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Criminal law and procedure

Author: John M Scheb
Publisher: Belmont, CA : Wadsworth Cengage Learning, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 7th edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
From the Publisher: Criminal Law And Procedure gives the reader substantive and procedural aspects of criminal law. In addition, the text provides important updates to criminal laws in the post 9-11 world, including white-collar crime, cybercrime, identity theft and much more.
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: John M Scheb
ISBN: 9780495809814 0495809810
OCLC Number: 401166741
Description: xxvi, 758 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
Contents: Preface --
Part 1: Legal Foundations Of Criminal Justice: --
1: Fundamentals of criminal law and procedure: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
What is a crime?: --
Felonies and misdemeanors --
Societal interests served by the criminal law --
Criminal law, morality, and justice --
Crime: an injury against society --
Criminal responsibility --
Role of the crime victim --
Criminal law distinguished from civil law --
Origins and sources of the criminal law: --
Development of law in the western world --
Development of the English common law --
Reception of the common law in America --
State and local authority to enact criminal prohibitions --
Federal authority to define crimes --
Model penal code --
Sources of procedural law --
Constitutional limitations: --
Bill of Rights --
Role of courts in developing the criminal law: --
Legal reasoning in judicial decisions --
References to statutes and judicial decisions --
Criminal process: --
Basic procedural steps --
Sieve effect --
Criminal sanctions --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
2: Organization of the criminal justice system: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Legislatures: --
Legislative powers of congress --
Publication of federal statutes --
State legislatures --
Statutory interpretation --
Law enforcement agencies: --
Historical development --
Policing in modern America --
Prosecutorial agencies: --
Historical background --
Federal prosecutors --
State and local prosecutors --
Prosecutor's broad discretion --
Counsel for the defense: --
Representation of indigent defendants --
Role of defense attorneys --
Juries: --
Grand juries --
Trial juries --
Courts: --
Federal court system --
State court systems --
Contrasting judicial functions and environments --
Juvenile justice system: --
Historical basis --
Constitutional reform of juvenile justice --
Corrections system: --
Historical background --
Contemporary developments in criminal punishment --
Burgeoning prison population --
Future outlook --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Part 2: Substantive Criminal Law: --
3: Constitutional limitations on the prohibition of criminal conduct: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Importance of judicial review --
Unconstitutional per se and unconstitutional as applied --
Power to enact criminal laws: --
Police powers of state legislatures --
Federal lawmaking power --
Commerce clause --
Delimiting the crime of treason: --
Levying war against the United States --
Giving aid and comfort to the enemies of the United States --
Bills of Attainder and Ex Post Facto Laws: --
Bills of Attainder --
Ex Post Facto Laws --
Bill of Rights: --
Application of the Bill of Rights to state and local laws --
First Amendment freedom of expression: --
Advocacy of unlawful conduct --
Symbolic speech and expressive conduct --
Free expression versus maintenance of the public order --
Hate speech --
Obscenity --
Profanity --
Freedom of assembly --
Free exercise of religion: --
Unusual religious practices --
Refusal of medical treatment --
Right to keep and bear arms --
Doctrines of vagueness and overbreadth --
Freedom from compulsory self-incrimination --
Prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments --
Constitutional right of privacy: --
Abortion --
Privacy and sexual conduct --
Right to die --
Equal protection of the laws --
Standards of judicial review --
Importance of state constitutions --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
4: Elements of crimes and parties to crimes: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Actus Reus (Act Requirement): --
What is an act? --
When does failure to act constitute an act? --
Possession as a criminal act --
Status as a criminal act --
Mens Rea (criminal intent requirement) --
Concurrence of act and intent --
General and specific intent --
Model penal code approach to intent --
Doctrine of transferred intent --
Importance of determining the intent required --
Strict liability offenses --
Causation requirement --
Parties to a crime: --
Common-law distinctions among participants in crime --
Modern American approach --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution. 5: Inchoate offenses: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Attempt: --
Act requirement --
Requisite criminal intent --
Attempts in relation to substantive crimes --
Defenses to the crime of attempt --
Solicitation: --
Act requirement --
Is an uncommunicated solicitation an offense? --
Requisite criminal intent --
Solicitation distinguished from other inchoate crimes --
Defenses to the crime of solicitation --
Conspiracy: --
Justification for making conspiracy a crime --
Range of conspiracies in society --
Act element in conspiracy --
Requisite criminal intent --
Conspiracy distinguished from aiding and abetting and attempt --
Pinkerton rule --
Some unique aspects of the offense of conspiracy --
Conspiracy does not merge into the target crime --
Wharton's rule exception --
Criticism of the conspiracy laws --
Defenses to the charge of conspiracy --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
6: Homicidal offenses: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Modern approach to homicide --
First-degree murder --
Felony murder --
Second-degree murder --
Manslaughter --
Vehicular homicide --
Justifiable and excusable homicide: --
Removal of life-support systems --
Prosecutorial burdens in homicide cases: --
Requirement that the victim was alive before the homicidal act --
Corpus Delicti requirement --
When death occurs --
One year and a day rule --
Defenses to homicide charges --
Suicide and assisted suicide: --
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act --
