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Colour and the optical properties of materials : an exploration of the relationship between light, the optical properties of materials and colour

Author: R J D Tilley
Publisher: Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley, 2011.
Edition/Format:   Book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:

An understanding and knowledge of the scientific principles behind color, with its many applications and uses, is becoming increasingly important to a wide range of academic disciplines. Colour and  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: R J D Tilley
ISBN: 9780470746967 0470746963 9780470746950 0470746955
OCLC Number: 645889418
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xvi, 510 pages : color illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. Light and Colour --
1.1. Colour and Light --
1.2. Colour and Energy --
1.3. Light Waves --
1.4. Interference --
1.5. Light Waves and Colour --
1.6. Black-Body Radiation and Incandescence --
1.7. The Colour of Incandescent Objects --
1.8. Photons --
1.9. Lamps and Lasers --
1.9.1. Lamps --
1.9.2. Emission and Absorption of Radiation --
1.9.3. Energy-Level Populations --
1.9.4. Rates of Absorption and Emission --
1.9.5. Cavity Modes --
1.10. Vision --
1.11. Colour Perception --
1.12. Additive Coloration --
1.13. The Interaction of Light with a Material --
1.14. Subtractive Coloration --
1.15. Electronic Paper --
1.16. Appearance and Transparency --
Appendix A1.1 Definitions, Units and Conversion Factors --
A1.1.1. Constants, Conversion Factors and Energy --
A1.1.2. Waves --
A1.1.3. SI Units Associated with Radiation and Light Further Reading --
2. Colours Due to Refraction and Dispersion --
2.1. Refraction and the Refractive Index of a Material. 2.2. Total Internal Reflection --
2.2.1. Total Internal Reflection --
2.2.2. Evanescent Waves --
2.3. Refractive Index and Polarisability --
2.4. Refractive Index and Density --
2.5. Invisible Animals, GRINs and Mirages --
2.6. Dispersion and Colours Produced by Dispersion --
2.7. Rainbows --
2.8. Halos --
2.9. Fibre Optics --
2.9.1. Optical Communications --
2.9.2. Optical Fibres --
2.9.3. Attenuation in Glass Fibres --
2.9.4. Chemical Impurities --
2.9.5. Dispersion and Optical-Fibre Design --
2.10. Negative Refractive Index Materials --
2.10.1. Metamaterials --
2.10.2. Superlenses --
Further Reading --
3. The Production of Colour by Reflection --
3.1. Reflection from a Single Surface --
3.1.1. Reflection from a Transparent Plate --
3.1.2. Data Storage Using Reflection --
3.2. Interference at a Single Thin Film in Air --
3.2.1. Reflection Perpendicular to the Film --
3.2.2. Variation with Viewing Angle --
3.2.3. Transmitted Beams --
3.3. The Colour of a Single Thin Film in Air --
3.4. The Reflectivity of a Single Thin Film in Air. 4.5.1. Double Refraction --
4.5.2. Refractive Index and Crystal Structure --
4.6. The Description of Double Refraction Effects --
4.6.1. Uniaxial Crystals --
4.6.2. Biaxial Crystals --
4.7. Colour Produced by Polarisation and Birefringence --
4.8. Dichroism and Pleochroism --
4.9. Nonlinear Effects --
4.9.1. Nonlinear Crystals --
4.9.2. Second-and Third-Harmonic Generation --
4.9.3. Frequency Mixing --
4.9.4. Optical Parametric Amplifiers and Oscillators --
4.10. Frequency Matching and Phase Matching --
4.11. More on Second-Harmonic Generation --
4.11.1. Polycrystalline Solids and Powders --
4.11.2. Second-Harmonic Generation in Glass --
4.11.3. Second-Harmonic and Sum-Frequency-Generation by Organic Materials --
4.11.4. Second-Harmonic Generation at Interfaces --
4.11.5. Second-Harmonic Microscopy --
4.12. Optical Activity --
4.12.1. The Rotation of Polarised Light --
4.12.2. Circular Birefringence and Dichroism --
4.13. Liquid Crystals --
4.13.1. Liquid-Crystal Mesophases --
4.13.2. Liquid-Crystal Displays --
