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Ecology of highlands

Author: M S Mani; L E Giddings
Publisher: The Hague ; Boston : W. Junk ; Hingham, MA : Distributors, for the U.S. and Canada, Kluwer Boston, 1980.
Series: Monographiae biologicae, v. 40.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

Many years' experience of teaching and research in the University of Sucre (3400 m) and studies at Potosi (4000 m), La Paz and Chacaltaya (5000 m) in Bolivia by the second author (LEG) cover problems  Read more...


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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Mani, M.S.
Ecology of highlands.
The Hague ; Boston : W. Junk ; Hingham, MA : Distributors, for the U.S. and Canada, Kluwer Boston, 1980
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: M S Mani; L E Giddings
ISBN: 9061930936 9789061930938
OCLC Number: 6277650
Description: xii, 249 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: I. Introduction..- What is highland?.- The high altitude environment.- Principal highlands.- References.- II. The physical environment of the highlands..- Atmospheric pressure.- Air temperature.- Standard atmospheres.- Composition of the atmosphere.- Precipitable water.- Regimes of temperature and pressure.- Other properties.- Upper air.- References.- III. The radiation environment..- Solar energy outside the atmosphere.- Effect of the atmosphere.- Sunlight that reaches highlands directly.- Atmospheric attenuation of sunlight on a clear day.- The effect of haze.- Total direct radiation.- Indirect radiation.- Total radiation.- Limitations of calculations.- Conclusion.- References.- IV. Correcting boiling points..- Clausius-Clapeyron equation.- Germann charts.- Othmers modification.- Myers' charts.- Duhrings rule.- Other methods.- Automatic methods.- References.- V. Compensating for chemical effects of the lower atmospheric pressure..- Simple model.- Practical correction of boiling time.- Arrhenius activation energy.- Heat of vaporization.- Discussion of the correction factor.- Amenable reactions.- Solutions under reflux.- Open boiling solutions.- The egg and other special cases.- Other ways to compensate for altitude.- References.- VI. Barometry..- The problem.- Standards of the WMO.- Mercury barometers.- Aneroid barometers.- Constructing a mercury barometer.- The contrabarometer.- Electronic devices.- The Hypsometer.- A `chemical' method.- References.- VII. Psychrometry..- Alternatives to the Psychrometer.- References.- VIII. For the engineer..- Azeotropes.- Combustion.- More complex flames.- Engines.- Gravity.- References.- IX. The highlands in the space age..- Remote sensing of the environment.- Instruments for remote sensing.- Platforms for remote sensing.- Multispectral photography and radiometry.- Integrating several spectral bands.- Landsat false colour infrared image.- Photographs from space.- The landsat satellites.- Polar orbiting meteorological satellites.- Geosynchronous meteorological satellites.- Automatic picture transmission (APT).- Obtaining imagery from the EROS Data Center.- Independent ways of identifying Gemini, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz, Skylab and Landsat Imagery.- Some comments.- References.- X. The vegetation of highlands..- Characters of highland plants.- Some typical highland plants.- i. Dicotyledons.- ii. Monocotyledons.- African mountains.- The Andes.- References.- XL The animal life of highlands..- Peculiarities of hypsobiont animals.- i. Temperature oriented animals.- ii. Pressure oriented animals.- iii. Some minor peculiarities.- Some typical hypsobiont animals.- i. Minor invertebrates.- ii. Arthropoda.- A. Crustacea.- B. Arachnida.- C. The myriapod complex.- D. Insects.- iii. Vertebrates.- Lowland animals at high altitude.- i. Aeolian derelicts.- ii. Summit-seeking species.- iii. Ecological significance.- References.- XII. Man in highland ecosystem: physiology of native highlanders..- The natives of highlands.- General physique.- Respiratory and cardiovascular systems.- Other peculiarities.- Conclusions.- References.- XIII. Man in highland ecosystem: effects of exposure to high altitude..- Hypoxia.- i. Hypoxia in lower animals.- ii. Hypoxia in man.- Respiratory changes.- Cardiovascular changes.- Changes in the blood.- Neurohormonal changes.- Metabolism, growth and reproduction.- Action of ionizing radiations.- Psychic effects.- References.- XIV. Man in highland ecosystem: human acclimatization to highland conditions..- Basic features.- Factors influencing acclimatization.- i. Individual factors.- ii. Previous experience of high altitude.- iii. The rate of ascent of high altitude.- iv. Altitude limits.- v. Duration of stay at high altitude.- vi. Activity at high altitude during acclimatization.- vii. Mountain constant.- Epilogue.- References.- XV. For the future..- The physical environment.- The electromagnetic radiation environment.- Corpuscular radiation.- Chemical effects.- For the engineer.- Biology.- Man in highlands.- References.
Series Title: Monographiae biologicae, v. 40.
Responsibility: M.S. Mani & L.E. Giddings.


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