Michigan experience --
Washington experience --
Competing values in suicide laws --
Abortion controversy: --
Partial birth abortion --
Laws criminalizing other acts resulting in the death of a fetus --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
7: Other offenses against persons --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Assaultive offenses: --
Modern statutory development --
Common illustrations of simple and aggravated assault and battery --
Burden of the prosecution --
Defenses to charges of assault and battery --
Mayhem --
Hazing --
Stalking: --
Cyberstalking --
Rape and sexual battery: --
American approach --
Statutory rape laws --
Reform in the American law of rape --
Rape shield laws --
Contemporary statutory treatment of sexual offenses --
Prosecutorial burdens --
Rape trauma syndrome --
Sex offender registration laws --
Defenses to charges of sexual battery --
Sodomy --
Abusive offenses: --
Child abuse --
Spousal abuse --
Abuse of the elderly --
False imprisonment and kidnapping: --
Statutory offense of false imprisonment --
Modern statutory treatment of kidnapping --
Requirement of asportation in kidnapping --
Federal kidnapping laws --
Defenses to charges of false imprisonment and kidnapping --
Child snatching --
Civil Rights offenses --
Hate crimes --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution. 8: Property crimes: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Common-law background --
Common-law theft offenses: --
Larceny --
False pretenses, embezzlement, and receiving stolen property --
Modern approach to theft offenses: --
Federal approaches --
State approaches --
Unique prosecutorial burden in theft offenses --
Robbery: --
Statutory approaches to robbery --
Temporal relationship of force to the taking --
Carjacking --
Extortion: --
Extortion under federal law --
Forgery and uttering a forged instrument: --
Statutory expansion of forgery offenses --
Common examples of forgery and uttering a forged instrument --
Worthless checks --
Burglary: --
Statutory revisions of burglary --
Possession of burglar's tools --
Arson: --
Statutory revision of arson --
Burning property with the intent to defraud an insurance company --
Malicious mischief --
Defenses to property crimes --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
9: White-collar and organized crime: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Legal principles governing white-collar crimes: --
Prosecution of corporate defendants --
Acts by corporate agents --
Antitrust violations --
Computer crimes: --
USA Patriot Act --
State laws proscribing computer offenses --
Anti-spam laws --
International efforts to combat cybercrime --
Access device fraud --
Identity theft: --
Federal legislation --
State legislation --
Intellectual property offenses: --
Patent infringement --
Copyright infringement --
Trademark counterfeiting --
Theft of trade secrets --
False statements, bankruptcy fraud, and false claims: --
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) --
Mail and wire fraud --
Money laundering and currency violations: --
Structuring cash transactions to avoid reporting requirements --
Securities fraud: --
Churning and insider trading --
Tax fraud: --
Criminal prosecution of tax violations --
Racketeering and organized crime: --
Hobbs Act --
Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 --
Defenses in white-collar and organized crime cases --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
10: Vice crimes: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Criminal prohibitions of consensual sexual conduct: --
Fornication, adultery, and seduction sodomy: the demise of a historic offense --
Incest --
Bigamy and polygamy --
Prostitution --
Indecent exposure and voyeurism: --
Nude dancing in places of public accommodation --
Nudity and seminudity on public beaches --
Voyeurism --
Obscenity and pornography: --
Emerging constitutional standards --
Miller test --
Significant post-Miller developments --
State and local regulation of obscenity --
Defenses to charges of obscenity --
Problems of enforcement --
Pornography on the Internet --
Child pornography --
Profanity --
Gambling: --
What constitutes gambling? --
Statutory regulation of gambling --
Prosecutorial problems and defenses --
Paradox of gambling laws --
Animal cruelty --
Alcohol-related offenses: --
Prohibition --
Offenses related to the consumption of alcohol by minors --
Public intoxication --
Driving under the influence: --
Zero tolerance for juveniles --
Prosecution of DWI, DUI, and DUBAL charges --
Defense of DWI, DUI, and DUBAL charges --
Implied consent statutes --
Drug offenses: --
Harrison Act --
Prohibition of marijuana --
Modern federal drug laws --
Modern state drug laws --
Marijuana controversy --
Crystal meth crisis --
Prohibition of drug paraphernalia --
Problems of drug enforcement and prosecution --
Defenses in drug cases --
War on drugs --
Drug courts: a new approach --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution. 11: Offenses against public health and the environment: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Sources of law defining crimes against the public health and the environment --
Public health legislation: --
Federal Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act --
Strict liability offenses --
Criminal liability of responsible corporate officers --
Defenses under the FDCA --
Planning and zoning laws --
Scope of federal and state environmental statutes: --
Major federal environmental legislation providing criminal sanctions --
Clean Air Act --
Clean Water Act --
Government's requirement of proof of violation of the Clean Water Act --
Point source problem --
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act --
Government's requirement of proof of RCRA offenses --
Toxic Substances Control Act --
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act --
Standard of liability of corporate officers --
Lack of uniformity in environmental laws --
Defenses to environmental crimes --
Noise pollution --
Antismoking legislation: --
Florida initiative --
New York's comprehensive smoking ban --
Future of smoking bans --
Wildlife protection laws: --
Migratory Bird Act --
Endangered Species Act --
State regulation of wildlife --
What constitutes possession? --
Defenses rejected --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
