over whom God is said to rule by nature ; The word of God threefold: reason, revelation, prophecy ; The kingdom of God twofold: natural, and prophetic ; The right whereby God reigns is seated in his omnipotence ; The same proved from scripture ; The obligation of yielding obedience to God proceeds from human infirmity ; The laws of god in his natural kingdom are those which are recited about in chapters 2 and 3 ; What honour and worship is ; Worship consists either in attributes or in actions ; And there is one sort natural, another arbitrary ; One commanded, another voluntary ; What the end or scope of worship is ; What the natural laws are concerning God's attributes ; What the actions are whereby naturally we do give worship ; In God's natural kingdom, the city may appoint what worship of God it pleaseth ; God ruling by nature only, the city, that is to say, that man or court who under God hath the sovereign authority of the city, is the interpreter of all the laws ; Certain doubts removed ; What sin is in the natural kingdom of God, and what treason against the divine majesty --
Concerning those things which are necessary for our entrance into the kingdom of heaven : The difficulty propounded concerning the repugnancy of obeying god and men, is to be removed by the distinction between the point necessary and not necessary to salvation ; All things necessary to salvation are contained in faith and obedience ; What kind of obedience that is which is required of us ; What faith is, and how distinguished from profession, from science, from opinion ; What it is to believe in Christ ; That that article alone, that Jesus is the Christ, is necessary to salvation , is proved from the scope of the evangelists ; From the preaching of the apostles ; From the easiness of Christian religion ; From this also, that it is the foundation of faith ; From the most evident words of Christ and his apostles ; In that article is contained the faith of the old testament ; How faith and obedience concur to salvation ; In a Christian city, there is no contradiction between the commands of god and of the city ; The doctrines which this day are controverted about religion, do for the most part relate to the right of dominion.
|Název edice:||Appleton-Century philosophy source-books.|
|Odpovědnost:||by Thomas Hobbes ; edited with an introduction by Sterling P. Lamprecht.|