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Earth's climate : past and future

Author: W F Ruddiman
Publisher: New York : W.H. Freeman, ©2001.
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: W F Ruddiman
ISBN: 0716737418 9780716737414
OCLC Number: 45263857
Description: xxi, 465 p. : col. ill., col. maps ; 28 cm.
Contents: Part I Framework of Climate Science 1 --
Chapter 1 Overview of Climate Science 2 --
Climate and Climate Change 3 --
Development of Climate Science 6 --
Overview of the Climate System 8 --
Tools of Climate Science: Temperature Scales 4 --
Chapter 2 Earth's Climate System Today 18 --
Heating Earth 19 --
Heat Transfer in Earth's Atmosphere 31 --
Heat Transfer in Earth's Oceans 39 --
Ice on Earth 44 --
Earth's Biosphere 47 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Structure of Earth's Atmosphere 22 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Albedo/Temperature 25 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Water in the Climate System 27 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Water Vapor 31 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Coriolis Effect 36 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Vegetation-Climate Feedbacks 51 --
Chapter 3 Climate Archives, Data, and Models 54 --
Climate Archives 54 --
Climate Data 66 --
Climate Models 71 --
Part II Tectonic-Scale Climate Change 84 --
Chapter 4 Co[subscript 2] and Long-Term Climate 86 --
Greenhouse Worlds 87 --
Faint Young Sun Paradox 88 --
Carbon Exchanges between Rocks and the Atmosphere 91 --
Climate Factors That Control Chemical Weathering 94 --
Chemical Weathering: Earth's Thermostat? 96 --
Is Life the Ultimate Control on Earth's Thermostat? 99 --
Climate Debate: A Snowball Earth? 89 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Organic Carbon Subcycle 98 --
Chapter 5 Plate Tectonics and Climate 103 --
Plate Tectonics 103 --
Polar Position Hypothesis 109 --
Modeling Climate on the Supercontinent Pangaea 112 --
Tectonic Control of CO[subscript 2] Input: The BLAG Spreading Rate Hypothesis 116 --
Tectonic Control of CO[subscript 2] Removal: The Uplift Weathering Hypothesis 121 --
What Controls Chemical Weathering? 125 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Brief Glaciation 430 Myr Ago 126 --
Chapter 6 Greenhouse Earth 129 --
What Explains Greenhouse Warmth 100 Myr Ago? 130 --
Sea Level Changes and Climate 137 --
Asteroid Impacts 143 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: The Effect of CO[subscript 2] on Climate 134 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Calculating Changes in Sea Level 142 --
Chapter 7 Back into the Icehouse: The Last 55 Million Years 147 --
Global Climate Change Since 55 Myr Ago 148 --
Why Did Global Climate Cool over the Last 55 Myr? 154 --
Understanding and Predicting Tectonic Climate Change 166 --
Tools of Climate Science: Oxtygen Isotope Ratios ([delta superscript 18]O) 151 --
Climate Debate: The Timing of Uplift in Western North America 158 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Is [superscript 87]Sr/[superscript 86]Sr an Index of Chemical Weathering? 168 --
Part III Orbital-Scale Climate Change 172 --
Chapter 8 Astronomical Control of Solar Radiation 174 --
Earth's Orbit Today 175 --
Long-Term Changes in Earth's Orbit 176 --
Changes in Insolation Received on Earth 185 --
Looking for Orbital-Scale Changes in Climate Records 188 --
Tools of Climate Science: Cycles and Modulation 177 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Earth's Precession as a Sine Wave 182 --
Chapter 9 Insolation Control of Monsoons 193 --
Monsoon Circulations 194 --
Evidence of Orbital-Scale Changes in Summer Monsoons 197 --
Refinements of the Orbital Monsoon Hypothesis 204 --
Monsoon Forcing Earlier in Earth's History 205 --
Chapter 10 Insolation Control of Ice Sheets 210 --