12: Offenses against public order, safety, and national security: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Breaches of the peace: --
Unlawful assembly and riot --
Federal Anti-Riot Act --
Disorderly conduct --
Excessive noise --
Vagrancy, loitering, curfews, and panhandling: --
American approach to vagrancy --
Death knell of vagrancy laws --
Loitering --
Curfews --
Panhandling --
Motor vehicle violations: --
Decriminalization of traffic offenses --
Seat belts, cell phones, and text messaging --
Weapons offenses: --
Meaning of the Second Amendment --
State gun laws --
Federal gun control laws --
Recent state developments --
Offenses against national security: --
Treason --
Espionage --
Sabotage --
Sedition --
Terrorism and weapons of mass destruction: --
Antiterrorism legislation --
Aircraft piracy and related offenses --
Naval piracy --
Weapons of mass destruction --
Immigration offenses --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
13: Offenses against justice and public administration: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Bribery: --
Modern statutory offense of bribery --
Range of bribery offenses --
Burden of the prosecution --
Offenses extending the concept of bribery --
Commercial bribery --
Defenses to the crime of bribery --
Perjury: --
Elements of the offense of perjury --
Burden of the prosecution --
Perjury by contradictory statements --
Subornation of perjury --
Defenses to the crime of perjury --
Obstruction of justice: --
Modern statutory developments --
Citizen's duty to assist law enforcement officers --
Resisting arrest --
Compounding a crime: --
Modern statutory approach --
Common scenario of compounding a crime --
Escape: --
Modern statutory approaches to escape --
Elements of the offense of escape --
Defenses to the charge of escape --
Contempt: --
Civil contempt --
Criminal contempt --
Direct and indirect criminal contempt --
Is criminal contempt really a crime? --
Legislative contempt --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution. 14: Criminal responsibility and defenses: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Defenses in general --
Defenses asserting lack of capacity to commit a crime: --
Infancy --
Intoxication --
Insanity --
Automatism --
Defenses asserting excuse or justification: --
Duress --
Necessity --
Consent --
Mistake of law --
Mistake of fact --
Alibi --
Defenses justifying the use of force: --
Self-defense --
Defense of others --
Defense of habitation --
Defense of property --
Defense to being arrested --
Use of force by police --
Defenses based on constitutional and statutory authority: --
Constitutional immunity --
Other forms of immunity --
Double jeopardy --
Statutes of limitations --
Defenses based on improper government conduct: --
Entrapment --
Selective prosecution --
Nontraditional defenses: --
Unusual religious beliefs and practices --
Victim's negligence --
Premenstrual syndrome --
Compulsive gambling --
Post-traumatic stress syndrome --
Junk food defense --
Television intoxication --
Pornographic intoxication --
Postpartum depression --
XYY chromosome abnormality --
Multiple personality defense --
Black rage and urban survival defenses --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
Part 3: Law Enforcement And Criminal Procedure: --
15: Search and seizure: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Historical background: --
Adoption of the Fourth Amendment --
Extension of the Fourth Amendment to apply to state and local action --
When, where, and to whom the Fourth Amendment applies: --
Border searches and searches outside the United States --
Home, its cartilage, and the open fields doctrine --
Applicability of the Fourth Amendment to administrative searches --
Searches of abandoned property --
Automobile inventory searches --
Searches based on consent --
Scope of privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment: --
Reasonable expectations of privacy --
Sobriety checkpoints --
Jail and prison searches and strip searches --
Warrant requirement: --
Probable cause --
Issuance of the search warrant --
Supporting affidavit --
Tips from police informants --
Required specificity of a search warrant --
Anticipatory search warrants --
Execution of a search warrant --
Knock-and-announce rule --
Testing the sufficiency of the basis for issuing a search warrant --
Return of seized property --
Exceptions to the warrant requirement: --
Evidence in plain view --
Emergency searches --
Preservation of evidence --
Search incident to a lawful arrest --
Hot pursuit --
Automobile stops and roadside searches of motor vehicles --
Exceptions to the probable cause requirement: --
Stop-and-frisk --
Drug courier profiles --
School searches --
Drug testing --
Electronic surveillance: --
Expectations of privacy with respect to electronic surveillance --
Supreme Court's major decisions in the area of electronic surveillance --
Federal legislation governing interception of electronic communications --
Exclusionary rule: --
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine --
Erosion of the exclusionary rule --
Good-faith exception --
Standing to invoke the exclusionary rule --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
16: Arrest, interrogation, and identification procedures: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Arrest: --
Probable cause requirement --
Warrant requirement --
Warrantless arrests --
Right of arrestee to a prompt appearance before a Magistrate --
Use of force by police making arrests --
Arrest of persons with disabilities --
Citizen's arrest --
Arrests for minor traffic offenses --
Search incident to arrest --
Investigatory detention: --
What constitutes reasonable suspicion? --
Length of an investigatory detention --
When may police conduct a frisk? --
Investigatory automobile stops --
Automobile stops based on anonymous tips --
Pretextual automobile stops --
Can police require drivers and passengers to exit their vehicles? --
Drug courier profiles --
Racial profiling --
Roadblocks, sobriety checkpoints, and drug checkpoints: --
Drug checkpoints --
Requests for information or identification --
Interrogation and confessions: --
Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine --
Public safety exception to Miranda --
What constitutes an interrogation? --
Waiver of Miranda Rights --
Coerced confessions --
Police deception --
Factors considered by judges in evaluating confessions --
Identification procedures: --
Forensic methods --
Lineups --
Showups --
