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Criminal investigation

Author: Ronald F Becker
Publisher: Sudbury, Mass. : Jones and Bartlett Publishers, ©2009.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 3rd edView all editions and formats
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Criminal Investigations & Forensic Science

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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Ronald F Becker
ISBN: 9780763755225 0763755222 9781449629786 1449629784
OCLC Number: 227191527
Description: xviii, 581 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Contents: 1. Introduction to criminal investigation --
Perspective --
Fundamentals of forensic science --
Parsimony --
Specification --
Scientific method --
Observation --
Recording --
Taxonomy --
Hypothesis --
Theory --
Inductive reasoning --
Deductive reasoning --
Importance of forensic evidence --
Medical contributions --
Forensic pathology --
Forensic serology --
Forensic toxicology --
Forensic odontology --
Objectives of an investigation --
Investigator's role --
Selecting investigators --
The legal team --
Admissibility of evidence --
2. A brief history of criminal investigation --
Law enforcement developments in London and New York City --
Birth of scientific investigation --
Scientific investigation in the United States --
The growth of forensic science --
Development of crime laboratories --
The myth of crime lab invincibility. 3. The crime scene --
First response --
Collecting, handling and preserving evidence --
Taking notes --
Use of notes --
The walk-through --
Recording the crime scene --
Crime scene photography --
Admissibility of images --
Logging photographs --
The crime scene sketch --
Virtual crime scenes --
Dry-land crime scene searches --
Search methods --
World Trade Center --
Underwater crime scene searches --
Search briefing --
Currents --
Surf, waves, and tide --
Marking the perimeter --
The underwater search --
The temporal and geographic location of evidence --
Mass disasters --
4. The law of search and seizure --
The U.S. Constitution and due process --
The Fourth Amendment --
The Fifth amendment --
The Sixth Amendment --
The Exclusionary Rule --
History --
Exceptions --
Search warrants --
Warrantless searches based on probable cause --
Search incident to arrest --
Warrantless searches based on reasonableness --
Consent searches --
Emergency searches --
Exigent circumstances exception --
Plain-view searches --
Open-field exception --
Vehicle inventories --
Stop and frisk --
Police roadblocks --
Sobriety checkpoints. 5. Bloodstain evidence --
Bloodstain interpretation --
Bloodstain mechanics --
Free-falling blood --
Impact angles --
Point of convergence --
Point of origin --
Low-velocity-impact bloodstains --
Medium-velocity-impact bloodstains --
High-velocity-impact bloodstains --
Testing blood evidence --
Catalytic tests --
Crystal tests --
Blood typing --
Handling blood evidence --
Collecting blood --
Handling guidelines --
6. Suspect identification --
Biometric identification --
Iris scanning --
Digital fingerprints --
Fingerprints --
Fingerprint individuality --
Fingerprint immutability --
Classifying prints --
Detecting prints --
Developing prints --
Handling and preserving prints --
DNA typing --
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis --
Polymerase chain reaction analysis --
Advances in DNA analysis --
Handling DNA evidence --
Composite identifications --
Lineups. 7. Managing criminal investigations and cultivating sources of information --
Preliminary investigation --
Solvability factors --
Crime-scene processing during the preliminary investigation --
Conviction is the objective --
Managing criminal investigations --
Incident Command System --
National Incident Management systems --
Sources of information --
Community policing and criminal investigation --
Eyewitnesses and victims --
Informants --
Surveillance --
Interviewing --
Criminal profiling --
8. Interrogation --
Successful interrogations --
Preparing for the interrogation --
Distinguishing between interrogations and interviews --
Building a good relationship --
Allowing enough time --
The Reid Technique --
Written statements and confessions --
Confession Law. 9. Firearms investigation --
Physical evidence --
Ballistics and firearms identification --
Nation Integrated Ballistics Information Network --
Types of firearms --
Pistols --
Rifles --
Assault rifles --
Machine guns --
Shotguns --
The firing mechanism --
Ammunition --
Types of bullets --
Propellants --
Primers --
Cartridge cases --
Shot shells --
Firearms and forensics --
The early history of the examination of firearms --
Examination of weapons --
Examination objectives --
Legal aspects --
Class characteristics --
Cartridge evidence --
Charin of custody --
Expert testimony --
Defense questions --
Submerged firearms --
Recovery purposes --
Serial numbers --
Other trace evidence --
Barrel blowback --
Physical evidence predicates --
10. Death investigation --
Who kills? --
Homicide investigations --
The investigative protocol --
The investigative team --
The staged crime scene --
Forensic inconsistencies --
Autoerotic asphyxiation --
Recovering human remains --
Surface recovery --
Excavation techniques --
Anthropological considerations --
The autopsy --
Identifying the deceased --
Window-of-death determinations --
Algo Mortis --