Further Reading --
5. Colour Due to Scattering. 5.1. Scattering and Extinction --
5.2. Tyndall Blue and Rayleigh Scattering --
5.3. Blue Skies, Red Sunsets --
5.4. Scattering and Polarisation --
5.5. Mie Scattering --
5.6. Blue Eyes, Blue Feathers and Blue Moons --
5.7. Paints, Sunscreens and Related Matters --
5.8. Multiple Scattering --
5.9. Gold Sols and Ruby Glass --
5.10. The Lycurgus Cup and Other Stained Glass --
Further Reading --
6. Colour Due to Diffraction --
6.1. Diffraction and Colour Production by a Slit --
6.2. Diffraction and Colour Production by a Rectangular Aperture --
6.3. Diffraction and Colour Production by a Circular Aperture --
6.4. The Diffraction Limit of Optical Instruments --
6.5. Colour Production by Linear Diffraction Gratings --
6.6. Two-Dimensional Gratings --
6.7. Estimation of the Wavelength of Light by Diffraction --
6.8. Diffraction by Crystals and Crystal-like Structures --
6.8.1. Bragg's Law --
6.8.2. Opals --
6.8.3. Artificial and Inverse Opals --
6.8.4. The Effective Refractive Index of Inverse Opals --
6.8.5. Photonic Crystals and Photonic Band Gaps. 6.8.6. Dynamical Form of Bragg's Law --
6.9. Diffraction from Disordered Gratings --
6.9.1. Random Specks and Droplets --
6.9.2. Colour from Cholesteric Liquid Crystals --
6.9.3. Disordered Two-and Three-Dimensional Gratings --
6.10. Diffraction by Sub-Wavelength Structures --
6.10.1. Diffraction by Moth-Eye Antireflection Structures --
6.10.2. The Cornea of the Eye --
6.10.3. Some Blue Feathers --
6.11. Holograms --
6.11.1. Holograms and Interference Patterns --
6.11.2. Transmission Holograms --
6.11.3. Reflection Holograms --
6.11.4. Rainbow Holograms --
6.11.5. Hologram Recording Media --
6.11.6. Embossed Holograms --
Further Reading --
7. Colour from Atoms and Ions --
7.1. The Spectra of Atoms and Ions --
7.2. Terms and Levels --
7.3. Atomic Spectra and Chemical Analysis --
7.4. Fraunhofer Lines and Stellar Spectra --
7.5. Neon Signs and Early Plasma Displays --
7.6. The Helium --
Neon Laser --
7.7. Sodium and Mercury Street Lights --
7.8. Transition Metals and Crystal-Field Colours --
7.9. Crystal Field Splitting, Energy Levels and Terms. 7.9.1. Configurations and Strong Field Energy Levels --
7.9.2. Weak Fields and Term Splitting --
7.9.3. Intermediate Fields --
7.10. The Colour of Ruby --
7.11. Transition-Metal-Ion Lasers --
7.11.1. The Ruby Laser: A Three-Level Laser --
7.11.2. The Titanium --
Sapphire Laser --
7.12. Emerald, Alexandrite and Crystal-Field Strength --
7.13. Crystal-Field Colours in Minerals and Gemstones --
7.14. Colour as a Structural Probe --
7.15. Colours from Lanthanoid Ions --
7.16. The Neodymium (Nd3+) Solid-State Laser: A Four-Level Laser --
7.17. Amplification of Optical-Fibre Signals --
7.18. Transition Metal, Lanthanoid and Actinoid Pigments --
7.19. Spectral-Hole Formation --
Appendix A7.1 Electron Configurations --
A7.1.1. Electron Configurations of the Lighter Atoms --
A7.1.2. The 3d Transition Metals --
A7.1.3. The Lanthanoid (Rare Earth) Elements --
Appendix A7.2 Terms and Levels --
A7.2.1. The Vector Model of the Atom --
A7.2.2. Energy Levels and Terms of Many-Electron Atoms --
A7.2.3. The Ground-State Term of an Atom --
A7.2.4. Energy Levels of Many-Electron Atoms --
Further Reading. 8. Colour from Molecules --
8.1. The Energy Levels of Molecules --
8.2. The Colours Arising in Some Simple Inorganic Molecules --
8.3. The Colour of Water --
8.4. Chromophores, Chromogens and Auxochromes --
8.5. Conjugated Bonds in Organic Molecules: The Carotenoids --
8.6. Conjugated Bonds Circling Metal Atoms: Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines --
8.7. Naturally Occurring Colorants: Flavonoid Pigments --
8.7.1. Flavone-Related Colours: Yellows --
8.7.2. Anthocyanin-Related Colours: Reds and Blues --
8.7.3. The Colour of Red Wine --
8.8. Autumn Leaves --
8.9. Some Dyes and Pigments --
