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D-amino acids : physiology, metabolism, and application

Author: Tohru Yoshimura; Toru Nishikawa; Hiroshi Homma
Publisher: Japan : Springer, 2016.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the roles of ᴅ-amino acids and latest research findings, to reveal their fascinating aspects and to facilitate better understanding of their important roles in physiology and diseases. It also provides useful hints for the development of drugs and functional foods. ᴅ-Amino acids were once called unnatural amino acids and were considered to be insignificant for  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: (OCoLC)945231299
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Tohru Yoshimura; Toru Nishikawa; Hiroshi Homma
ISBN: 9784431560777 4431560777
OCLC Number: 957490893
Description: 1 online resource (ix, 357 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Contents: Preface; Contents; Part I: Detection of d-Amino Acids; Chapter 1: Determination of d-Amino Acids and Their Distribution in Mammals; 1.1 Determination of d-Amino Acids in Biological Samples; 1.1.1 Colorimetric Analysis Using Enzymes and Antibodies; 1.1.2 GC Methods for the Determination of d-Amino Acids; 1.1.3 HPCE Methods for the Determination of d-Amino Acids; 1.1.4 HPLC Methods for the Determination of d-Amino Acids; 1.1.5 Two-Dimensional HPLC Determination of d-Amino Acids; 1.2 Distribution of d-Amino Acids in Mammals; 1.2.1 Distribution of d-Ser; 1.2.2 Distribution of d-Asp 1.2.3 Distribution of d-Ala1.2.4 Other d-Amino Acids Observed in Mammals; 1.3 Closing Remarks; References; Part II: Physiological Functions and Pathophysiology of d-Serine; Chapter 2: Overview; References; Chapter 3: Physiological Roles of d-Serine in the Central Nervous System; 3.1 The NMDA Receptors; 3.1.1 Structure and Subunit Diversity of NMDARs in the CNS; 3.1.2 NMDARs and the Glycine Modulatory Binding Site; 3.2 Astrocytes and Neurons Use Different Pathways to Release d-Serine; 3.2.1 d-Serine: Glial and Neuronal 3.2.2 Cell-Type-Specific Mechanisms of Release: Exocytosis Versus Hetero-exchange3.3 Functions of d-Serine: From Development to Cognition; 3.3.1 Role of d-Serine in the Adult Brain; 3.3.2 Role of d-Serine in the Developing Brain; 3.3.3 Role of d-Serine in Cognition and Healthy Aging; 3.4 Conclusion; References; Chapter 4: Behaviors of Mutant Mice Lacking d-Amino-Acid Oxidase Activity; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 d-Amino-Acid Oxidase (DAO); 4.3 d-Serine and NMDA Receptors; 4.4 Mutant Mice Lacking DAO; 4.5 Properties of Mutant Mice Lacking DAO Activity 4.6 Behaviors of Mutant Mice Lacking DAO Activity4.6.1 Locomotor Activity; 4.6.2 Novel Object Test; 4.6.3 Spatial and Nonspatial Object Recognition Test; 4.6.4 Social Interaction Test; 4.6.5 Morris Water Maze; 4.6.6 Barnes Maze; 4.6.7 24-h Inhibitory Avoidance Test; 4.6.8 Novelty-Suppressed Feeding Test; 4.6.9 Contextual Fear-Conditioning Test; 4.6.10 Open-Field Test; 4.6.11 Elevated Plus Maze; 4.6.12 Acoustic Startle; 4.6.13 Prepulse Inhibition (PPI); 4.6.14 Tail-Flick Test; 4.6.15 Hot-Plate Test; 4.6.16 Formalin Test; 4.6.17 Acetic Acid-Induced Writhing Test 4.7 Responses to Inhibitors and Psychotropics4.7.1 Phencyclidine, a Noncompetitive Inhibitor of NMDAR; 4.7.2 MK-801, a Noncompetitive Inhibitor of NMDAR; 4.7.3 SDZ 220-581, a Competitive NMDAR Antagonist; 4.7.4 L-701,324, an Antagonist to NMDAR Co-agonist-Binding Site; 4.7.5 Harmaline, a Psychoactive Alkaloid; 4.7.6 Methamphetamine, a Psychostimulant; 4.8 Conclusions; References; Chapter 5: Physiological Functions of d-Serine Mediated Through delta2 Glutamate Receptors in the Cerebellum; 5.1 d-Serine in the Cerebellum; 5.2 delta2 Glutamate Receptor: A New d-Ser Binding Receptor
Responsibility: Tohru Yoshimura, Toru Nishikawa, Hiroshi Homma, editors.
More information:

Abstract:

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the roles of ᴅ-amino acids and latest research findings, to reveal their fascinating aspects and to facilitate better understanding of their important roles in physiology and diseases. It also provides useful hints for the development of drugs and functional foods. ᴅ-Amino acids were once called unnatural amino acids and were considered to be insignificant for eukaryotes especially in mammals. However, different ᴅ-amino acids have been revealed to be distributed in various mammalian tissues and to bear important physiological roles. For example, ᴅ-serine is implicated in memory formation and learning, and its abnormal concentration in tissues have been reported in neurological diseases such as schizophrenia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ᴅ-Aspartate is found in a variety of mammalian tissues, particularly in the central nervous system and the genitals. ᴅ-Aspartate facilitates the endocrine secretion of prolactin, inhibits the secretion of melatonin, and plays a peculiar role in the control of reproductive functions in mammals, including the stimulation of testosterone synthesis. Written by the leading scientists in the field, this book is a valuable source of information for researchers in biochemistry, physiology, and neuroscience, as well as in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

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