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Critical Thinking about Research : Psychology and Related Fields.

Author: Harris M Cooper; Julian Meltzoff
Publisher: Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association, 2017.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Summary:
This book teaches readers to be informed consumers of research--that is, to thoughtfully evaluate the research they read rather than accept it without question.
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Cooper, Harris M.
Critical Thinking about Research : Psychology and Related Fields.
Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association, ©2017
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Harris M Cooper; Julian Meltzoff
ISBN: 9781433827976 1433827972
OCLC Number: 1005013373
Notes: II Critical Thinking Using Practice Articles.
Description: 1 online resource (363 pages)
Contents: FOREWORD; PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION; PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION; INTRODUCTION; Why Psychologists and Professionals in Related Fields Need to be Critical Thinkers; Overview of the Chapters; Who Will Find This Book Useful?; I Principles of Critical Thinking; 1. Seeking Trustworthy Knowledge; Methods of Seeking Knowledge; What Critical Reading Requires; 2. Research Questions and Hypotheses; Types of Research Questions; Hypotheses; What is Causation?; Necessary and Sufficient Causes; A Working Definition of Causation; Causality and Experiments; Unsubstantiated Claims of Causation. Multiple Correlation and CausationConsistency Between the Parts of a Scientific Investigation; Summary; 3. Research Variables and Strategies; Variable Definitions in Research; Conceptual and Operational Definitions; Experimental and Measured Variables; Establishing Levels of the Independent or Predictor Variable; Time Sequencing of Measurements; Longitudinal Versus Cross-Sectional Studies; Real-Life Versus Analogue-Simulated Situations; Settings; Generalizability in the Context of Variables, Timing, Realism, and Settings; Summary; 4. The Sample; Sample Characteristics. Target and Accessible PopulationsRepresentativeness of the Sample; Different Methods for Drawing Samples; Sample Bias; Sample Size; Assignment to Treatment Groups; Summary; 5. Confounding Variables and Their Control; Participant Variables; Experimenter Variables; Stimulus, Procedural, and Situational Variables; Instrumentation (Apparatus and Raters); Placebo Effects; Nuisance Variables; Summary; 6. Research Designs and Threats to Internal Validity; Classification of Threats to Internal Validity; Preexperimental Designs; Quasi-Experimental Designs; True Experimental Designs. Single-Case DesignsSummary; 7. Manipulation and Measurement Validity; The Independent or Predictor Variable; The Dependent Variable; Reliability; Validity; Influence of Measurement on the Dependent Variable; Types of Measurement Data; Measurement Scales; Raters and Judges; Summary; 8. Data Analysis, Discussion, and Conclusions; Levels of Measurement and Their Appropriate Analysis; Distributed Versus Categorical Variables; Assumptions; Degrees of Freedom; Statistic Selection and Presentation; Computation; Multiple Dependent Variables and Type I Error; Planned Comparisons and Post Hoc Tests. Testing for Group Equivalence at PretestChange Scores; Effect Sizes; Power; Graphs; Summary; 9. Inferences, Conclusions, and the Research Report; Drawing Inferences From the Data; Statistical Significance, Generality, and Practical or Clinical Significance; Interpreting Effect Sizes; The Research Report; Summary; 10. Research Syntheses and Meta-Analysis; The Stages of Research Synthesis; The Elements of Meta-Analysis; Summary; 11. Research Ethics; Protection of Human Participants; Conducting and Reporting Research; Other Ways to Manipulate Results; Plagiarism; Duplicate Publication; Summary.

Abstract:

This book teaches readers to be informed consumers of research--that is, to thoughtfully evaluate the research they read rather than accept it without question.

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