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Electrical insulation for rotating machines : design, evaluation, aging, testing, and repair

Author: Greg C Stone; Hussein Dhirani; Edward A Boulter; Ian Culbert
Publisher: [Place of publication not identified] : Wiley-IEEE Press, 2014.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
A fully expanded new edition documenting the significant improvements that have been made to the tests and monitors of electrical insulation systems Electrical Insulation for Rotating Machines: Design, Evaluation, Aging, Testing, and Repair, Second Edition covers all aspects in the design, deterioration, testing, and repair of the electrical insulation used in motors and generators of all ratings greater than  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Greg C Stone; Hussein Dhirani; Edward A Boulter; Ian Culbert
ISBN: 9781118892299 1118892291 9781118886663 1118886666
OCLC Number: 893104942
Notes: Title from resource description page (Recorded Books, viewed October 13, 2014).
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: PREFACE xix --
CHAPTER 1 ROTATING MACHINE INSULATION SYSTEMS 1 --
1.1 Types of Rotating Machines 1 --
1.2 Winding Components 9 --
1.3 Types of Stator Winding Construction 11 --
1.4 Form-Wound Stator Winding Insulation System Features 14 --
1.5 Random-Wound Stator Winding Insulation System Features 36 --
1.6 Rotor Winding Insulation System Components 38 --
References 45 --
CHAPTER 2 EVALUATING INSULATION MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS 47 --
2.1 Aging Stresses 49 --
2.2 Principles of Accelerated Aging Tests 54 --
2.3 Thermal Endurance Tests 62 --
2.4 Electrical Endurance Tests 67 --
2.5 Thermal Cycling Tests 71 --
2.6 Nuclear Environmental Qualification Tests 74 --
2.7 Multifactor Stress Testing 77 --
2.8 Material Property Tests 78 --
References 80 --
CHAPTER 3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INSULATION MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS 83 --
3.1 Natural Materials for Form-Wound Stator Coils 84 --
3.2 Early Synthetics for Form-Wound Stator Coils 86 --
3.3 Plastic Films and Non-Wovens 89 --
3.4 Liquid Synthetic Resins 90 --
3.5 Mica 95 --
3.6 Glass Fibers 99 --
3.7 Laminates 100 --
3.8 Evolution of Wire and Strand Insulations 101 --
3.9 Manufacture of Random-Wound Stator Coils 102 --
3.10 Manufacture of Form-Wound Coils and Bars 103 --
3.11 Wire Transposition Insulation 106 --
3.12 Methods of Taping Stator Groundwall Insulation 107 --
3.13 Insulating Liners, Separators, and Sleeving 109 --
References 110 --
CHAPTER 4 STATOR WINDING INSULATION SYSTEMS IN CURRENT USE 111 --
4.1 Consolidation of Major Manufacturers 114 --
4.2 Description of Major Trademarked Form-Wound Stator Insulation Systems 115 --
4.3 Recent Developments for Form-Wound Insulation Systems 123 --
4.4 Random-Wound Stator Insulation Systems 127 --
References 129 --
CHAPTER 5 ROTOR WINDING INSULATION SYSTEMS 133 --
5.1 Rotor Slot and Turn Insulation 134 --
5.2 Collector Insulation 136 --
5.3 End Winding Insulation and Blocking 136 --
5.4 Retaining Ring Insulation 137 --
5.5 Direct-Cooled Rotor Insulation 138 --
5.6 Wound Rotors 139. 5.7 Superconducting Sychronous Rotors 140 --
References 141 --
CHAPTER 6 ROTOR AND STATOR LAMINATED CORES 143 --
6.1 Magnetic Materials 143 --
6.2 Mill-Applied Insulation 149 --
6.3 Lamination Punching and Laser Cutting 150 --
6.4 Annealing and Burr Removal 151 --
6.5 Enameling or Film Coatings 151 --
6.6 Stator and Rotor Core Construction 152 --
References 157 --
CHAPTER 7 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF WINDING FAILURE, REPAIR AND REWINDING 159 --
7.1 Failure Processes 159 --
7.2 Factors Affecting Repair Decisions 164 --
7.3 Rapid Repair of Localized Stator Winding Damage 165 --
7.4 Cutting out Stator Coils After Failure 166 --
7.5 Bar/Coil Replacement and Half Coil Splice 167 --
7.6 Rewinding 168 --
References 169 --
CHAPTER 8 STATOR FAILURE MECHANISMS AND REPAIR 171 --
