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Concepts of chemical dependency

Author: Harold E Doweiko
Publisher: Australia : Thomson/Brooks/Cole, 2006.
Edition/Format:   Book : English : 6th edView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Harold E Doweiko
ISBN: 053463284X 9780534632847
OCLC Number: 70284318
Description: xx, 582 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Contents: 1. Why worry about recreational chemical abuse? --
Introduction --
Who treats those who abuse or are addicted to chemicals? --
The cope of the problem of chemical abuse/addiction --
The cost of chemical abuse/addiction in the United States --
Why is it so difficult to understand the drug abuse problem in the United States? --
Summary --
2. What do we mean when we say substance abuse and addiction? --
Introduction --
The continuum of chemical use --
Definitions of terms used in this book --
What do we really know about the addictive disorders? --
The state of the art : unanswered questions, uncertain answers --
Summary --
3. The medical model of chemical addiction --
Introduction --
Why do people abuse chemicals? --
What do we mean when we say that someone is "addicted" to chemicals? --
Summary --
4. Are people predestined to become addicted to chemicals? --
Introduction --
Multiple models --
Reaction against the disease model of addiction --
The final common pathway theory of addiction --
Summary --
5. Addiction as a disease of the human spirit --
Introduction --
The rise of western civilization, or how the spirit was lost --
Diseases of the mind, diseases of the spirit : the mind-body question --
The growth of addiction : the circle narrows --
The circle of addiction : addicted priorities --
Some games of addiction --
Honesty as a part of the recovery process --
False pride : the disease of the spirit --
Denial, rationalization, projection, and minimization : the four horsemen of addiction --
Summary --
6. An introduction to pharmacology --
Introduction --
The prime effect and side effects of chemicals --
Drug forms and how drugs are administered --
Bioavailability --
The drug half-life --
The effective dose --
The lethal dose index --
The therapeutic index --
Peak effects --
The site of action --
The blood-brain barrier --
Summary --
7. Alcohol : humans' oldest recreational chemical --
Introduction --
A brief history of alcohol --
How alcohol is produced --
Alcohol today --
Scope of the problem of alcohol use --
Pharmacology of alcohol --
The blood alcohol level --
Subjective effects of alcohol on the individual : at normal doses in the average drinker --
Effects of alcohol at intoxicating doses : for the average drinker --
Medical complications of alcohol use in the average drinker --
Alcohol use and accidental injury or death --
Summary --
8. Chronic alcohol abuse and addiction --
Introduction --
Scope of the problem --
Is there a "typical" alcohol-dependent person? --
Alcohol tolerance, dependence, and "craving" : signposts of alcoholism --
Complications of chronic alcohol use --
Summary --
9. Abuse and addiction to the barbiturates and barbiturate-like drugs --
Introduction --
Early pharmacological therapy of anxiety disorders and insomnia --
History and current medical uses of the barbiturates --
Pharmacology of the barbiturates --
Subjective effects of the barbiturates at normal dosage levels --
Complications of he barbiturates at normal dosage levels --
Effects of the barbiturates at above-normal levels --
Neuroadaptation, tolerance to, and dependence on the barbiturates --
Barbiturate-like drugs --
Summary --
10. Abuse of and addiction of benzodiazepines and similar agents --
Introduction --
Medical uses of benzodiazepines --
Pharmacology of the benzodiazepines --
Side effects of the benzodiazepines when used at normal dosage levels --
Neuroadaptation to benzodiazepines and abuse/addiction to these agents --
Complications caused by benzodiazepine use at normal dosage levels --
Subjective experience of benzodiazepine use --
Long-term consequences of chronic benzodiazepine use --
Buspirone --
Zolpidem --
Zaleplon --
Rohypnol --
Summary --
11. Abuse of and addiction to amphetamines and CNS stimulants --
Introduction --
I. The CNS stimulants as used in medical practice --
The amphetamine-like drugs --
The amphetamines --
II. CNS stimulant abuse --
Scope of the problem of CNS stimulant abuse and addiction --
Effects of the CNS stimulants when abused --
Summary --