Photo packs --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution. 17: Pretrial process: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Right to counsel: --
Common-law background of the right to counsel --
Modern American approach --
Indigency and the right to counsel --
Self-representation --
Disposition of petty offenses --
Initial court appearance --
Pretrial release and pretrial detention: --
Modes of pretrial release --
Issue of excessive bail --
Pretrial detention --
Formal charging process: --
Determining the sufficiency of the government's case --
Preliminary hearing --
Grand Jury: --
Exclusion of minorities from Grand Juries --
Functions and powers of the Grand Jury --
Rights of witnesses and suspects --
Evidence before the Grand Jury --
Right to a prompt indictment --
Extradition --
Jurisdiction and venue --
Joinder and severance: --
Severance of charges --
Joinder and severance of parties --
Pretrial motions --
Arraignment --
Plea bargaining --
Availability of compulsory process --
Pretrial discovery: --
Discovery in the federal courts --
Right to a speedy trial --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
18: Criminal trial: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction --
Constitutional rights pertaining to the criminal trial: --
Right to compulsory process --
Right to an open public trial --
Right to counsel --
Right to trial by jury --
Selection and composition of the jury: --
Anonymous juries --
Voir Dire --
Challenges for cause --
Peremptory challenges of prospective jurors --
Death-qualified juries --
Impaneling of the jury --
Proposals for jury reform --
Free press versus fair trial: --
Cameras in the courtroom --
Order in the court: --
Unruly defendants --
Behavior of counsel --
Rules of evidence: --
Judicial notice --
Proof beyond a reasonable doubt --
Evidentiary presumptions --
Requirements of admissibility --
Similar fact evidence --
Classifications of evidence --
Requirement of competency --
Expert witnesses --
Scientific evidence in the courtroom --
Hypnotically enhanced testimony --
Polygraph evidence --
Battered woman syndrome --
DNA evidence --
Your Honor, I object --
Privileged communications --
Trial process: --
Opening statements --
Case for the prosecution --
Right to confrontation and cross-examination --
Defense strategy in moving for a judgment of acquittal --
Defense case: will the defendant take the stand? --
Rebuttals --
Conduct of the jury during the trial --
Jury instructions conference --
Closing arguments of counsel --
Judge instructs the jury --
Jury deliberates and returns its verdict --
Deadlocked jury --
Jury pardons --
Verdict --
Posttrial motions --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
19: Sentencing and punishment: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Common-law background --
American experience --
Legal constraints on sentencing and punishment --
Contemporary forms of criminal punishment: --
Fines --
Forfeiture of property --
Incarceration --
Boot camp: an alternative to prison? --
Probation --
Community service --
Community control --
Creative alternatives to confinement --
Death penalty: --
Historical background --
Revival of the death penalty --
Federal death penalty --
Death, deterrence, retribution, and incapacitation --
Is the death penalty racially discriminatory? --
Capital punishment of juvenile offenders --
Execution of prisoners who have become insane --
Execution of mentally retarded persons --
Methods of execution --
Sentencing stage of the criminal process: --
Presentence report --
Sentencing hearing --
Pronouncement of sentence --
Sentencing in capital cases --
Granting and revoking probation: --
Revocation of probation --
Statutory approaches to incarceration: --
Indeterminate sentencing --
Definite and determinate sentencing --
Indefinite sentencing --
Mandatory minimum sentencing --
Habitual offender statutes --
Three strikes and you're out --
Truth in sentencing --
Penalty enhancement --
Sentencing guidelines --
Rights of prisoners: --
Overcrowding issue --
Problem of prison rape --
Other rights of prisoners --
Prison disciplinary measures --
Parole and its revocation --
Rights of crime victims: --
Uniform Victims of Crime Act --
Restitution --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
20: Appeal and postconviction relief: --
Learning objectives --
Introduction: --
Error correction and lawmaking functions of appellate courts --
Common-law background --
Appeal of right: --
What defendants may challenge on appeal --
Doctrine of harmless error --
When an appeal may be taken by a defendant --
Appeals by the prosecution --
Trial de Novo in minor misdemeanor cases --
Discretionary review --
Appellate process: --
Release of defendant on bail pending appeal --
Right to counsel on appeal --
Filing the appeal --
Motions --
Submission of briefs --
Oral argument --
Judicial conference --
Judgment of the court --
Appellate court opinions --
Publication of appellate decisions --
Motions for rehearing --
Postconviction relief: --
Challenging state court convictions in federal court --
Supreme Court restricts access to federal habeas corpus --
Congress modifies the federal habeas corpus procedure --
Claims of actual innocence --
Assistance of counsel in Federal habea corpus cases --
Ineffective counsel as a basis for postconviction relief --
Should federal habeas corpus review of state cases be eliminated? --
Collateral attack in state court --
DNA evidence as a basis for postconviction relief --
Nonjudicial remedies available to persons convicted of crimes: --
Presidential pardons --
Clemency at the state level --
Conclusion --
Chapter summary --
Key terms --
Questions for thought and discussion --
Problems for discussion and solution --
Appendix A: Access to the law through legal research: --
Nature of legal research: --
Getting started in legal research --
Primary legal sources: --
United States code annotated --
Annotated state codes --
National reporter system --
Regional reporters --
Syllabi, headnotes, and key numbers --
Digests --
KeyCite --
Secondary sources: --
Legal encyclopedias --
Textbooks --
Law reviews --
Professional publications and other useful secondary sources: --
Computerized legal research --
Legal research using the Internet --
How to research a specific point of law --
Conclusion --
Appendix B: Constitution of the United States of America --
Glossary --
Case Index --
Subject Index.
Responsibility: John M. Scheb, John M. Scheb II.

