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Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment

Author: John Bratby
Publisher: London : IWA Publishing, 2016. ©2016.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Third editionView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: ebook version :
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: John Bratby
ISBN: 9781780407494 1780407491
OCLC Number: 949754920
Description: xii, 524 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.1.General --
1.2.Stability and Destabilization --
1.3.Definitions --
1.4.Performance Criteria --
1.5.Summary --
1.6.References --
2.1.Introduction --
2.2.Origin of Surface Charge --
2.3.Effect of Surface Charge --
2.4.Adsorption --
2.5.Inner Part of Electrical Double Layer --
2.6.Diffuse Part of Electrical Double Layer --
2.6.1.Assumptions --
2.6.2.Distribution of potential with distance from the charged surface --
2.6.3.Thickness of double layer --
2.6.4.Effect of ionic strength on double layer --
2.6.5.Effect of nature of counter Ions --
2.7.Stern's Model of Complete Double Layer --
2.8.Colloid Stability in Terms of The Double Layer --
2.8.1.Energy of interaction between particles --
2.8.2.Theoretical optimal concentration of electrolyte required for destabilization --
2.8.3.Schulze-Hardy rule --
2.9.Electrokinetic Measurements --
2.10.References --
3.1.Introduction --
3.2.Metal Coagulants --
3.2.1.Commonly used metal coagulants Note continued: 3.2.2.Chemistry of metal coagulants --
3.3.Polymers --
3.3.1.General --
3.3.2.Activated silica --
3.3.3.Natural polyelectrolytes --
3.3.4.Synthetic polymers --
3.4.References --
4.1.Introduction --
4.2.Destabilization of Hydrophobic Colloids --
4.2.1.Extent of hydrolysis and adsorption --
4.2.2.Effect of coagulant dosage --
4.2.3.Effect of colloid concentration --
4.2.4.Effect of pH --
4.3.Destabilization of Hydrophilic Colloids --
4.4.Removal of Natural Organic Matter --
4.4.1.Organic color --
4.4.2.Enhanced coagulation --
4.5.Algae Removal and Harvesting --
4.6.Pathogen Removal --
4.6.1.Removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium --
4.6.2.Virus removal --
4.7.Effect of Anions --
4.7.1.General --
4.7.2.Effect of sulfate --
4.7.3.Effect of phosphate --
4.8.Chemical Phosphorus Removal in Wastewater Treatment --
4.8.1.General --
4.8.2.Mechanisms of chemical phosphorus removal --
4.8.3.Applications of chemical phosphorus removal Note continued: 4.9.Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) Removal in Wastewater Treatment --
4.9.1.General --
4.9.2.Characteristics of effluent DON --
4.9.3.Impacts of effluent DON --
4.9.4.Measurement of DON --
4.9.5.Strategies for DON removal --
4.10.Wastewater Treatment by Coagulation and Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment, CEPT --
4.10.1.Dependence of CEPT removals on wastewater characteristics --
4.10.2.Case studies of CEPT --
4.10.3.Parameters for CEPT control --
4.10.4.Degree of flocculation required for CEPT --
4.11.Activated Sludge Bulking and Foaming Control and Enhanced Bioflocculation --
4.12.Inorganics Removal --
4.12.1.Arsenic removal --
4.12.2.Copper removal --
4.12.3.Fluoride removal --
4.12.4.Manganese removal --
4.13.Staged Coagulation and Sequencing --
4.14.Effects of Preozonation --
4.15.Effects of Temperature --
4.16.Residual Aluminum --
4.17.Reference --
5.1.Introduction --
5.2.Mechanisms of Destabilization --
5.2.1.General Note continued: 5.2.2.The bridging mechanism --
5.2.3.The electrostatic patch mechanism --
5.3.Polyelectrolytes as Primary Coagulants --
5.3.1.General --
5.3.2.Turbidity removal using polyelectrolytes --
5.3.3.Organics removal using polyelectrolytes --
5.3.4.Algae removal and harvesting using polyelectrolytes --
5.3.5.Pathogen removal using polyelectrolytes --
5.3.6.Wastewater treatment by coagulation with polyelectrolytes and CEPT --
5.3.7.Activated sludge bulking and foaming control and enhanced bioflocculation --
5.4.Polyelectrolytes as Flocculant Aids --
5.4.1.Polymers as filter aids --
5.5.Polymers as Sludge Conditioners --
5.6.References --