12. Cocaine --
Introduction --
A brief overview of cocaine --
Cocaine in recent U.S. history --
Cocaine today --
Pharmacology of cocaine --
How illicit cocaine is produced --
How cocaine is abused --
Subjective effects of cocaine when it is abused --
Complications of cocaine abuse/addiction --
Summary --
13. Marijuana abuse and addiction --
Introduction --
History of marijuana use in the United States --
A question of potency --
A technical point --
Scope of the problem of marijuana abuse --
Pharmacology of marijuana --
Methods of administration --
Subjective effects of marijuana --
Adverse effects of occasional marijuana use --
Consequences of chronic marijuana abuse --
The addiction potential of marijuana --
Summary --
14. Opiate abuse and addiction --
Introduction --
I. The medical uses of narcotic analgesics --
A short history of the narcotic analgesics --
The classification of narcotic analgesics --
Where opium is produced --
Current medical uses of the narcotic analgesics --
Pharmacology of the narcotic analgesics --
Neuroadaptation to narcotic analgesics --
Subjective effects of narcotic analgesics when used in medical practice --
Complications caused by narcotic analgesics when used in medical practice --
Fentanyl --
Buprenorphine --
II. Opiates as drugs of abuse --
The mystique of heroin --
Other narcotic analgesics that might be abused --
Methods of opiate abuse --
Scope of the problem of opiate abuse and addiction --
Complications caused by chronic opiate abuse --
Overdose of illicit opiates --
Summary --
15. Hallucinogen abuse and addiction --
Introduction --
History of hallucinogens in the United States --
Scope of the problem --
Pharmacology of the hallucinogens --
Subjective effects of hallucinogens --
Phencyclidine (PCP) --
Ecstasy : evolution of a new drug of abuse --
Summary --
16. Abuse of and addiction to the inhalants and aerosols --
Introduction --
History of inhalant abuse --
Pharmacology of the inhalants --
Scope of the problem --
Method of administration --
Subjective effects of inhalants --
Complications from inhalant abuse --
Anesthetic misuse --
Abuse of nitrites --
Summary --
17. The unrecognized problem of steroid abuse and addiction --
Introduction --
An introduction to the anabolic steroids --
Medial uses of anabolic steroids --
The legal status of anabolic steroids --
Scope of the problem of steroid abuse --
Sources and methods of steroid abuse --
Problems associated with anabolic steroid abuse --
Complications of steroid abuse --
Are anabolic steroids addictive? --
Summary --
18. The over-the-counter analgesics : unexpected agents of abuse --
Introduction --
A short history of the OTC analgesics --
Medical uses of the OTC analgesics --
Pharmacology of the OTC analgesics --
Normal dosage levels of OTC analgesics --
Complications caused by use of OTC analgesics --
Overdose of OTC analgesics --
Summary --
19. Tobacco products and nicotine addiction --
Introduction --
History of tobacco use in the United States --
Scope of the problem --
Pharmacology of cigarette smoking --
The effects of nicotine use --
Nicotine addiction --
Complications of the chronic use of tobacco --
Summary --
20. Chemicals and the neonate : the consequences of drug abuse during pregnancy --
Introduction --
Scope of the problem --
The fetal alcohol spectrum disorder --
Cocaine use during pregnancy --
Amphetamine use during pregnancy --
Opiate abuse during pregnancy --
Marijuana use during pregnancy --
Benzodiazepine use during pregnancy --
Hallucinogen use during pregnancy --
Buspirone use during pregnancy --
Disulfiram use during pregnancy --
Cigarette use during pregnancy --
Over-the-counter analgesic use during pregnancy --
Inhalant abuse during pregnancy --
Summary --
21. Hidden faces of chemical dependency --
Introduction --
Women and addiction : an often unrecognized problem --
Addiction and the homeless --
Substance use problems and the elderly --
The homosexual and substance abuse --
Substance abuse and the disabled --
Substance abuse and ethnic minorities --
Summary --
22. The dual-diagnosis client : chemical addition and mental illness --
Introduction --
Definitions --
Dual-diagnosis clients : a diagnostic challenge --
Why worry about the dual-diagnosis client? --
The scope of the problem --
Characteristics of dual-diagnosis clients --
Psychopathology and drug of choice --
Problems in working with dual-diagnosis clients --
Treatment approaches --
Summary --