Abstract:

From the Publisher: Criminal Law And Procedure gives the reader substantive and procedural aspects of criminal law. In addition, the text provides important updates to criminal laws in the post 9-11 world, including white-collar crime, cybercrime, identity theft and much more.

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   schema:datePublished "2011" ;
   schema:description "From the Publisher: Criminal Law And Procedure gives the reader substantive and procedural aspects of criminal law. In addition, the text provides important updates to criminal laws in the post 9-11 world, including white-collar crime, cybercrime, identity theft and much more."@en ;
   schema:description "14: Criminal responsibility and defenses: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Defenses in general -- Defenses asserting lack of capacity to commit a crime: -- Infancy -- Intoxication -- Insanity -- Automatism -- Defenses asserting excuse or justification: -- Duress -- Necessity -- Consent -- Mistake of law -- Mistake of fact -- Alibi -- Defenses justifying the use of force: -- Self-defense -- Defense of others -- Defense of habitation -- Defense of property -- Defense to being arrested -- Use of force by police -- Defenses based on constitutional and statutory authority: -- Constitutional immunity -- Other forms of immunity -- Double jeopardy -- Statutes of limitations -- Defenses based on improper government conduct: -- Entrapment -- Selective prosecution -- Nontraditional defenses: -- Unusual religious beliefs and practices -- Victim's negligence -- Premenstrual syndrome -- Compulsive gambling -- Post-traumatic stress syndrome -- Junk food defense -- Television intoxication -- Pornographic intoxication -- Postpartum depression -- XYY chromosome abnormality -- Multiple personality defense -- Black rage and urban survival defenses -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- Part 3: Law Enforcement And Criminal Procedure: -- 15: Search and seizure: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Historical background: -- Adoption of the Fourth Amendment -- Extension of the Fourth Amendment to apply to state and local action -- When, where, and to whom the Fourth Amendment applies: -- Border searches and searches outside the United States -- Home, its cartilage, and the open fields doctrine -- Applicability of the Fourth Amendment to administrative searches -- Searches of abandoned property -- Automobile inventory searches -- Searches based on consent -- Scope of privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment: -- Reasonable expectations of privacy -- Sobriety checkpoints -- Jail and prison searches and strip searches -- Warrant requirement: -- Probable cause -- Issuance of the search warrant -- Supporting affidavit -- Tips from police informants -- Required specificity of a search warrant -- Anticipatory search warrants -- Execution of a search warrant -- Knock-and-announce rule -- Testing the sufficiency of the basis for issuing a search warrant -- Return of seized property -- Exceptions to the warrant requirement: -- Evidence in plain view -- Emergency searches -- Preservation of evidence -- Search incident to a lawful arrest -- Hot pursuit -- Automobile stops and roadside searches of motor vehicles -- Exceptions to the probable cause requirement: -- Stop-and-frisk -- Drug courier profiles -- School searches -- Drug testing -- Electronic surveillance: -- Expectations of privacy with respect to electronic surveillance -- Supreme Court's major decisions in the area of electronic surveillance -- Federal legislation governing interception of electronic communications -- Exclusionary rule: -- Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine -- Erosion of the exclusionary rule -- Good-faith exception -- Standing to invoke the exclusionary rule -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 16: Arrest, interrogation, and identification procedures: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Arrest: -- Probable cause requirement -- Warrant requirement -- Warrantless arrests -- Right of arrestee to a prompt appearance before a Magistrate -- Use of force by police making arrests -- Arrest of persons with disabilities -- Citizen's arrest -- Arrests for minor traffic offenses -- Search incident to arrest -- Investigatory detention: -- What constitutes reasonable suspicion? -- Length of an investigatory detention -- When may police conduct a frisk? -- Investigatory automobile stops -- Automobile stops based on anonymous tips -- Pretextual automobile stops -- Can police require drivers and passengers to exit their vehicles? -- Drug courier profiles -- Racial profiling -- Roadblocks, sobriety checkpoints, and drug checkpoints: -- Drug checkpoints -- Requests for information or identification -- Interrogation and confessions: -- Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine -- Public safety exception to Miranda -- What constitutes an interrogation? -- Waiver of Miranda Rights -- Coerced confessions -- Police deception -- Factors considered by judges in evaluating confessions -- Identification procedures: -- Forensic methods -- Lineups -- Showups -- Photo packs -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution."@en ;
   schema:description "17: Pretrial process: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Right to counsel: -- Common-law background of the right to counsel -- Modern American approach -- Indigency and the right to counsel -- Self-representation -- Disposition of petty offenses -- Initial court appearance -- Pretrial release and pretrial detention: -- Modes of pretrial release -- Issue of excessive bail -- Pretrial detention -- Formal charging process: -- Determining the sufficiency of the government's case -- Preliminary hearing -- Grand Jury: -- Exclusion of minorities from Grand Juries -- Functions and powers of the Grand Jury -- Rights of witnesses and suspects -- Evidence before the Grand Jury -- Right to a prompt indictment -- Extradition -- Jurisdiction and venue -- Joinder and severance: -- Severance of charges -- Joinder and severance of parties -- Pretrial motions -- Arraignment -- Plea bargaining -- Availability of compulsory process -- Pretrial discovery: -- Discovery in the federal courts -- Right to a speedy trial -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 18: Criminal trial: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Constitutional rights pertaining to the