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Corrosion failures : theory, case studies, and solutions

Author: K Elayaperumal; V S Raja
Publisher: Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2015]
Series: Wiley series in corrosion.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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* Satisfies the needs of practicing engineers looking for case studies related to their own experience. * Corrosion Failures helps the corrosion engineers to understand the corrosion science  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Elayaperumal, K. (Kailasanathan), 1937-
Corrosion failures.
Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2015]
(DLC) 2015000640
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: K Elayaperumal; V S Raja
ISBN: 9780470455647 0470455640
OCLC Number: 893452108
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xx, 229 pages ; 25 cm.
Contents: About the Authors xiii Foreword xv Preface xvii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The Phenomenon of Corrosion 1 1.2 Importance of Corrosion 2 1.2.1 Cost of Corrosion: Direct and Indirect 2 1.3 The Purpose and Format of the Book 6 References 7 2 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Electrochemical Corrosion 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Thermodynamics 10 2.2.1 Corrosion Reactions and Gibbs Free Energy Change 10 2.2.2 Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion 11 2.2.3 Summary 16 2.3 Kinetics of Corrosion 17 2.3.1 Description of a Corrosion System 18 2.3.2 Predicting Corrosion 19 2.3.3 Passivity 21 2.3.4 Summary 22 2.4 Corrosion Evaluation and Monitoring 23 2.4.1 Electrochemical Techniques 24 2.4.2 Non-electrochemical Techniques 26 References 27 3 Forms of Corrosion 29 3.1 Introduction 29 3.2 Uniform Corrosion 30 3.3 Galvanic Corrosion 31 3.3.1 Factors Affecting Galvanic Corrosion 31 3.3.2 Controlling Galvanic Corrosion 34 3.4 Pitting Corrosion 35 3.4.1 Pitting Process and Pitting Morphology 35 3.4.2 Factors Affecting Pitting Corrosion 35 3.4.3 Controlling Pitting Corrosion 38 3.5 Differential Aeration-Assisted Corrosion (Crevice Under Deposit and Water-Line Corrosion) 39 3.5.1 Characteristics of Differential Aeration Corrosion 39 3.5.2 Factors Affecting Differential Aeration Corrosion 40 3.5.3 Differential Aeration Corrosion Control 41 3.6 Intergranular Corrosion 41 3.6.1 IGC of Stainless Steels 41 3.6.2 Weld Decay of Stainless Steels 45 3.7 Selective Dissolution/Selective Attack 47 3.7.1 Characteristics of Selective Dissolution 47 3.7.2 Dezincification 47 3.7.3 Graphitic Corrosion 49 3.8 Flow-Assisted/Erosion/Cavitation Corrosion 50 3.8.1 Flow-Assisted Corrosion (FAC) 50 3.8.2 Erosion Corrosion 51 3.8.3 Cavitation Damage 55 3.9 Stress Corrosion Cracking 55 3.9.1 Characteristics of SCC 56 3.9.2 Effect of SCC on Mechanical Properties 57 3.9.3 Factors Affecting SCC 59 3.9.4 Controlling SCC 63 3.10 Hydrogen Damage 63 3.10.1 Low Temperature Hydrogen-Induced Cracking 63 3.10.2 High Temperature Hydrogen Damage/Decarburization 67 3.11 Stray Current Corrosion 68 3.12 High Temperature Corrosion 70 3.12.1 Oxidation 70 3.12.2 Sulfidation 71 3.12.3 Hot Corrosion 71 3.12.4 Chloridation 71 3.12.5 Carburization/Metal Dusting 72 References 72 4 Materials of Construction for Chemical Process Industries 75 4.1 Introduction 75 4.2 Cast Irons 76 4.3 Carbon Steels 78 4.3.1 Corrosion 79 4.3.2 Stress Corrosion Cracking Including Hydrogen Cracking and Sulfide Stress Cracking 80 4.3.3 Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking 81 4.3.4 Favorable and Unfavorable Points in Using Carbon Steel as MOC 82 4.4 Low Alloy Steels 82 4.5 Stainless Steels 86 4.5.1 Ferritic/Martensitic Stainless Steels 87 4.5.