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Developmental genetics of the pharyngeal arch system

Author: Jeffry M Cesario; André Landin Malt; Juhee Jeong
Publisher: San Rafael, California (1537 Fourth Street, San Rafael, CA 94901 USA) : Morgan & Claypool, 2015.
Series: Colloquium digital library of life sciences.; Colloquium series on developmental biology, # 6.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The pharyngeal arches are embryonic structures that develop into the face, neck, a part of the heart, and several endocrine glands in animals. They are thought to have played a key role in vertebrate evolution as their derivatives impact the mode of feeding and breathing. Moreover, perturbation in pharyngeal arch development is associated with several major groups of birth defects in humans. During early embryonic  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Jeffry M Cesario; André Landin Malt; Juhee Jeong
ISBN: 9781615046812 161504681X
OCLC Number: 909812064
Notes: Part of: Colloquium digital library of life sciences.
Title from PDF title page (viewed on May 22, 2015).
Description: 1 online resource (1 PDF (x, 108 pages)) : illustrations.
Contents: 1. Overview of the pharyngeal arch system --
1.1 The components of the pharyngeal arch system --
1.1.1 Pharyngeal endoderm --
1.1.2 Surface ectoderm --
1.1.3 Neural crest-derived mesenchyme --
1.1.4 Mesoderm --
1.1.5 Vascular endothelium --
1.1.6 Nerves --
1.2 Derivatives of the pharyngeal arch system --
1.2.1 1st pharyngeal arch --
1.2.2 2nd pharyngeal arch (also called hyoid arch) --
1.2.3 3rd pharyngeal arch --
1.2.4 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches --
1.2.5 Pharyngeal endoderm and pouches --
1.2.6 Pharyngeal clefts --
1.2.7 Cardiac neural crest and the second heart field --
1.2.8 Development of the tongue --
1.3 Tissue interactions regulating pharyngeal arch development --
1.3.1 Pharyngeal endoderm --
ectoderm, neural crest mesenchyme --
1.3.2 Ectoderm --
neural crest mesenchyme --
1.3.3 Mesodermal mesenchyme --
neural crest mesenchyme --
1.3.4 Neural crest mesenchyme --
ectoderm, mesodermal mesenchyme --
1.3.5 Migrating neural crest --
placodal sensory neurons. 2. Signaling pathways that regulate pharyngeal arch development --
2.1 Hedgehog (Hh) --
2.1.1 SHH signaling is essential for making a normal face --
2.1.2 SHH regulates cardiovascular development --
2.1.3 SHH negatively regulates parathyroid specification --
2.2 Wingless/int (WNT) --
2.2.1 Canonical WNT signaling in craniofacial development --
2.2.2 Canonical WNT signaling in cardiovascular and pharyngeal glands development --
2.2.3 Non-canonical WNT signaling in pharyngeal arch development --
2.3 Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) --
2.3.1 FGF8 from the 1st pharyngeal arch ectoderm is essential to normal craniofacial development --
2.3.2 FGF signaling in the pharyngeal epithelium regulates neural crest cell migration --
2.3.3 Several FGF ligands regulate cardiovascular development --
2.3.4 FGF8 is required for glandular and neural development associated with the pharyngeal arches --
2.3.5 Crkl (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)-like), Encoding an adaptor protein of the FGF pathway, is one of the 22q11 deletion syndrome genes --
2.3.6 Ras-ERK pathway regulates pharyngeal arch development --
2.4 Transforming growth factor b (TGFb) --
2.4.1 BMP4 regulates the growth and patterning of the 1st pharyngeal arch --
2.4.2 Additional evidence for the regulation of 1st pharyngeal arch development by TGFb superfamily signaling --
2.4.3 TGFb signaling in cardiovascular development --
2.4.4 TGFb signaling in glandular development --
2.4.5 Inhibitors of BMP are important for pharyngeal arch development --
2.5 Endothelin (EDN) --
2.5.1 EDN signaling specifies lower jaw identity within the pharyngeal arch --
2.5.2 EDN signaling regulates remodeling of the pharyngeal arch arteries --
2.5.3 EDN signaling in glandular development --
2.6 Retinoic acid (RA) --
2.6.1 RA signaling is essential for multiple aspects of the caudal pharyngeal arch development --
2.6.2 Excess RA signaling also has deleterious effects on pharyngeal arch development. 3. Transcriptional network that regulates pharyngeal arch development --
3.1 Homeobox (HOX) --
3.1.1 Hox code patterns the pharygneal arch system along the antero-posterior axis --
3.1.2 Hoxa2 is a selector gene for the 2nd pharyngeal arch identity --
3.1.3 Expanded role of Hox genes in inter-arch patterning --
3.1.4 Hox genes in cardiovascular development --
3.1.5 Hoxa3 is crucial to development of the pharyngeal endoderm-derived organs --
3.2 Distal-less homeobox (DLX) --
3.2.1 Dlx code patterns the 1st pharyngeal arch into the upper jaw and the lower jaw subdivisions --
3.2.2 Dlx5/6 in head muscle development --
3.3 LIM homeobox (LHX) --
3.3.1 ISL1 regulates Fgf8 and Shh expression in the pharyngeal arch epithelium --
3.3.2 Lhx6 and Lhx8 are required for development of the oral structures --
3.4 Msh homeobox (MSX) --
3.5 Paired homeobox --
3.5.1 Gsc is required for development of the lower jaw and the outer/middle ear --
3.5.2 Prrx, Alx, and Pitx1 mainly regulate development of the lower jaw --
3.5.3 Pitx2 regulates patterning of the oral ectoderm and development of the pharyngeal mesoderm --
3.6 Twist family basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors --
3.6.1 Twist1 is important for the survival and distribution of the cells in the pharyngeal ectomesenchyme --
3.6.2 Hand2 is a key regulator of the specification and patterning of the lower jaw --
3.6.3 Hand2 is important for cardiovascular development --
3.7 Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) --
3.7.1 Mef2c is required for the expression of lower jaw genes in the mandibular arch --
3.8 T-box (TBX) --
3.8.1 Tbx1, a 22q11 deletion syndrome gene, is crucial to development of the pharyngeal arch system --
3.8.2 Tbx1-downstream genetic pathways regulating pharyngeal arch development --
3.8.3 Tbx2 in the ectomesenchyme regulates cardiovascular development --
3.9 Ripply --
3.9.1 Ripply3 is involved in development of the great arteries and multiple glands --
3.10 Gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (GBX2) --
3.10.1 Gbx2 is important for development of the 4th pharyngeal arch artery --
3.11 Paired box (PAX) --
3.11.1 Pax1 and pax9 regulate development of the pharyngeal glands --
3.12 Eyes absent (EYA) and SIX --
3.12.1 Role of Eya1 and Six1 in craniofacial and cardiovascular development --
3.12.2 Role of Eya1 and Six1 in glandular and neural development --
3.13 Glial cell missing homolog 2 (GCM2) and Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) --
3.13.1 Gcm2 and Foxn1 regulate development of the parathyroid and thymus, respectively. 4. Concluding remarks --
References --
Author biographies.
Series Title: Colloquium digital library of life sciences.; Colloquium series on developmental biology, # 6.
Responsibility: Jeffry M. Cesario, André Landin Malt, Juhee Jeong.

Abstract:

With the advance of molecular genetics tools in model organisms such as mice, we are beginning to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying development of the pharyngeal arches and  Read more...

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