criminal trial: -- Right to compulsory process -- Right to an open public trial -- Right to counsel -- Right to trial by jury -- Selection and composition of the jury: -- Anonymous juries -- Voir Dire -- Challenges for cause -- Peremptory challenges of prospective jurors -- Death-qualified juries -- Impaneling of the jury -- Proposals for jury reform -- Free press versus fair trial: -- Cameras in the courtroom -- Order in the court: -- Unruly defendants -- Behavior of counsel -- Rules of evidence: -- Judicial notice -- Proof beyond a reasonable doubt -- Evidentiary presumptions -- Requirements of admissibility -- Similar fact evidence -- Classifications of evidence -- Requirement of competency -- Expert witnesses -- Scientific evidence in the courtroom -- Hypnotically enhanced testimony -- Polygraph evidence -- Battered woman syndrome -- DNA evidence -- Your Honor, I object -- Privileged communications -- Trial process: -- Opening statements -- Case for the prosecution -- Right to confrontation and cross-examination -- Defense strategy in moving for a judgment of acquittal -- Defense case: will the defendant take the stand? -- Rebuttals -- Conduct of the jury during the trial -- Jury instructions conference -- Closing arguments of counsel -- Judge instructs the jury -- Jury deliberates and returns its verdict -- Deadlocked jury -- Jury pardons -- Verdict -- Posttrial motions -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 19: Sentencing and punishment: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Common-law background -- American experience -- Legal constraints on sentencing and punishment -- Contemporary forms of criminal punishment: -- Fines -- Forfeiture of property -- Incarceration -- Boot camp: an alternative to prison? -- Probation -- Community service -- Community control -- Creative alternatives to confinement -- Death penalty: -- Historical background -- Revival of the death penalty -- Federal death penalty -- Death, deterrence, retribution, and incapacitation -- Is the death penalty racially discriminatory? -- Capital punishment of juvenile offenders -- Execution of prisoners who have become insane -- Execution of mentally retarded persons -- Methods of execution -- Sentencing stage of the criminal process: -- Presentence report -- Sentencing hearing -- Pronouncement of sentence -- Sentencing in capital cases -- Granting and revoking probation: -- Revocation of probation -- Statutory approaches to incarceration: -- Indeterminate sentencing -- Definite and determinate sentencing -- Indefinite sentencing -- Mandatory minimum sentencing -- Habitual offender statutes -- Three strikes and you're out -- Truth in sentencing -- Penalty enhancement -- Sentencing guidelines -- Rights of prisoners: -- Overcrowding issue -- Problem of prison rape -- Other rights of prisoners -- Prison disciplinary measures -- Parole and its revocation -- Rights of crime victims: -- Uniform Victims of Crime Act -- Restitution -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 20: Appeal and postconviction relief: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Error correction and lawmaking functions of appellate courts -- Common-law background -- Appeal of right: -- What defendants may challenge on appeal -- Doctrine of harmless error -- When an appeal may be taken by a defendant -- Appeals by the prosecution -- Trial de Novo in minor misdemeanor cases -- Discretionary review -- Appellate process: -- Release of defendant on bail pending appeal -- Right to counsel on appeal -- Filing the appeal -- Motions -- Submission of briefs -- Oral argument -- Judicial conference -- Judgment of the court -- Appellate court opinions -- Publication of appellate decisions -- Motions for rehearing -- Postconviction relief: -- Challenging state court convictions in federal court -- Supreme Court restricts access to federal habeas corpus -- Congress modifies the federal habeas corpus procedure -- Claims of actual innocence -- Assistance of counsel in Federal habea corpus cases -- Ineffective counsel as a basis for postconviction relief -- Should federal habeas corpus review of state cases be eliminated? -- Collateral attack in state court -- DNA evidence as a basis for postconviction relief -- Nonjudicial remedies available to persons convicted of crimes: -- Presidential pardons -- Clemency at the state level -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- Appendix A: Access to the law through legal research: -- Nature of legal research: -- Getting started in legal research -- Primary legal sources: -- United States code annotated -- Annotated state codes -- National reporter system -- Regional reporters -- Syllabi, headnotes, and key numbers -- Digests -- KeyCite -- Secondary sources: -- Legal encyclopedias -- Textbooks -- Law reviews -- Professional publications and other useful secondary sources: -- Computerized legal research -- Legal research using the Internet -- How to research a specific point of law -- Conclusion -- Appendix B: Constitution of the United States of America -- Glossary -- Case Index -- Subject Index."@en ;
   schema:description "8: Property crimes: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Common-law background -- Common-law theft offenses: -- Larceny -- False pretenses, embezzlement, and receiving stolen property -- Modern approach to theft offenses: -- Federal approaches -- State approaches -- Unique prosecutorial burden in theft offenses -- Robbery: -- Statutory approaches to robbery -- Temporal relationship of force to the taking -- Carjacking -- Extortion: -- Extortion under federal law -- Forgery and uttering a forged instrument: -- Statutory expansion of forgery offenses -- Common examples of forgery and uttering a forged instrument -- Worthless checks -- Burglary: -- Statutory revisions of burglary -- Possession of burglar's tools -- Arson: -- Statutory revision of arson -- Burning property with the intent to defraud an insurance company -- Malicious mischief -- Defenses to property crimes -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 9: White-collar and organized crime: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Legal principles governing white-collar crimes: -- Prosecution of corporate defendants -- Acts by corporate agents -- Antitrust violations -- Computer crimes: -- USA Patriot Act -- State laws proscribing computer offenses -- Anti-spam laws -- International efforts to combat cybercrime -- Access device fraud -- Identity