23. Chemical abuse by children and adolescents --
Introduction --
The importance of childhood and adolescence in the evolution of substance-use problems --
Scope of the problem --
Why do adolescents use chemicals? --
The adolescent abuse/addiction dilemma : how much is too much? --
Possible diagnostic criteria for adolescent drug/alcohol problems --
The special needs of the adolescent in a substance-abuse rehabilitation program --
Summary --
24. Codependency and enabling --
Introduction --
Enabling --
Codependency --
Reactions to the concept of codependency --
Summary --
25. Addiction and the family --
Introduction --
Scope of the problem --
Addiction and marriage --
Addiction and the family --
The adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) movement --
Summary --
26. The evaluation of substance-use problems --
Introduction --
The theory behind alcohol- and drug-use evaluations --
Screening --
Assessment --
Diagnosis --
The assessor and data privacy --
Diagnostic rules --
The assessment format --
Other sources of information --
The outcome of the evaluation process --
Summary --
27. The process of intervention --
Introduction --
A definition of intervention --
Characteristics of the intervention process --
The mechanics of intervention --
Family intervention --
Intervention with other forms of chemical addiction --
The ethics of intervention --
Intervention via the court system --
Other forms of intervention --
Summary --
28. The treatment of chemical dependency --
Introduction --
Characteristics of the substance-abuse rehabilitation professional --
The Minnesota model of chemical-dependency treatment --
The treatment plan --
Other treatment formats for chemical dependency --
Aftercare programs --
Summary --
29. Treatment formats for chemical-dependency rehabilitation --
Introduction --
Outpatient treatment programs --
Inpatient treatment programs --
Inpatient or outpatient treatment? --
Partial hospitalization options --
Summary --
30. The process of recovery --
Introduction --
The decision to seek treatment --
The stages of recovery --
Specific points to address in the treatment of addiction to common drugs of abuse --
Summary --
31. Problems frequently encountered in the treatment of chemical dependency --
Introduction --
Limit testing by clients in treatment --
Treatment noncompliance --
Relapse and relapse prevention --
"Cravings" and "urges" --
The "using" dream --
Controlled drinking --
The uncooperative client --
Toxicology testing --
The addicted patient with chronic pain issues --
Insurance reimbursement policies --
D.A.R.E. and psychoeducational intervention programs --
Summary --
32. Pharmacological intervention tactics and substance abuse --
Introduction --
Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence --
Pharmacological treatment of opiate addiction --
Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction --
Pharmacological treatment of amphetamine abuse/dependence --
Pharmacological treatment of nicotine dependence --
Summary --
33. Substance abuse/addiction and infectious disease --
Introduction --
Why is infectious disease such a common complication of alcohol/drug abuse? --
The pneumonias --
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) --
Tuberculosis (TB) --
Viral hepatitis Summary --
34. Self-help groups --
The twelve steps of alcoholics anonymous --
Introduction --
The history of AA --
Elements of AA --
AA and religion --
One "A" is for anonymous --
AA and outside organizations --
The primary purpose of AA --
Of AA and recovery --
Sponsorship --
AA and psychological theory --
How does AA work? --
Outcome studies : the effectiveness of AA --
Narcotics anonymous --
Al-Anon and Alateen --
Support groups other than AA --
Criticism of the AA/12-step movement --
Summary --
35. The debate around legalization --
Introduction --
The debate over medicalization --
The "war on drugs" : the making of a national disaster --
Summary --
36. Crime and drug use --
Introduction --
Criminal activity and drug use : partners in a dance? --
Urine toxicology testing in the workplace --
Unseen victims of street drug chemistry --
Drug analogs : the "designer" drugs --
Adulterants --
Drug use and violence : the unseen connection --
Summary --
Appendix 1. Alcohol abuse situation sample assessment --
Appendix 2. Chemical dependency situation sample assessment --
Appendix 3. The "Jellinek" chart for alcoholism --
Appendix 4. Drug classification schedule --
Glossary.