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels 88 4.5.3 Super Austenitic Stainless Steels 92 4.5.4 Duplex Stainless Steels 94 4.6 Nickel Base Alloys 96 4.7 Copper Base Alloys 96 4.8 Titanium 99 4.9 Aluminum Alloys 100 4.10 Nonmetallic Materials 102 4.11 Ceramics/Inorganic Oxide Glasses 103 4.12 Organic Polymers/Plastics 103 4.13 Materials Selection for Corrosion Prevention in Hydrocarbon Service 104 4.13.1 Materials Selection as per NACE MR0175 107 References 109 5 Failure Analysis Procedure with Reference to Corrosion Failures 111 5.1 Introduction 111 5.2 Purpose of Failure Analysis Investigations 112 5.3 Failure Analysis Steps 112 5.3.1 Site Visit 112 5.3.2 Tests on the Samples 114 5.3.3 Analysis Interpretation and Diagnosis of the Failure 116 5.4 Failure Analysis Report: Contents and Preparation 117 References 118 6 Case Studies 119 6.1 Preamble 119 Classification of Case Studies 120 General 123 1 Bromine Preheater in a Pharmaceutical Fine Chemical Plant 124 2 Structurals in a White Clay Manufacturing Plant 125 3 Sea Water Cooler Tubes in an Oil Refinery 126 4 Package Boiler Tube in an Organic Chemical Plant 127 5 Shell of a Packed Column for Ammonia and Water Contact in an Ammonia Processing Plant 128 6 Instrumentation Tube in an Offshore Platform of an Oil and Gas Plant 129 7 Plate Type Heat Exchanger/Cooler in a Sulfuric Acid Plant 130 8 Dissimilar Stainless Steel Weld in an Organic Chemical Plant 131 9 Digestor Preheater in a Pulp and Paper Plant 132 10 Esterification Column in an Organic Chemical Plant 133 11 Half Pipe Limpet Coil of a Stirred Reactor in an Organic Chemical Plant 134 12 Firewater Lines Buried Underground in an Organic Chemical Plant 135 13 Alcohol Superheater in a PVC Manufacturing Petrochemical Plant 136 14 Package Boiler Tubes in an Alcohol Distillery Plant 137 15 Reducers in a Reformer Tube in an Ammonia Plant of a Fertilizer Industry 138 16 Pressure Safety Valve (PSV) Fitting on Instrumentation Tubes in an Off-shore Platform in an Oil and Gas Company 139 17 Water Drum (Mud Drum) Shell in a Coal-Fired Steam Boiler 140 18 Tubes in a Kettle Re-boiler of an Amine Plant 141 19 Evaporator Tubes in an Organic Chemical Plant 142 20 Top Tube Sheet Vent Equalizer Weld Zone of a Gas Cooler in a Petrochemical Plant 143 21 Bottom Row Tubes in a Kettle Re-boiler of an Organic Chemical Plant 144 22 Cages for Filter Bags in an Inorganic Chemical Plant 145 23 High Temperature Generator (HTG) Tubes of Vapor Absorption Chiller of an Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Unit 146 24 Gasket Seat in a Shell and Tube Condenser in a Petrochemical Plant 147 25 Acid Gas CO2 Cooler Condenser in Ammonia Plant of a Fertilizer Unit 148 26 Naphtha Coolers in a Fertilizer Plant 149 27 U Type Jet Dyeing Machine in a Textile Dyeing Unit 150 28 Acetic Acid Manufacturing Unit in a Petrochemical Plant 151 29 Large Stainless Steel Pipeline in a Urea Plant of a Fertilizer Unit 