What Controls the Size of Ice Sheets? 211 --
Modeling the Behavior of Ice Sheets 213 --
Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheet History 220 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Ice Volume Response to Insolation 216 --
Climate Debate: Antarctic Deglaciation 3 Myr Ago? 226 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Sea Level on Uplifting Islands 230 --
Chapter 11 Orbital-Scale Changes in Carbon Dioxide and Methane 234 --
Ice Cores 235 --
Orbital-Scale Changes in Methane 237n --
Orbital-Scale Changes in CO[subscript 2] 238 --
Tools of Climate Science: Carbon Isotope Ratios ([delta superscript 13]C) 243 --
Climate Debate: Do Winds Fertilize the Glacial Ocean? 247 --
Chapter 12 Orbital-Scale Interactions in the Climate System 254 --
Orbital-Scale Forcing and Response Revisited 255 --
Ice-Driven Climate Responses 255 --
CO[subscript 2] Level and Ice Volume: Which Drives Which? 265 --
Mystery of the 100,000-Year Cycle 266 --
Part IV Deglacial and Millennial Climate Changes 274 --
Chapter 13 Last Glacial Maximum 276 --
Glacial World: More Ice and Less Gas 277 --
Testing Model Simulations Against Biotic Data 284 --
Data-Model Comparisons of Glacial Maximum Climates 287 --
How Cold Were the Glacial Tropics? 295 --
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Ventilating the Glacial Ocean 290 --
Chapter 14 Climate During and Since the Last Deglaciation 301 --
Fire and Ice: A Shift in the Balance of Power 302 --
Climate Changes During and Since Deglaciation 313 --
Fading Memories of Melting Ice 322 --
Predicting Future Orbital-Scale Changes 326 --
Tools of Climate Science: Deglacial [superscript 14]C Dates Are Too Young 305 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Giant Deglacial Floods 312 --
Chapter 15 Millennial Oscillations in Climate 330 --
Millennial Oscillations During Glaciations 331 --
Millennial Oscillations During the Last 8000 Years 342 --
Causes of Millennial-Scale Oscillations 345 --
Implications of Millennial Oscillations for Future Climate 350 --
Tools of Climate Science: [delta superscript 18]O Fluctuations in Ice Cores 332 --
Part V Historical and Future Climate Changes 352 --
Chapter 16 Historical Changes in Climate 354 --
Little Ice Age: Local or Global? 358 --
Proxy Measures of Historical Climate 357 --
Historical and Instrumental Observations 369 --
Natural Causes of Historical Climate Changes 376 --
Tools of Climate Science: Analyzing Tree Rings 362 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: El Nino 366 --
Climate Debate: Satellites vs. Surface Temperatures 372 --
Chapter 17 Humans and Climate Change 383 --
Impact of Climate on Human Evolution 384 --
Impact of Climate on Early Civilizations 391 --
Early Impacts of Humans on Climate 394 --
Impacts of Humans on the Atmosphere: The Last 250 Years 396 --
Climate Debate: Impacts of Humans on CH[subscript 4] Levels for 5000 Years? 400 --
Chapter 18 Climate in the Twentieth Century 405 --
Impact of Natural Variations in Climate 406 --
Earth's Sensitivity to Greenhouse Gases 408 --
Causes of Global Warming in the Twentieth Century 414 --
Greenhouse Debate: Proponents and Skeptics 419 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Direct Radiative Forcing 410 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Deep-Ocean Warming in the Twentieth Century? 416 --
Chapter 19 Climate Change in the Next 100 to 1000 Years 423 --
Natural Variations in Climate 424 --
Future Human Impacts on Climate 425 --
Future Climate Change Caused by Increased CO[subscript 2] 429 --
Monitoring Greenhouse Warming: The Next Few Decades 435 --
Impacts of Future Increases in Greenhouse Gases on Humans 438 --
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Will Frozen Methane Melt? 428.
Responsibility: William F. Ruddiman.

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