Responsibility: Harold E. Doweiko.

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schema:description"15. Hallucinogen abuse and addiction -- Introduction -- History of hallucinogens in the United States -- Scope of the problem -- Pharmacology of the hallucinogens -- Subjective effects of hallucinogens -- Phencyclidine (PCP) -- Ecstasy : evolution of a new drug of abuse -- Summary -- 16. Abuse of and addiction to the inhalants and aerosols -- Introduction -- History of inhalant abuse -- Pharmacology of the inhalants -- Scope of the problem -- Method of administration -- Subjective effects of inhalants -- Complications from inhalant abuse -- Anesthetic misuse -- Abuse of nitrites -- Summary -- 17. The unrecognized problem of steroid abuse and addiction -- Introduction -- An introduction to the anabolic steroids -- Medial uses of anabolic steroids -- The legal status of anabolic steroids -- Scope of the problem of steroid abuse -- Sources and methods of steroid abuse -- Problems associated with anabolic steroid abuse -- Complications of steroid abuse -- Are anabolic steroids addictive? -- Summary -- 18. The over-the-counter analgesics : unexpected agents of abuse -- Introduction -- A short history of the OTC analgesics -- Medical uses of the OTC analgesics -- Pharmacology of the OTC analgesics -- Normal dosage levels of OTC analgesics -- Complications caused by use of OTC analgesics -- Overdose of OTC analgesics -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"13. Marijuana abuse and addiction -- Introduction -- History of marijuana use in the United States -- A question of potency -- A technical point -- Scope of the problem of marijuana abuse -- Pharmacology of marijuana -- Methods of administration -- Subjective effects of marijuana -- Adverse effects of occasional marijuana use -- Consequences of chronic marijuana abuse -- The addiction potential of marijuana -- Summary -- 14. Opiate abuse and addiction -- Introduction -- I. The medical uses of narcotic analgesics -- A short history of the narcotic analgesics -- The classification of narcotic analgesics -- Where opium is produced -- Current medical uses of the narcotic analgesics -- Pharmacology of the narcotic analgesics -- Neuroadaptation to narcotic analgesics -- Subjective effects of narcotic analgesics when used in medical practice -- Complications caused by narcotic analgesics when used in medical practice -- Fentanyl -- Buprenorphine -- II. Opiates as drugs of abuse -- The mystique of heroin -- Other narcotic analgesics that might be abused -- Methods of opiate abuse -- Scope of the problem of opiate abuse and addiction -- Complications caused by chronic opiate abuse -- Overdose of illicit opiates -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"8. Chronic alcohol abuse and addiction -- Introduction -- Scope of the problem -- Is there a "typical" alcohol-dependent person? -- Alcohol tolerance, dependence, and "craving" : signposts of alcoholism -- Complications of chronic alcohol use -- Summary -- 9. Abuse and addiction to the barbiturates and barbiturate-like drugs -- Introduction -- Early pharmacological therapy of anxiety disorders and insomnia -- History and current medical uses of the barbiturates -- Pharmacology of the barbiturates -- Subjective effects of the barbiturates at normal dosage levels -- Complications of he barbiturates at normal dosage levels -- Effects of the barbiturates at above-normal levels -- Neuroadaptation, tolerance to, and dependence on the barbiturates -- Barbiturate-like drugs -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"26. The evaluation of substance-use problems -- Introduction -- The theory behind alcohol- and drug-use evaluations -- Screening -- Assessment -- Diagnosis -- The assessor and data privacy -- Diagnostic rules -- The assessment format -- Other sources of information -- The outcome of the evaluation process -- Summary -- 27. The process of intervention -- Introduction -- A definition of intervention -- Characteristics of the intervention process -- The mechanics of intervention -- Family intervention -- Intervention with other forms of chemical addiction -- The ethics of intervention -- Intervention via the court system -- Other forms of intervention -- Summary -- 28. The treatment of chemical dependency -- Introduction -- Characteristics of the substance-abuse rehabilitation professional -- The Minnesota model of chemical-dependency treatment -- The treatment plan -- Other treatment