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Clinical Hemorheology : Applications in Cardiovascular and Hematological Disease, Diabetes, Surgery and Gynecology

Author: S Chien; J Dormandy; E Ernst; A Matrai
Publisher: Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 1986.
Series: Developments in cardiovascular medicine, 74.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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The book is so designed that clinicians may be able to read the relevant chapters in the second part of the book in isolation, using the basic science aspects contained in the first part of the book  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: S Chien; J Dormandy; E Ernst; A Matrai
ISBN: 9789400942851 9400942850
OCLC Number: 851363659
Description: 1 online resource (344 pages).
Contents: 1. Introduction: On the way to modern clinical hemorheology.- 2. Biophysics.- 2.1. Basic concepts.- 2.1.1. Rheology.- 2.1.2. Stress, strain and strain rate.- 2.1.3. Elastic solid and viscous fluid.- 2.1.4. Classification of viscous liquids.- 2.1.5. Viscoelasticity.- 2.1.6. Surface rheology.- 2.2. Viscometry.- 2.2.1. Laminar and turbulent flow.- 2.2.2. Temperature control.- 2.2.3. Steady-flow viscometers.- 2.2.4. Tube viscometers.- 2.2.5. Rotational viscometers.- 2.2.6. Oscillatory flow methods.- 2.3. Other techniques quantifying blood rheology.- 2.3.1. Optical aggregometry.- 2.3.2. Blood filtration.- 2.4. Rheology of normal blood.- 2.4.1. Shear dependence.- 2.4.2. Plasma viscosity.- 2.4.3. Effect of hematocrit.- 2.5. Blood sampling and handling in hemorheological tests.- 2.5.1. Postural changes.- 2.5.2. Venous occlusion.- 2.5.3. Diurnal, seasonal and climatic variations.- 2.5.4. Anticoagulation and storage.- 2.6. Clinical interpretation of hemorheological data.- 2.6.1. Plasma viscosity.- 2.6.2. Blood viscosity.- 2.6.3. Blood filtration.- 2.6.4. Optical aggregometry and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.- 2.7. References.- 3. Rheology of blood cells.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Dynamic deformability of blood cells.- 3.2.1. Blood cells deformability: "extrinsic factors".- 3.2.2. Red blood cell deformability: "intrinsic factors".- 3.2.3. White blood cell deformability: "intrinsic factors".- 3.3. Rheological implications of blood cell deformabilities.- 3.4. Blood cell aggregation - disaggregation and interaction with vascular endothelium.- 3.4.1. Red blood cell aggregation: mechanisms.- 3.4.2. Red blood cell aggregation: measurement.- 3.4.3. Adhesion of blood cells to vessel walls.- 3.5. Acknowledgements.- 3.6. References.- 4. Structural, hemodynamic and rheological characteristics of blood flow in the circulation.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of the vascular system.- 4.3. Functional compartments within the vascular system.- 4.3.1. The high pressure conduit vessels.- 4.3.2. The control compartment.- 4.3.3. The exchange compartment.- 4.3.4. The low pressure compartment.- 4.4. Blood cell rheology in the circulation.- 4.4.1. Bulk flow regime I.- 4.4.2. Transition zone IIa.- 4.4.2.1. Fahraeus effect.- 4.4.2.2. Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect.- 4.4.3. Transition zone IIb.- 4.4.4. Single file flow regime III.- 4.5. Summary and conclusions.- 4.6. References.- 5. Physiological and pathophysiological significance of hemorheology.- 5.1. The role of hemorheology in circulatory physiology.- 5.1.1. Vascular hindrance and blood viscosity as determinants of resistance.- 5.1.2. Fundamental determinants of blood viscosity.- 5.1.3. Blood rheology in relation to circulation in vivo.- 5.1.4. Influence of blood rheology on oxygen transport.- 5.1.5. Influence of leukocytes on blood flow in the microcirculation.- 5.1.6. Modeling of microcirculatory networks.- 5.2. Circulatory consequences of pathological alterations in blood rheology.- 5.2.1. Hemorheological abnormalities in hematological disorders.- 5.2.2. Hemorheological abnormalities in cardiovascular disease.- 5.2.3. Compensatory adjustments to pathological alteration in blood rheology.- 5.3. Summary and conclusions.- References.- 6. Cardiovascular diseases.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Myocardial ischemia.- 6.2.1. Epidemiological evidence.- 6.2.2. Established myocardial ischemia.- 6.2.3. Changes associated with acute myocardial ischemia.- 6.2.4. Therapeutic implications.- 6.3. Hypertension.- 6.4. Cerebral ischemia.- 6.4.1. Physiological and epidemiological evidence.- 6.4.2. Role in the evolution of cerebral infarction.- 6.4.3. Therapeutic implications.- 6.5. Ischemia of the leg.