Recommendations -- Background: Historical patterns of conflict -- Conflict in 2003: widening the divide -- The Chadian connection -- Khartoum responds in force. -- Abuses in Darfur by government forces. Patterns of government attacks in Darfur: a policy of forced displacement -- Bombing of civilians in North Darfur -- Repeated raids in West and South Darfur -- The Janjaweed militia and links to the government of Sudan -- Government responses to militia attacks. -- Abuses by government-allied militias: Killings of civilians -- Rape and other forms of sexual violence --Abductions of children and adults -- Looting of civilian property and related violence -- Deliberate destruction of homes, water sources, and other essential civilian property. -- Denial of access to humanitarian assistance in Darfur -- Fleeing Darfur: another trauma -- Obstruction of refugee flight and restrictions on civilian movement. -- Abuses in Darfur by rebel forces -- The spillover in Chad: Attacks on refugees and Chadians -- Rising ethnic tensions in Chad. -- Humanitarian implications of the conflict -- Responses to the Darfur conflict: Response of the government of Sudan --Response of the government of Chad -- International responses. -- Methodology -- Acknowledgements.