formats for chemical dependency -- Aftercare programs -- Summary -- 29. Treatment formats for chemical-dependency rehabilitation -- Introduction -- Outpatient treatment programs -- Inpatient treatment programs -- Inpatient or outpatient treatment? -- Partial hospitalization options -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"19. Tobacco products and nicotine addiction -- Introduction -- History of tobacco use in the United States -- Scope of the problem -- Pharmacology of cigarette smoking -- The effects of nicotine use -- Nicotine addiction -- Complications of the chronic use of tobacco -- Summary -- 20. Chemicals and the neonate : the consequences of drug abuse during pregnancy -- Introduction -- Scope of the problem -- The fetal alcohol spectrum disorder -- Cocaine use during pregnancy -- Amphetamine use during pregnancy -- Opiate abuse during pregnancy -- Marijuana use during pregnancy -- Benzodiazepine use during pregnancy -- Hallucinogen use during pregnancy -- Buspirone use during pregnancy -- Disulfiram use during pregnancy -- Cigarette use during pregnancy -- Over-the-counter analgesic use during pregnancy -- Inhalant abuse during pregnancy -- Summary -- 21. Hidden faces of chemical dependency -- Introduction -- Women and addiction : an often unrecognized problem -- Addiction and the homeless -- Substance use problems and the elderly -- The homosexual and substance abuse -- Substance abuse and the disabled -- Substance abuse and ethnic minorities -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"5. Addiction as a disease of the human spirit -- Introduction -- The rise of western civilization, or how the spirit was lost -- Diseases of the mind, diseases of the spirit : the mind-body question -- The growth of addiction : the circle narrows -- The circle of addiction : addicted priorities -- Some games of addiction -- Honesty as a part of the recovery process -- False pride : the disease of the spirit -- Denial, rationalization, projection, and minimization : the four horsemen of addiction -- Summary -- 6. An introduction to pharmacology -- Introduction -- The prime effect and side effects of chemicals -- Drug forms and how drugs are administered -- Bioavailability -- The drug half-life -- The effective dose -- The lethal dose index -- The therapeutic index -- Peak effects -- The site of action -- The blood-brain barrier -- Summary -- 7. Alcohol : humans' oldest recreational chemical -- Introduction -- A brief history of alcohol -- How alcohol is produced -- Alcohol today -- Scope of the problem of alcohol use -- Pharmacology of alcohol -- The blood alcohol level -- Subjective effects of alcohol on the individual : at normal doses in the average drinker -- Effects of alcohol at intoxicating doses : for the average drinker -- Medical complications of alcohol use in the average drinker -- Alcohol use and accidental injury or death -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"34. Self-help groups -- The twelve steps of alcoholics anonymous -- Introduction -- The history of AA -- Elements of AA -- AA and religion -- One "A" is for anonymous -- AA and outside organizations -- The primary purpose of AA -- Of AA and recovery -- Sponsorship -- AA and psychological theory -- How does AA work? -- Outcome studies : the effectiveness of AA -- Narcotics anonymous -- Al-Anon and Alateen -- Support groups other than AA -- Criticism of the AA/12-step movement -- Summary -- 35. The debate around legalization -- Introduction -- The debate over medicalization -- The "war on drugs" : the making of a national disaster -- Summary -- 36. Crime and drug use -- Introduction -- Criminal activity and drug use : partners in a dance? -- Urine toxicology testing in the workplace -- Unseen victims of street drug chemistry -- Drug analogs : the "designer" drugs -- Adulterants -- Drug use and violence : the unseen connection -- Summary -- Appendix 1. Alcohol abuse situation sample assessment -- Appendix 2. Chemical dependency situation sample assessment -- Appendix 3. The "Jellinek" chart for alcoholism -- Appendix 4. Drug classification schedule -- Glossary."@en
