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The copyright protection of computer software in the United Kingdom

Author: Stanley Lai
Publisher: Oxford ; Portland, Or. : Hart Pub., 2000.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

This work analyses the scope of copyright protection for computer software in the United Kingdom,and examines challenges for the future.


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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Lai, Stanley.
Copyright protection of computer software in the United Kingdom.
Oxford ; Portland, Or. : Hart Pub., 2000
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Stanley Lai
ISBN: 1841130877 9781841130873
OCLC Number: 42834358
Description: xxvii, 250 pages ; 25 cm
Contents: Acknowledgements --
Table of Cases --
Table of Legislation --
Table of EU Directives --
Table of International Instruments --
1. Introduction --
I. Aims and Objectives --
II. Issues for Investigation --
III. Approach --
IV. Proposed Infringement Methodology --
V. Justification --
VI. The Relevance of Competition Law --
VII. Method and Plan --
Part 1. Subsistence of Copyright and Infringement Methodology --
2. Subsistence of Copyright and Infringement Analysis under US and UK Laws --
I. Introduction --
II. Subsistence of Copyright --
(a). Computer Programs as Protectable Works --
(b). Originality --
(c). Other Prohibited Acts under Section 16 CDPA --
(d). Secondary Infringement of Copyright --
(e). Moral Rights --
III. The Idea/Expression Dichotomy --
(a). The Realm of Ideas --
(b). Dichotomy under Threat --
(c). Basis for Applying the Dichotomy in the United Kingdom --
IV. Infringement Methodology: a Prescriptive Analysis of Substantial Similarity --
(a). Copyright Infringement of Computer Software: Literal Copying --
(b). Copyright Infringement of Computer Software; Non-Literal Copying --
V. Summary of Trends in US Infringement Methodology --
(a). Adoption of the Altai Test by Other Courts --
(b). Other Tests of Substantial Similarity --
(c). Proper Definition of Abstraction Levels --
(d). Observations --
VI. Conclusion --
3. Limiting Doctrines of Merger and Scenes a Faire --
I. Introduction --
II. Merger Doctrine --
(a). US Origins --
(b). Difficulties in Application --
(c). Traces of Merger in the United Kingdom --
III. Merger and Software Copyright Protection --
(a). The Operation of the Doctrine in the USA --
(b). Possibility of Applying Merger in the United Kingdom --
(c). Case Against the Application of the Doctrine of Merger --
(d). Case for the Application of the Doctrine of Merger --
IV. The Scenes a Faire Doctrine --
(a). The Origin and Development of Scenes a Faire --
(b). The Idea/Expression Dichotomy --
V. The Position of Scenes a Faire in English Law --
(a). Historical Accounts and Incidents --
(b). Plots, Themes, Characters and Dramatic Ideas --
(c). Case for the Direct Application of the Scenes a Faire Doctrine --
VI. Software Copyright: the Relevance of Scenes a Faire --
(a). Material for Exclusion --
(b). De Facto Standardisation --
(c). Video Games --
VII. Conclusion --
Part 2. The Scope of Copyright Protection of User Interfaces --
4. The Copyright Protection of User Interfaces --
I. Introduction --
(a). Report of the Australian Copyright Law Review Committee --
(b). Definitions --
II. Copyright Protection of User Interfaces in the USA: a Survey of Recent Cases and Determination of Protectable Elements --
(a). The Early Cases --
(b). The High-Water Mark for User Interface Protection: Lotus v Paperback --
(c). Contributions of the Ninth Circuit to User Interface Protection --
(d). A New Dawn --
(e). Other Courts: Clash of Circuits --
III. General Conclusions on User Interface Protection in the USA and its Impact on UK Software Copyright Law --
(a). Ramifications for UK Software Copyright Law: Infringement Analysis --
(b). John Richardson v Flanders: a User Interface Case --
(c). Two Avenues of Protection --
IV. Protection of Screen Displays under UK Copyright Law --
(a). The Protection of Static Displays --
(b). A Running Sequence of Displays: Protection as Films or Computer-Generated Works under the CDPA --
V. Policy/Economic Justifications --
(a). Menell's Economic Analysis --
(b). Policy and Economic Considerations in Lotus v Borland --
VI. Conclusion. 5. Copyright Protection of Video Games --
I. Introduction --
II. Protection of Video Games in the USA --
III. Protection of Video Games in the United Kingdom --
(a). Play Mode/Attract Mode: Film Protection of Screen Images --
(b). Other Products of Execution --
IV. Conclusion --
Part 3. Reverse Engineering and Defences --
6. Reverse Engineering --