theft: -- Federal legislation -- State legislation -- Intellectual property offenses: -- Patent infringement -- Copyright infringement -- Trademark counterfeiting -- Theft of trade secrets -- False statements, bankruptcy fraud, and false claims: -- Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) -- Mail and wire fraud -- Money laundering and currency violations: -- Structuring cash transactions to avoid reporting requirements -- Securities fraud: -- Churning and insider trading -- Tax fraud: -- Criminal prosecution of tax violations -- Racketeering and organized crime: -- Hobbs Act -- Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 -- Defenses in white-collar and organized crime cases -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 10: Vice crimes: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Criminal prohibitions of consensual sexual conduct: -- Fornication, adultery, and seduction sodomy: the demise of a historic offense -- Incest -- Bigamy and polygamy -- Prostitution -- Indecent exposure and voyeurism: -- Nude dancing in places of public accommodation -- Nudity and seminudity on public beaches -- Voyeurism -- Obscenity and pornography: -- Emerging constitutional standards -- Miller test -- Significant post-Miller developments -- State and local regulation of obscenity -- Defenses to charges of obscenity -- Problems of enforcement -- Pornography on the Internet -- Child pornography -- Profanity -- Gambling: -- What constitutes gambling? -- Statutory regulation of gambling -- Prosecutorial problems and defenses -- Paradox of gambling laws -- Animal cruelty -- Alcohol-related offenses: -- Prohibition -- Offenses related to the consumption of alcohol by minors -- Public intoxication -- Driving under the influence: -- Zero tolerance for juveniles -- Prosecution of DWI, DUI, and DUBAL charges -- Defense of DWI, DUI, and DUBAL charges -- Implied consent statutes -- Drug offenses: -- Harrison Act -- Prohibition of marijuana -- Modern federal drug laws -- Modern state drug laws -- Marijuana controversy -- Crystal meth crisis -- Prohibition of drug paraphernalia -- Problems of drug enforcement and prosecution -- Defenses in drug cases -- War on drugs -- Drug courts: a new approach -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution."@en ;
   schema:description "5: Inchoate offenses: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Attempt: -- Act requirement -- Requisite criminal intent -- Attempts in relation to substantive crimes -- Defenses to the crime of attempt -- Solicitation: -- Act requirement -- Is an uncommunicated solicitation an offense? -- Requisite criminal intent -- Solicitation distinguished from other inchoate crimes -- Defenses to the crime of solicitation -- Conspiracy: -- Justification for making conspiracy a crime -- Range of conspiracies in society -- Act element in conspiracy -- Requisite criminal intent -- Conspiracy distinguished from aiding and abetting and attempt -- Pinkerton rule -- Some unique aspects of the offense of conspiracy -- Conspiracy does not merge into the target crime -- Wharton's rule exception -- Criticism of the conspiracy laws -- Defenses to the charge of conspiracy -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 6: Homicidal offenses: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Modern approach to homicide -- First-degree murder -- Felony murder -- Second-degree murder -- Manslaughter -- Vehicular homicide -- Justifiable and excusable homicide: -- Removal of life-support systems -- Prosecutorial burdens in homicide cases: -- Requirement that the victim was alive before the homicidal act -- Corpus Delicti requirement -- When death occurs -- One year and a day rule -- Defenses to homicide charges -- Suicide and assisted suicide: -- Oregon's Death with Dignity Act -- Michigan experience -- Washington experience -- Competing values in suicide laws -- Abortion controversy: -- Partial birth abortion -- Laws criminalizing other acts resulting in the death of a fetus -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 7: Other offenses against persons -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Assaultive offenses: -- Modern statutory development -- Common illustrations of simple and aggravated assault and battery -- Burden of the prosecution -- Defenses to charges of assault and battery -- Mayhem -- Hazing -- Stalking: -- Cyberstalking -- Rape and sexual battery: -- American approach -- Statutory rape laws -- Reform in the American law of rape -- Rape shield laws -- Contemporary statutory treatment of sexual offenses -- Prosecutorial burdens -- Rape trauma syndrome -- Sex offender registration laws -- Defenses to charges of sexual battery -- Sodomy -- Abusive offenses: -- Child abuse -- Spousal abuse -- Abuse of the elderly -- False imprisonment and kidnapping: -- Statutory offense of false imprisonment -- Modern statutory treatment of kidnapping -- Requirement of asportation in kidnapping -- Federal kidnapping laws -- Defenses to charges of false imprisonment and kidnapping -- Child snatching -- Civil Rights offenses -- Hate crimes -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution."@en ;
   schema:description "11: Offenses against public health and the environment: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Sources of law defining crimes against the public health and the environment -- Public health legislation: -- Federal Pure Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act -- Strict liability offenses -- Criminal liability of responsible corporate officers -- Defenses under the FDCA -- Planning and zoning laws -- Scope of federal and state environmental statutes: -- Major federal environmental legislation providing criminal sanctions -- Clean Air Act -- Clean Water Act -- Government's requirement of proof of violation of the Clean Water Act -- Point source problem -- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act -- Government's requirement of proof of RCRA offenses -- Toxic Substances Control Act -- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act -- Standard of liability of corporate officers -- Lack of uniformity in environmental laws -- Defenses to environmental crimes -- Noise pollution -- Antismoking legislation: -- Florida initiative -- New York's comprehensive smoking ban -- Future of smoking bans -- Wildlife protection laws: -- Migratory Bird Act -- Endangered Species Act -- State regulation of wildlife -- What constitutes