6.1.Introduction --
6.2.Requirements for Rapid Mixing Devices --
6.2.1.General --
6.2.2.Comparison of back-mix and plug-flow reactors --
6.2.3.Velocity gradient requirements --
6.2.4.Rapid mixer retention time --
6.2.5.Tapered rapid mix velocity gradient --
6.2.6.Coagulant feed concentration Note continued: 6.2.7.Sequence of chemical addition --
6.3.Design of Rapid Mixing Devices --
6.3.1.General --
6.3.2.Backmix reactors --
6.3.3.In-line mixers without controlled velocity gradient --
6.3.4.In-line mixers with controlled velocity gradient --
6.4.References --
7.1.Introduction --
7.2.Peri kinetic Flocculation --
7.3.Orthokinetic Flocculation --
7.3.1.Theoretical development --
7.3.2.Working equation --
7.3.3.Flocculation reactors in series --
7.3.4.Adequacy of G and GT as design parameters --
7.3.5.Experimental determination of flocculation parameters --
7.4.Design of Flocculation Basins --
7.4.1.General --
7.4.2.Types of flocculation chambers and devices --
7.4.3.Short circuiting in flocculation reactors --
7.4.4.Compartmentalization --
7.4.5.Combined flocculation --
sedimentation basins --
7.4.6.Transfer of flocculated water --
7.5.References --
8.1.Introduction --
8.2.Optimizing Primary Coagulant Type, Dosage and PH --
8.2.1.General --
8.2.2.Apparatus Note continued: 8.2.3.Chemical solutions --
8.2.4.Criteria describing process performance --
8.2.5.Jar test procedure --
8.2.6.Analysis of results --
8.3.Using the Jar Test to Evaluate Settling --
8.4.Evaluating Flocculant Aids --
8.4.1.General --
8.4.2.Initial choice of flocculant aid --
8.4.3.Preparation of polyelectrolyte solutions --
8.4.4.Experimental procedure --
8.5.Evaluating Sludge Conditioners --
8.5.1.General --
8.5.2.Experimental procedures --
8.6.Optimizing Flocculation Parameters --
8.6.1.General --
8.6.2.Apparatus --
8.6.3.Experimental procedure --
8.6.4.Analysis of data --
8.7.Control Systems for Coagulation --
8.7.1.Introduction --
8.7.2.Electrokinetic measurements --
8.7.3.Monitoring floc formation --
8.7.4.Data driven control systems --
8.8.References --
A.1.Introduction --
A.2.The Advantages of Turbidity Measurements --
A.3.Turbidity as Surrogate for Particle Concentrations --
A.4.Principles of Turbidity Measurement --
A.5.Turbidity Instruments Note continued: A.6.Instrument Calibration --
A.7.Techniques for Accurate Turbidity Measurements --
A.8.References --
B.1.Introduction --
B.2.Production of Water Plant Residuals --
B.2.1.Estimating sludge quantities --
B.2.2.Alternative coagulants and dosage reduction --
B.2.3.Sludge characteristics --
B.2.4.Sludge conditioning --
B.3.Filter Backwash --
B.4.Sludge Lagoons --
B.5.Sludge Drying Beds --
B.6.Mechanical Thickening and Dewatering --
B.6.1.Sludge thickening --
B.6.2.Sludge dewatering --
B.7.Coagulant Recovery --
B.8.Sludge Disposal --
B.8.1.Introduction --
B.8.2.Disposal to municipal sewers --
B.8.3.Land application of water plant sludge --
B.9.References.
Responsibility: John Bratby.

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    schema:description "Note continued: 6.2.7.Sequence of chemical addition -- 6.3.Design of Rapid Mixing Devices -- 6.3.1.General -- 6.3.2.Backmix reactors -- 6.3.3.In-line mixers without controlled velocity gradient -- 6.3.4.In-line mixers with controlled velocity gradient -- 6.4.References -- 7.1.Introduction -- 7.2.Peri kinetic Flocculation -- 7.3.Orthokinetic Flocculation -- 7.3.1.Theoretical development -- 7.3.2.Working equation -- 7.3.3.Flocculation reactors in series -- 7.3.4.Adequacy of G and GT as design parameters -- 7.3.5.Experimental determination of flocculation parameters -- 7.4.Design of Flocculation Basins -- 7.4.1.General -- 7.4.2.Types of flocculation chambers and devices -- 7.4.3.Short circuiting in flocculation reactors -- 7.4.4.Compartmentalization -- 7.4.5.Combined flocculation -- sedimentation basins -- 7.4.6.Transfer of flocculated water -- 7.5.References -- 8.1.Introduction -- 8.2.Optimizing Primary Coagulant Type, Dosage and PH -- 8.2.1.General -- 8.2.2.Apparatus"@en ;
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