8.9.1. Indigo, Tyrian Purple and Mauve --
8.9.2. Tannins --
8.9.3. Melanins --
8.10. Charge-Transfer Colours --
8.10.1. Charge-Transfer Processes --
8.10.2. Cation-to-Cation (Intervalence) Charge Transfer --
8.10.3. Anion-to-Cation Charge Transfer --
8.10.4. Iron-Containing Minerals --
8.10.5. Intra-Anion Charge Transfer --
8.11. Colour-Change Sensors --
8.11.1. The Detection of Metal Ions --
8.11.2. Indicators --
8.11.3. Colorimetric Sensor Films and Arrays --
8.11.4. Markers --
8.12. Dye Lasers. 8.13. Photochromic Organic Molecules --
Further Reading --
9. Luminescence --
9.1. Luminescence --
9.2. Activators, Sensitisers and Fluorophores --
9.3. Atomic Processes in Photoluminescence --
9.3.1. Energy Absorption and Emission --
9.3.2. Kinetic Factors --
9.3.3. Quantum Yield and Reaction Rates --
9.3.4. Structural Interactions --
9.3.5. Quenching --
9.4. Fluorescent Lamps --
9.4.1. Fluorescent Lamps --
9.4.2. Trichromatic Lamps --
9.4.3. Other Fluorescent Lamps --
9.5. Plasma Displays --
9.6. Cathodoluminescence and Cathode Ray Tubes --
9.6.1. Cathode Rays --
9.6.2. Television Tubes --
9.6.3. Other Applications of Cathodoluminescence --
9.7. Field-Emission Displays --
9.8. Phosphor Electroluminescent Displays --
9.9. Up-Conversion. Note continued: 9.9.1. Ground-State Absorption and Excited-State Absorption --
9.9.2. Energy Transfer --
9.9.3. Other Up-Conversion Processes --
9.10. Quantum Cutting --
9.11. Fluorescent Molecules --
9.11.1. Molecular Fluorescence --
9.11.2. Fluorescent Proteins --
9.11.3. Fluorescence Microscopy --
9.11.4. Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy --
9.12. Fluorescent Nanoparticles --
9.13. Fluorescent Markers and Sensors --
9.14. Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence --
9.15. Triboluminescence --
9.16. Scintillators --
Further Reading --
10. Colour in Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators --
10.1. The Colours of Insulators --
10.2. Excitons --
10.3. Impurity Colours in Insulators --
10.4. Impurity Colours in Diamond --
10.5. Colour Centres --
10.5.1. The F Centre. 10.5.2. Electron and Hole Centres --
10.5.3. Surface Colour Centres --
10.5.4. Complex Colour Centres: Laser Action --
10.5.5. Photostimulable Phosphors --
10.6. The Colours of Inorganic Semiconductors --
10.6.1. Coloured Semiconductors --
10.6.2. Transparent Conducting Oxides --
10.7. The Colours of Semiconductor Alloys --
10.8. Light Emitting Diodes --
10.8.1. Direct and Indirect Band Gaps --
10.8.2. Idealised Diode Structure --
10.8.3. High-Brightness LEDs --
10.8.4. Impurity Doping in LEDs --
10.8.5. LED Displays and White Light Generation --
10.9. Semiconductor Diode Lasers --
10.10. Semiconductor Nanostructures --
10.10.1. Nanostructures --
10.10.2. Quantum Wells --
10.10.3. Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots --
10.11. Organic Semiconductors and Electroluminescence --
10.11.1. Molecular Electroluminescence --
10.11.2. Organic Light Emitting Diodes. 10.12. Electrochromic Films --
10.12.1. Tungsten Trioxide Electrochromic Films --
10.12.2. Inorganic Electrochromic Materials --
10.12.3. Electrochromic Molecules --
10.12.4. Electrochromic Polymers --
10.13. Photovoltaics --
10.13.1. Photoconductivity and Photovoltaic Solar Cells --
10.13.2. Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells --
10.14. Digital Photography --
10.14.1. Charge Coupled Devices --
10.14.2. CCD Photography --
10.15. The Colours of Metals --
10.16. The Colours of Metal Nanoparticles --
10.16.1. Plasmons --
10.16.2. Surface Plasmons and Polaritons --
10.16.3. Polychromic Glass --
10.16.4. Photochromic Glass --
10.16.5. Photographic Film --
10.16.6. Metal Nanoparticle Sensors and SERS --
10.17. Extraordinary Light Transmission and Plasmonic Crystals --
Further Reading.
Responsibility: Richard J.D. Tilley.

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