Ocular changes --
Postmortem lividity --
Postmortem rigidity --
Cadaveric spasm --
Stomach contents --
Putrefaction --
Forensic entomology --
Insect colonization of a corpse --
Entomological evidence --
Cause of death --
Moving the body after death --
Insects and drugs --
Collection and preservation of insects --
Gunshot wounds --
Contact wounds --
Close-range wounds --
Distant wounds --
Direction of fire --
Shotgun wounds --
Sharp-force deaths --
Homicides --
Self-inflicted stab wounds. 11. Assault --
Aggravated assault --
Triage of the victim --
Rendering First Aid and summoning medical assistance --
Preserving the crime scene --
Questioning the victim and witnesses --
Processing the crime scene --
Elements of proof --
Domestic violence --
Types of abuse --
The cycle of violence --
Investigating child abuse --
Identifying child abuse --
Types of injuries --
Legal justifications for the use of force --
12. Robbery --
Robbers --
Street robberies --
Residential robberies --
Commercial robberies --
Vehicle robberies --
Modus Operandi --
Target selection --
Attire or disguise --
Method of entry --
Words and notes employed --
Weapons chosen and used --
Type of force or intimidation used --
Manner of the loot grab --
Departure signature --
Method of departure --
Processing the robbery scene --
Robber checklist --
Prosecutorial summary. 13. Sexual assault --
Elements of sexual assault --
Spousal immunity --
Past sexual conduct --
Resistance --
Aggravated sexual assault --
The forced sexual assault investigation --
Medical attention and examination of the victim --
Interviewing the victim --
Gathering evidence --
Hair --
Fibers --
Sexual assault profiling --
Power-reassurance rapist --
Power-assertive rapist --
Anger-retaliatory rapist --
Anger-excitation rapist --
Nuisance sex crimes --
Pornography and criminality --
14. Theft and burglary --
Types of burglary --
Entry techniques --
Tool marks and other impressions --
The burglary investigation --
Motor vehicle theft --
Carjacking --
Applicable case law --
Ownership --
Intent to commit theft --
Intent in the case of burglary. 15. Drug offenses --
The addict myth --
Drug analysis --
Screening tests --
Preparing materials for field testing --
Confirmatory tests --
Narcotics --
Heroin --
Methadone --
Codeine --
Hallucinogens --
Marijuana --
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide --
Phencyclidine --
Depressants --
Stimulants --
Amphetamines --
Cocaine --
Club drugs --
Drug regulation --
Drug investigations --
Drug prevention --
16. Arson --
Investigation of arson --
Arson evidence --
Motives for arson --
Incendiary evidence --
Collecting evidence --
Vessel arson --
Vessel explosions --
Relevant case law. 17. Terrorism --
Terrorists --
Weapons of terrorism --
Investigating terrorism --
Gathering intelligence --
Collection and preservation of evidence --
Terrorist organization logos --
Hostage negotiation --
The Stockholm Syndrome --
Hostage taker demands --
18. Organized crime --
Organized crime groups --
Italian-American crime families --
Outlaw motorcycle gangs --
New Wave organized crime groups --
Organized crime and applicable laws --
RICO --
Conspiracy laws --
Investigating organized crime --
Gathering intelligence --
Investigative Grand Juries. 19. White-collar crime --
Money laundering --
Confidence swindles --
Forgery and check fraud --
Questioned-document examination --
Handwriting comparison --
Typewriter comparison --
Computer printer comparison --
Computer-assisted crime --
Computer particularity and probable cause --
Warrant particularity --Computers and the First Amendment --
Conducting the search and seizure --
No-knock warrants --
Computer experts --
Determining what to seize --
The search --
Applicable case law --
Identity theft --
20. Underwater investigations --
Myths of underwater recovery operations --
Elements of underwater investigation --
The team --
Training --
Equipment --
Recovering submerged firearms --
Purposes of recovery --
Serial numbers --
Barrel blowback --
Body recovery --
Medicolegal aspects of underwater death --
Fingerprints --
Identification of submerged bodies --
Personal effects --
Shoe wear --
Postmortem changes --
Drowning --
Exudate --
Changes in skin --
Flotation --
Marine depredation --
Auto, aircraft, and vessel recovery --
Vehicular drownings and vehicle recoveries --
Automobile swim-around and exterior examination --
Evidence collection --
Lights --
Small aircraft recovery operations --
Vessel recoveries --
Boat accident investigation. 21. defense lawyers, prosecutors, and investigators --
The Defense --
Defensive burden and affirmative defenses --
Defense strategies --
Suppression hearings --
The Prosecution --
Jurisdiction --
Venue --
In-court identification --
Elements of the offense --
Investigators and trials --
Testimonial devices to avoid the truth --
Ethical testimony --
Preparing for trial --
Expected courtroom demeanor --
Prosecution summary --
22. Expert testimony --
Expert witness: a brief history --
The Feudal Era --
The Inquisition --
Experts and the Common Law --
Contemporary expert witnesses --
Who is a scientific expert? --
The police expert in criminal trials --
Appendix A: Direct examination of fingerprint experts --
Appendix B: Direct examination of the forensic chemist --
Appendix C: Letter of transmittal.
Responsibility: Ronald F. Becker.
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