8.1 Thermal Deterioration 171 --
8.2 Thermal Cycling 176 --
8.3 Inadequate Resin Impregnation or Dipping 181 --
8.4 Loose Coils in the Slot 185 --
8.5 Semiconductive Coating Failure 190 --
8.6 Semiconductive/Grading Coating Overlap Failure 194 --
8.7 High Intensity Slot Discharge 197 --
8.8 Vibration Sparking (Spark Erosion) 199 --
8.9 Transient Voltage Surges 202 --
8.10 Repetitive Voltage Surges Due to Drives 207 --
8.11 Contamination (Electrical Tracking) 211 --
8.12 Abrasive Particles 216 --
8.13 Chemical Attack 217 --
8.14 Inadequate End Winding Spacing 219 --
8.15 End Winding Vibration 224 --
8.16 Stator Coolant Water Leaks 228 --
8.17 Poor Electrical Connections 231 --
References 233 --
CHAPTER 9 ROUND ROTOR WINDING FAILURE MECHANISMS AND REPAIR 235 --
9.1 Thermal Deterioration 235 --
9.2 Thermal Cycling 237 --
9.3 Abrasion Due to Imbalance or Turning Gear Operation (Copper Dusting) 241 --
9.4 Pollution (Tracking) 244 --
9.5 Repetitive Voltage Surges 245 --
9.6 Centrifugal Force 247 --
9.7 Operating Without Field Current 249 --
9.8 Remedies 250 --
References 252 --
CHAPTER 10 SALIENT POLE ROTOR WINDING FAILURE MECHANISMS AND REPAIR 253 --
10.1 Thermal Deterioration 253 --
10.2 Thermal Cycling 255 --
10.3 Pollution (Tracking and Moisture Absorption) 256. 10.4 Abrasive Particles 258 --
10.5 Centrifugal Force 259 --
10.6 Repetitive Voltage Surges 260 --
10.7 Salient Pole Repair 261 --
References 263 --
CHAPTER 11 WOUND ROTOR WINDING FAILURE MECHANISMS AND REPAIR 265 --
11.1 Voltage Surges 266 --
11.2 Unbalanced Stator Voltages 267 --
11.3 High Resistance Connections-Bar Lap and Wave Windings 268 --
11.4 End Winding Banding Failures 269 --
11.5 Slip Ring Insulation Shorting and Grounding 270 --
11.6 Wound Rotor Winding Repair 271 --
References 272 --
CHAPTER 12 SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION ROTOR WINDING FAILURE MECHANISMS AND REPAIR 273 --
12.1 Thermal 273 --
12.2 Cyclic Mechanical Stressing 275 --
12.3 Poor Design/Manufacture 278 --
12.4 Repairs 283 --
References 284 --
CHAPTER 13 CORE LAMINATION INSULATION FAILURE AND REPAIR 285 --
13.1 Thermal Deterioration 285 --
13.2 Electrical Degradation 290 --
13.3 Mechanical Degradation 295 --
13.4 Failures Due to Manufacturing Defects 303 --
13.5 Core Repairs 305 --
References 309 --
CHAPTER 14 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TESTING AND MONITORING 311 --
14.1 Purpose of Testing and Monitoring 311 --
14.2 Off-Line Testing Versus On-Line Monitoring 313 --
14.3 Role of Visual Inspections 314 --
14.4 Expert Systems to Convert Data Into Information 315 --
References 316 --
CHAPTER 15 OFF-LINE ROTOR AND STATOR WINDING TESTS 317 --
15.1 Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index 317 --
15.2 DC Hipot Test 326 --
15.3 Polarization/Depolarization Current (PDC) 330 --
15.4 DC Conductivity 331 --
15.5 Poor Connection Hot Spot (High Current-Infrared Camera) 334 --
15.6 AC Hipot 335 --
15.7 Capacitance 339 --
15.8 Stator Capacitance Tip-Up 342 --
15.9 Capacitive Impedance Test for Motor Stators 344 --
15.10 Dissipation (or Power) Factor 344 --
15.11 Power (Dissipation) Factor Tip-Up 348 --
15.12 Off-Line Partial Discharge for Conventional Windings 350 --
15.13 Off-Line Partial Discharge for Inverter-Fed Windings 357 --
15.14 Stator Blackout and Ultraviolet Imaging 359 --
15.15 Stator Partial Discharge Probe 361. 15.16 Stator Surge Voltage 363 --
15.17 Inductive Impedance 367 --
15.18 Semiconductive Coating Contact Resistance 368 --
15.19 Conductor Coolant Tube Resistance 369 --
15.20 Stator Wedge Tap 370 --
15.21 Slot Side Clearance 373 --
15.22 Stator Slot Radial Clearance 374 --
15.23 Stator End Winding Bump 375 --
15.24 Stator Pressure and Vacuum Decay 377 --
15.25 Rotor Pole Drop (Voltage Drop) 378 --
15.26 Rotor RSO and Surge 380 --
15.27 Rotor Growler 382 --
15.28 Rotor Fluorescent Dye Penetrant 383 --
15.29 Rotor Rated Flux 384 --
15.30 Rotor Single-Phase Rotation 385 --
References 385 --
CHAPTER 16 IN-SERVICE MONITORING OF STATOR AND ROTOR WINDINGS 389 --