I. Introduction --
(a). Structure --
(b). Reverse Engineering Defined --
(c). Implications of the Adaptation Right: Section 21 CDPA --
II. The Software Directive and Reverse Engineering --
(a). Origins of the Software Directive --
(b). Protection of Interfaces --
(c). Reverse Engineering Techniques other than Decompilation --
(d). Decompilation --
III. Implementation of the Software Directive in the CDPA --
(a). Decompilation under the CDPA --
(b). Reverse Engineering Techniques other than Decompilation under the CDPA --
IV. Reverse Engineering in the USA --
(a). Attitude of the US Supreme Court Towards Reverse Engineering Generally --
(b). Permissibility of Reverse Engineering under Section 117 USCA --
(c). Reverse Engineering and Fair Use: Section 107 USCA --
V. Reverse Engineering under US and UK Copyright Laws: Points of Contrast --
(a). Differences Between the Two Regimes --
(b). Similarities Between the Two Regimes --
(c). Future Compatibility --
VI. Commonwealth Developments --
(a). Australia --
(b). Singapore --
VII. Conclusion --
7. Defences and Other Permitted Acts --
I. Introduction --
II. Section 29 CDPA: Fair Dealing for Research and Private Study and its Continued Relevance for UK Software Copyright Law --
(a). Section 29(4) CDPA --
(b). Continued Relevance of the Fair Dealing Defence --
(c). Meaning of "Research and Private Study" --
(d). Whether the Dealing is "Fair" in a Reverse Engineering Situation to which Section 29(1) CDPA Applies --
III. Back-up Copies --
IV. Error Correction and Maintenance --
(a). "Error Correction" Defined --
(b). Extent of "Lawful Use" --
(c). Decompilation for the Purposes of Error Correction --
V. Miscellaneous Exceptions: Other Permitted Acts --
(a). Section 56 CDPA: Transfers of Licensed Software --
(b). Common Law Defence of Non-Derogation of Grant: the Retreat of British Leyland --
VI. Conclusion --
Part 4. Challenges for the Future --
8. Software Copyright Protection in Relation to Internet Technology --
I. Introduction --
II. Copyright Issues and the WWW: Applicable Provisions of the CDPA --
(a). Websites as "Computer Programs" --
(b). Websites as Compilation/Database or Computer-Generated Works --
(c). Is a Website a Cable Programme Service? --
(d). Websites as "Broadcasts"? --
(e). The Scourge of WWW Links --
(f). Other Observations --
III. The Digital Agenda --
(a). Temporary Reproduction: Articles 2 and 5 Proposed Directive --
(b). Technical Protection Systems and Anti-Circumvention Legislation --
IV. Conclusion --
9. Database Protection in the United Kingdom: the New Deal and its Effects on Software Protection --
I. Introduction --
II. Definitional Significance --
III. Copyright Protection of Databases --
IV. The Future of Computer-Generated Works --
V. The New Database Right --
VI. Impact of Database Copyright Provisions on Software Copyright Protection --
(a). Originality and Substantial Similarity --
(b). Computer Programs Contained within Databases --
(c). "Databases" Contained within Computer Programs --
(d). Computer Programs as Compilations of Sub-Programs --
VII. Conclusion --
10. The Copyright-Contract Interface and Software Protection --
I. Introduction --
II. Shrink-Wrap Licensing --
(a). Users' Rights Implied by Law --
(b). Description of "Shrink-Wrapping" --
(c). Shrink-Wraps under English Law --
(d). Buyer's Remedies against the Software Supplier --
(e). Shrink-Wrap Licences in the USA: Possible Application? --
III. Implied Licences and Users' Rights in Software Transactions --
(a). Implied Licences: General Principles --
(b). Implied Licences and Patent Law: Betts v Willmott --
(c). Implied Licences and Copyright Law --
(d). Further Extensions of the Betts v Willmott Principle --
(e). Shareware and Implied Licences --
IV. Conclusion --
11. General Conclusion --
I. Application of UK Copyright to the WWW --
II. The Digital Agenda --
III. UK Database Legislation --
IV. The Interface between Contract and Copyright --
Appendix. Technical Background --
Appendix. Technical Background: Software Design, Functionality, Reverse Engineering and Internet Issues --
I. The Software Designing Process: an Overview --
II. How a Computer Functions --
III. Reverse Engineering Processes: a Technical Background --
IV. The "Clean Room" Procedure --
V. Technical Issues and the WWW --
Responsibility: Stanley Lai.


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This is a well-written and highly useful book. Jeremy Phillips, Slaughter and May, London European Intellectual Property Review July 2001 of the most attractive features of this book is the Read more...

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