152 30 Heat Recovery System of a PVC Unit in a Petrochemical Plant 153 31 EDC Furnace Coil of a PVC Plant in a Petrochemical Unit 155 32 Internals of a Stirred Reactor Processing Ortho Phosphoric Acid 157 33 Salt Evaporator 158 34 Cooler/Condenser Tubes of an Absorption Chiller Machine of an Airconditioning Plant 159 35 Nitro Mass Cooler in an Organic Chemical Plant 161 36 Fertilizer Industry Ammonia Plant Natural Gas Feed Preheater Coil 162 37 Petrochemical Unit. PVC Plant. Radiant Coils of the EDC Pyrolysis Furnace 164 38 Exhaust Gas Boiler in a Sugar Mill 166 39 Domestic Storage Water Heater 167 40 Stirred Reactor in a Rubber Chemical Plant 168 41 Stainless Steel Tubes During Long Storage in Packed Condition 169 42 Fertilizer Plant. Ammonia Units. Secondary Waste Heat Boiler Tubes 170 43 Hospital Hydroclave for Treating Wastes 172 44 Petrochemical Plant. Phosgene Absorption Column Internals 174 45 Fertilizer Unit Ammonia Plant Start-Up Preheater Outlet Line 176 46 Petrochemical Plant Underground Fire Water Pipelines 177 47 Monel Clad Evaporator in a Pure Water Plant 178 48 Loop Steamer Machine in a Textile Dyeing Unit 179 49 Rubber Chemicals Plant: Leakage in Process Pipelines 180 50 Clay Drier in a Clay manufacturing Plant 181 51 Hydrogen Sulfide Processing Plant 182 52 Textile Bleaching Vessel in a Dyeing Industry 184 53 Condenser of an Absorption Chilling Machine in an Air-Conditioning Plant 185 54 Petrochemical Complex: Lube Oil Cooler Tubes of Captive Gas Turbine Power Plant 187 55 Petrochemical Plant: Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) Exchanging Heat Between Spent Caustic and Vent Gas in a Cracker Plant 188 56 Inorganic Chemical Plant: Distillation Pots 189 57 Starch Industry: Economizer Tubes of High Pressure Captive Boilers 190 58 Rubber Chemical Plant Crump Slurry Tank 191 59 Petrochemical Plant: Gas Cracker Unit Dilute Steam Kettle Re-boiler 193 60 Textile Dyeing Unit: Jet Dyeing Machine Shell 194 61 Oil Refinery: 12 Inch Dia. Overhead Pipeline 195 62 Fertilizer Plant: CO2 Compressor Inter-stage Cooler 196 63 Oil Refinery: Flash Crude Heater Shell Cover Drain Nozzle 198 64 Oil Refinery: Light Cycle Oil Steam Generator 199 65 Organic Chemical Plant: High Pressure Autoclave in R&D Laboratory 200 66 Fertilizer Industry: Captive Power Plant: Economizer Tube 202 67 Inorganic Chemicals Plant: Reactor Shell 203 68 Reactor for an Organic Chemical Plant 204 69 Fertilizer Unit. Ammonia Plant. Primary Waste Heat Boiler 205 70 Pulp and Paper Plant. TL Vertical Screen Inlet Line of the Paper Section 207 71 Fertilizer Plant. Underground Sections of Cooling Water and Fire Hydrant Water Pipe Lines 208 72 Thermal Power Plant. Condenser Cooling Sea Water In-take Line. Butter Fly Valve 210 73 Petrochemical Plant. Pressure Transmitter Sensors 211 74 Organic Chemicals Plant: Coolers and Condensors 212 75 Organic Chemicals Plant: Alcohol Vaporizer 214 76 Organic Chemicals Plant. Thermowells 215 77 Fertilizer Unit. Ammonia Plant. Gas to Gas Heat Exchanger 216 78 Oil Refinery. Sulfolane Recovery Column Reboiler 217 79 Oil Refinery. Hydrocarbon vapor-liquid heat exchanger 218 80 Chlor-Alkali Plant Stainless Steel Laboratory Reactor 219 Index 221
Series Title: Wiley series in corrosion.
Responsibility: K. Elayaperumal, V.S. Raja.
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