16.1 Thermal Monitoring 390 --
16.2 Condition Monitors and Tagging Compounds 395 --
16.3 Ozone 398 --
16.4 Online Partial Discharge Monitor 400 --
16.5 Online Capacitance and Dissipation Factor 415 --
16.6 Endwinding Vibration Monitor 417 --
16.7 Synchronous Rotor Flux Monitor 420 --
16.8 Current Signature Analysis 427 --
16.9 Bearing Vibration Monitor 432 --
16.10 Stator Winding Water Leak Monitoring 435 --
References 435 --
CHAPTER 17 CORE TESTING 439 --
17.1 Knife 439 --
17.2 Rated Flux 441 --
17.3 Core Loss 450 --
17.4 Low Core Flux (El-CID) 451 --
References 461 --
CHAPTER 18 NEW MACHINE WINDING AND REWIND SPECIFICATIONS 463 --
18.1 Objective of Stator and Rotor Winding Specifications 464 --
18.2 Trade-Offs Between Detailed and General Specifications 464 --
18.3 General Items for Specifications 465 --
18.4 Technical Requirements for New Stator Windings 467 --
18.5 Technical Requirements for Insulated Rotor Windings 475 --
References 486 --
CHAPTER 19 ACCEPTANCE AND SITE TESTING OF NEW WINDINGS 487 --
19.1 Stator Winding Insulation System Prequalification Tests 487 --
19.2 Stator Winding Insulation System Factory and On-Site Tests 494 --
19.3 Factory and On-Site Tests for Rotor Windings 501 --
19.4 Core Insulation Factory and On-Site Tests 505 --
References 506 --
CHAPTER 20 MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES 509 --
20.1 Maintenance and Inspection Options 509. 20.2 Maintenance Strategies for Various Machine Types and Applications 515 --
Reference 525 --
APPENDIX A INSULATION MATERIAL TABLES 527 --
APPENDIX B INSULATION SYSTEM TABLES 553 --
INDEX 629.
Responsibility: Greg C. Stone, Ian Culbert, Edward A. Boulter and Hussein Dhirani.
More information:

Abstract:

A fully expanded new edition documenting the significant improvements that have been made to the tests and monitors of electrical insulation systems Electrical Insulation for Rotating Machines: Design, Evaluation, Aging, Testing, and Repair, Second Edition covers all aspects in the design, deterioration, testing, and repair of the electrical insulation used in motors and generators of all ratings greater than fractional horsepower size. It discusses both rotor and stator windings; gives a historical overview of machine insulation design; and describes the materials and manufacturing methods of the rotor and stator winding insulation systems in current use (while covering systems made over fifty years ago). It covers how to select the insulation systems for use in new machines, and explains over thirty different rotor and stator winding failure processes, including the methods to repair, or least slow down, each process. Finally, it reviews the theoretical basis, practical application, and interpretation of forty different tests and monitors that are used to assess winding insulation condition, thereby helping machine users avoid unnecessary machine failures and reduce maintenance costs. Electrical Insulation for Rotating Machines: -Documents the large array of machine electrical failure mechanisms, repair methods, and test techniques that are currently available -Educates owners of machines as well as repair shops on the different failure processes and shows them how to fix or otherwise ameliorate them -Offers chapters on testing, monitoring, and maintenance strategies that assist in educating machine users and repair shops on the tests needed for specific situations and how to minimize motor and generator maintenance costs -Captures the state of both the present and past "art" in rotating machine insulation system design and manufacture, which helps designers learn from the knowledge acquired by previous generations An ideal read for researchers, developers, and manufacturers of electrical insulating materials for machines, Electrical Insulation for Rotating Machines will also benefit designers of motors and generators who must select and apply electrical insulation in machines.

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