schema:description"1. Why worry about recreational chemical abuse? -- Introduction -- Who treats those who abuse or are addicted to chemicals? -- The cope of the problem of chemical abuse/addiction -- The cost of chemical abuse/addiction in the United States -- Why is it so difficult to understand the drug abuse problem in the United States? -- Summary -- 2. What do we mean when we say substance abuse and addiction? -- Introduction -- The continuum of chemical use -- Definitions of terms used in this book -- What do we really know about the addictive disorders? -- The state of the art : unanswered questions, uncertain answers -- Summary -- 3. The medical model of chemical addiction -- Introduction -- Why do people abuse chemicals? -- What do we mean when we say that someone is "addicted" to chemicals? -- Summary -- 4. Are people predestined to become addicted to chemicals? -- Introduction -- Multiple models -- Reaction against the disease model of addiction -- The final common pathway theory of addiction -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"10. Abuse of and addiction of benzodiazepines and similar agents -- Introduction -- Medical uses of benzodiazepines -- Pharmacology of the benzodiazepines -- Side effects of the benzodiazepines when used at normal dosage levels -- Neuroadaptation to benzodiazepines and abuse/addiction to these agents -- Complications caused by benzodiazepine use at normal dosage levels -- Subjective experience of benzodiazepine use -- Long-term consequences of chronic benzodiazepine use -- Buspirone -- Zolpidem -- Zaleplon -- Rohypnol -- Summary -- 11. Abuse of and addiction to amphetamines and CNS stimulants -- Introduction -- I. The CNS stimulants as used in medical practice -- The amphetamine-like drugs -- The amphetamines -- II. CNS stimulant abuse -- Scope of the problem of CNS stimulant abuse and addiction -- Effects of the CNS stimulants when abused -- Summary -- 12. Cocaine -- Introduction -- A brief overview of cocaine -- Cocaine in recent U.S. history -- Cocaine today -- Pharmacology of cocaine -- How illicit cocaine is produced -- How cocaine is abused -- Subjective effects of cocaine when it is abused -- Complications of cocaine abuse/addiction -- Summary --"@en
schema:description"30. The process of recovery -- Introduction -- The decision to seek treatment -- The stages of recovery -- Specific points to address in the treatment of addiction to common drugs of abuse -- Summary -- 31. Problems frequently encountered in the treatment of chemical dependency -- Introduction -- Limit testing by clients in treatment -- Treatment noncompliance -- Relapse and relapse prevention -- "Cravings" and "urges" -- The "using" dream -- Controlled drinking -- The uncooperative client -- Toxicology testing -- The addicted patient with chronic pain issues -- Insurance reimbursement policies -- D.A.R.E. and psychoeducational intervention programs -- Summary -- 32. Pharmacological intervention tactics and substance abuse -- Introduction -- Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence -- Pharmacological treatment of opiate addiction -- Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction -- Pharmacological treatment of amphetamine abuse/dependence -- Pharmacological treatment of nicotine dependence -- Summary -- 33. Substance abuse/addiction and infectious disease -- Introduction -- Why is infectious disease such a common complication of alcohol/drug abuse? -- The pneumonias -- Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) -- Tuberculosis (TB) -- Viral hepatitis Summary --"@en
schema:description"22. The dual-diagnosis client : chemical addition and mental illness -- Introduction -- Definitions -- Dual-diagnosis clients : a diagnostic challenge -- Why worry about the dual-diagnosis client? -- The scope of the problem -- Characteristics of dual-diagnosis clients -- Psychopathology and drug of choice -- Problems in working with dual-diagnosis clients -- Treatment approaches -- Summary -- 23. Chemical abuse by children and adolescents -- Introduction -- The importance of childhood and adolescence in the evolution of substance-use problems -- Scope of the problem -- Why do adolescents use chemicals? -- The adolescent abuse/addiction dilemma : how much is too much? -- Possible diagnostic criteria for adolescent drug/alcohol problems -- The special needs of the adolescent in a substance-abuse rehabilitation program -- Summary -- 24. Codependency and enabling -- Introduction -- Enabling -- Codependency -- Reactions to the concept of codependency -- Summary -- 25. Addiction and the family -- Introduction -- Scope of the problem -- Addiction and marriage -- Addiction and the family -- The adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) movement -- Summary --"@en
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