possession? -- Defenses rejected -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 12: Offenses against public order, safety, and national security: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Breaches of the peace: -- Unlawful assembly and riot -- Federal Anti-Riot Act -- Disorderly conduct -- Excessive noise -- Vagrancy, loitering, curfews, and panhandling: -- American approach to vagrancy -- Death knell of vagrancy laws -- Loitering -- Curfews -- Panhandling -- Motor vehicle violations: -- Decriminalization of traffic offenses -- Seat belts, cell phones, and text messaging -- Weapons offenses: -- Meaning of the Second Amendment -- State gun laws -- Federal gun control laws -- Recent state developments -- Offenses against national security: -- Treason -- Espionage -- Sabotage -- Sedition -- Terrorism and weapons of mass destruction: -- Antiterrorism legislation -- Aircraft piracy and related offenses -- Naval piracy -- Weapons of mass destruction -- Immigration offenses -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 13: Offenses against justice and public administration: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Bribery: -- Modern statutory offense of bribery -- Range of bribery offenses -- Burden of the prosecution -- Offenses extending the concept of bribery -- Commercial bribery -- Defenses to the crime of bribery -- Perjury: -- Elements of the offense of perjury -- Burden of the prosecution -- Perjury by contradictory statements -- Subornation of perjury -- Defenses to the crime of perjury -- Obstruction of justice: -- Modern statutory developments -- Citizen's duty to assist law enforcement officers -- Resisting arrest -- Compounding a crime: -- Modern statutory approach -- Common scenario of compounding a crime -- Escape: -- Modern statutory approaches to escape -- Elements of the offense of escape -- Defenses to the charge of escape -- Contempt: -- Civil contempt -- Criminal contempt -- Direct and indirect criminal contempt -- Is criminal contempt really a crime? -- Legislative contempt -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution."@en ;
   schema:description "Preface -- Part 1: Legal Foundations Of Criminal Justice: -- 1: Fundamentals of criminal law and procedure: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- What is a crime?: -- Felonies and misdemeanors -- Societal interests served by the criminal law -- Criminal law, morality, and justice -- Crime: an injury against society -- Criminal responsibility -- Role of the crime victim -- Criminal law distinguished from civil law -- Origins and sources of the criminal law: -- Development of law in the western world -- Development of the English common law -- Reception of the common law in America -- State and local authority to enact criminal prohibitions -- Federal authority to define crimes -- Model penal code -- Sources of procedural law -- Constitutional limitations: -- Bill of Rights -- Role of courts in developing the criminal law: -- Legal reasoning in judicial decisions -- References to statutes and judicial decisions -- Criminal process: -- Basic procedural steps -- Sieve effect -- Criminal sanctions -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- 2: Organization of the criminal justice system: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Legislatures: -- Legislative powers of congress -- Publication of federal statutes -- State legislatures -- Statutory interpretation -- Law enforcement agencies: -- Historical development -- Policing in modern America -- Prosecutorial agencies: -- Historical background -- Federal prosecutors -- State and local prosecutors -- Prosecutor's broad discretion -- Counsel for the defense: -- Representation of indigent defendants -- Role of defense attorneys -- Juries: -- Grand juries -- Trial juries -- Courts: -- Federal court system -- State court systems -- Contrasting judicial functions and environments -- Juvenile justice system: -- Historical basis -- Constitutional reform of juvenile justice -- Corrections system: -- Historical background -- Contemporary developments in criminal punishment -- Burgeoning prison population -- Future outlook -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Part 2: Substantive Criminal Law: -- 3: Constitutional limitations on the prohibition of criminal conduct: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction: -- Importance of judicial review -- Unconstitutional per se and unconstitutional as applied -- Power to enact criminal laws: -- Police powers of state legislatures -- Federal lawmaking power -- Commerce clause -- Delimiting the crime of treason: -- Levying war against the United States -- Giving aid and comfort to the enemies of the United States -- Bills of Attainder and Ex Post Facto Laws: -- Bills of Attainder -- Ex Post Facto Laws -- Bill of Rights: -- Application of the Bill of Rights to state and local laws -- First Amendment freedom of expression: -- Advocacy of unlawful conduct -- Symbolic speech and expressive conduct -- Free expression versus maintenance of the public order -- Hate speech -- Obscenity -- Profanity -- Freedom of assembly -- Free exercise of religion: -- Unusual religious practices -- Refusal of medical treatment -- Right to keep and bear arms -- Doctrines of vagueness and overbreadth -- Freedom from compulsory self-incrimination -- Prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments -- Constitutional right of privacy: -- Abortion -- Privacy and sexual conduct -- Right to die -- Equal protection of the laws -- Standards of judicial review -- Importance of state constitutions -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution -- 4: Elements of crimes and parties to crimes: -- Learning objectives -- Introduction -- Actus Reus (Act Requirement): -- What is an act? -- When does failure to act constitute an act? -- Possession as a criminal act -- Status as a criminal act -- Mens Rea (criminal intent requirement) -- Concurrence of act and intent -- General and specific intent -- Model penal code approach to intent -- Doctrine of transferred intent -- Importance of determining the intent required -- Strict liability offenses -- Causation requirement -- Parties to a crime: -- Common-law distinctions among participants in crime -- Modern American approach -- Conclusion -- Chapter summary -- Key terms -- Questions for thought and discussion -- Problems for discussion and solution."@en ;
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