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The coolie trade : the traffic in Chinese laborers to Latin America 1847-1874

Author: Arnold J Meagher
Publisher: [Philadelphia, Pa.] : Xlibris Corporation, ©2008.
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Meagher, Arnold J.
Coolie trade.
[Philadelphia, Pa.] : Xlibris Corporation, c2008
(OCoLC)608986890
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Arnold J Meagher
ISBN: 9781436309431 1436309433 9781436309424 1436309425
OCLC Number: 227984773
Notes: Based on the author's doctoral thesis.
Description: 486 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
Responsibility: Arnold J. Meagher.

Table of Contents:

by ArnoldJMeagher (WorldCat user on 2008-09-13)

Table of Contents ABBREVIATIONS USED IN FOOTNOTES ................................................. 15 AUTHOR’S NOTE ......................................................................................... 17 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................... 19 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 21 CHAPTER I THE INTERCONTINENTAL SEARCH FOR LABORERS .............................................................. 27 The Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Emancipation of Slaves .......................................... 27 The Growth of Sugar Plantations and Demands for Labor ..................................................... 29 Indenture: Britain’s Reluctant Compromise ........................ 34 The Labor Needs of Cuba, Peru, and Brazil ........................ 40 The Reputation of the Chinese as Laborers ........................ 48 CHAPTER II RECRUITING LABORERS ON THE CHINA COAST ...... 52 The Beginnings of Chinese Emigration .............................. 52 Nature and Causes of Chinese Emigration ......................... 58 Offi cial Attitude of the Chinese Government ..................... 62 Geographical Origin of Emigrants ...................................... 66 Recruiting Techniques ........................................................ 71 Recruiting Female Emigrants .............................................. 82 CHAPTER III THE PORTS OF DEPARTURE ....................................... 92 In the Footsteps of the Opium Trade .................................. 92 The Port of Amoy .............................................................. 93 Swatow and Namoa ........................................................... 98 The Port of Hong Kong ................................................... 102 Canton and Whampoa ..................................................... 107 Shanghai, Wusung, and Ningpo ....................................... 111 The Port of Macau ........................................................... 115 CHAPTER IV THE VOYAGE TO THE NEW WORLD ...................... 129 Immigration to Southeast Asia ......................................... 130 Immigration Expands Westward ....................................... 135 Windfall Profi ts ................................................................ 140 Ocean Routes ................................................................... 150 Outfi tting a Coolie Ship ................................................... 153 Embarkation .................................................................... 157 Discipline on Board .......................................................... 159 Disease ............................................................................. 163 Mortality at Sea ................................................................ 168 CHAPTER V MUTINIES—GAMBLES FOR LIBERTY AND PLUNDER ............................................................. 174 Mutinies Condemned ...................................................... 174 Sailors and Mutineers ....................................................... 179 The Mutinies ................................................................... 185 CHAPTER VI CHINESE INDENTURED LABORERS IN LATIN AMERICA (I) ................................................ 193 Early Contacts between China and the New World .......... 193 Chinese Laborers in Cuba ................................................ 201 Chinese Laborers in the Andean Countries ....................... 221 CHAPTER VII CHINESE INDENTURED LABORERS IN LATIN AMERICA (II) ............................................... 245 The Chinese in British, Dutch, and French Colonies ....... 245 Chinese Indentured Laborers in Brazil .............................. 262 Chinese Indentured Laborers in Other Latin American Countries ............................... 270 CHAPTER VIII WORLD OPINION AND THE TERMINATION OF THE “COOLIE TRADE” ............ 274 The “Coolie Trade” Condemned ...................................... 274 The Attitude of Western Governments ............................. 278 A Series of Atrocities ......................................................... 286 The Final Resolution ........................................................ 289 CHAPTER IX THE “COOLIE TRADE”—AN ASSESSMENT ............ 295 APPENDICES I. Legislation of the Governments of Spain and Cuba Pertaining to Chinese Immigration .......................... 301 II. Convention to Regulate the Engagement of Chinese Emigrants by British and French Subjects ............ 335 III. American Actions Against the “Coolie Trade” ................... 343 IV. Convention and Treaty between the Republic of Peru and the Emperor of China ................................................ 348 V. Samples of Contracts of Indenture .................................... 356 VI. Tables 25-49 ..................................................................... 371 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................... 407 INDEX ........................................................................................................... 481

Notes:

by ArnoldJMeagher (WorldCat user on 2008-09-13)

Kirkus Discoveries Review Date: MARCH 12, 2008 Publisher:Xlibris (477 pp.) Publication Date: May 2008 ISBN (hardback): 978-1-4363-0943-1 Classification: Non-Fiction: History THE COOLIE TRADE Author: Meagher, Arnold J. A thorough study of the roots of modern human trafficking and Chinese emigration. Against the backdrop of China’s rapid advance to the forefront of the world economy and sharp scrutiny over global trends in human trafficking, Meagher’s exhaustive survey of Chinese indentured labor is a richly informative, timely release. His volume, much broader in scope than the Latin America in his subtitle indicates, is a careful examination of cultural, political and socioeconomic factors that contributed to this phenomenon. Meagher argues that the termination of the African slave trade, an urgent need for laborers in the West and a deteriorating Chinese economy conspired to spawn the emigration of more than a quarter million Chinese laborers to Latin America in the span of 28 years. Beginning in 1847, Chinese emigration quickly evolved into a prosperous black market cottage industry that, alongside the illicit opium trade, attracted enterprising, often dubious characters. These overlords relentlessly plundered China’s human resources to satisfy a labor vacuum in the West. Scheming brokers often used any means available—false promises, deceit and fraud—to lure prey aboard ships. Victims of kidnapping account for more than a quarter of the human cargo, while appalling prison-like conditions, mutinies and disease resulted in a 12 percent mortality rate during the nine-month voyage. Great Britain and the United States abandoned the coolie trade in the mid 1860s after much public outcry. Trafficking, however, continued to flourish until 1874 aboard other ships sailing for Latin America, often destined for Cuba and Peru, where booming sugar, guano and mining industries demanded a steady flow of fresh workers. This authoritative account is acutely critical of the coolie trade as a means by which the slave trade continued in the West, but suggests it did have its advantages: challenging draconian Chinese taboos that once forbade emigration and introducing Chinese culture to Western society. The author’s fluid, conversational style elevates Meagher’s work from the weight that often bogs down other academic texts. Engaging and topical fare.

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