- 6.5.1. Pathological role.- 6.5.2. Clinical significance.- 6.5.3. Therapeutic implications.- 6.6. Raynaud's phenomenon.- 6.6.1. Pathological role.- 6.6.2. Therapeutic implications.- 6.7. Conclusions.- 6.8. References.- 7. Thrombosis and hemorheology.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.1.1. Sites of thrombosis.- 7.1.2. Structure of thrombi.- 7.2. Rheology and platelets.- 7.2.1. Platelets and hemostasis.- 7.2.2. Effects of red cells on platelets in hemostasis.- 7.2.3. Platelet adhesion.- 7.2.4. Platelet aggregation and secretion.- 7.2.5. Effects of red cells on platelet aggregation.- 7.2.6. Effects of fibrinogen on platelet behavior.- 7.3. Rheology, coagulation and fibrinolysis.- 7.4. Venous thromboembolism.- 7.4.1. Flow conditions and leg vein thrombosis.- 7.4.2. Hematocrit and leg vein thrombosis.- 7.4.3. Fibrinogen and leg vein thrombosis.- 7.4.4. Retinal vein thrombosis.- 7.5. Arterial thromboembolism.- 7.5.1. Cardiac thromboembolism.- 7.5.2. Arterial thrombosis and atherogenesis.- 7.5.3. Occlusive arterial thrombi on atherosclerotic plaques.- 7.5.4. Outcome of occlusive arterial thrombosis.- 7.6. Thrombosis of arterial shunts and grafts.- 7.7. Microvascular thrombosis.- 7.7.1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.- 7.7.2. Leukostatis.- 7.8. References.- 8. Hemorheology and blood diseases.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. The pathophysiology of blood hyperviscosity.- 8.3. The syndrome of polycythemic hyperviscosity.- 8.3.1. Erythrocytosis.- 8.3.2. Hyperleukocytic leukemias.- 8.4. The syndrome of sclerocythemic hyperviscosity.- 8.4.1. Sickle cell disease.- 8.4.2. Hemolytic anemias.- 8.5. The syndrome of plasmatic hyperviscosity.- 8.5.1. Paraprotein diseases.- 8.5.2. Hematological stress syndrom.- 8.6. Summary and conclusions 249 References.- 9. Obstetrics, neonatology and gynaecology.- 9.1. Why rheology in obstetrics, gynaecology and neonatology?.- 9.2. Maternal rheology in normal pregnancy.- 9.3. Normal fetal hemorheology.- 9.4. Pathological pregnancy.- 9.4.1. Maternal smoking in pregnancy.- 9.4.2. Pre-eclampsia.- 9.4.3. Hemorheological therapy in pre-eclampsia.- 9.4.4. Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.- 9.5. Rheology in the neonate.- 9.6. Treatment of neonatal hyperviscosity.- 9.7. Rheological sequelae of oral contraception.- 9.8. References.- 10. Diabetes.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. Diabetes and its complications.- 10.3. Relevance of blood rheology in diabetes.- 10.4. Macrorheology of blood in diabetes.- 10.4.1. Whole blood viscosity.- 10.4.2. Plasma and serum viscosity.- 10.5. Microrheology of blood in diabetes.- 10.5.1. Red cell deformability.- 10.5.2. Red cell aggregation.- 10.5.3. Red cell adhesion.- 10.6. Implications.- 10.6.1. Whole blood viscosity and large vessel disease.- 10.6.2. Red cell deformability, plasma viscosity and microangiopathy.- 10.6.3. Blood rheology relation to other etiological candidates of diabetic complications.- 10.7. References.- 11. Other syndromes associated with impaired blood flow and rheology.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Shock.- 11.2.1. Traumatic shock.- 11.2.2. Hemorrhagic shock.- 11.2.3. Burns.- 11.2.4. Septic shock.- 11.2.5. Anaphylactic shock.- 11.3. Surgery and anesthesia.- 11.4. Rheumatic disease.- 11.5. Renal disease.- 11.5.1. Nephrotic syndrome.- 11.5.2. Dialysis.- 11.6. Neoplastic disease.- 11.7. Miscellaneous.- 11.8. Summary and conclusion.- 11.9. References.- 12. Hemorheological treatment.- 12.1. Introduction.- 12.2. Hemodilution 330 12.2.1. Forms of hemodilution.- 12.2.2. Mode of action.- 12.2.3. Clinical evidence.- 12.3. Apheresis.- 12.3.1. Plasma exchange.- 12.3.2. Erythrapheresis.- 12.3.3. Leukopheresis.- 12.4. Plasma substitutes.- 12.4.1. Albumin.- 12.4.2. Dextrans.- 12.4.3. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES).- 12.4.4. Gelatins.- 12.5. Defibrinogenation.- 12.5.1. Mode of action.- 12.5.2. Guidelines for medication.- 12.5.3. Clinical evidence.- 12.6. Oral drugs.- 12.6.1. Oral drugs decreasing plasma viscosity.- 12.6.2. Oral drugs to normalize red cell deformability.- 12.6.3. Evaluation.- 12.6.4. Drugs with "hemorheological side-effects".- 12.7. Non-pharmacological approach.- 12.7.1. Physical fitness.- 12.7.2. Physical therapy.- 12.7.3. Diet.- 12.8. Conclusions.- 12.9. References.- 13. Summary, Conclusions and Perspectives.- 13.1. Brief summary.- 13.2. Conclusions.- 13.3. Perspectives.
Series Title: Developments in cardiovascular medicine, 74.
Responsibility: edited by S. Chien, J. Dormandy, E. Ernst, A. Matrai.

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