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England on the eve of the industrial revolution : a study of economic and social conditions from 1740 to 1760, with special references to Lancashire

Author: Louis Wilfrid Moffit
Publisher: New York : Barnes & Noble, [1964]
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Louis Wilfrid Moffit
OCLC Number: 1190879
Description: xxi, 312 pages : 2 folded maps (1 color) ; 23 cm
Contents: Introduction: Two kinds of revolution ; The second kind preceded by long preparation ; Eighteenth-century changes in England of the second kind ; Preparation: intellectual, industrial, commercial, agricultural ; Mercantilist conceptions ; Purpose of the present study ; Analogies with Canada in the nineteenth century --
pt. I. Agriculture. Technique of agriculture: Agricultural Lancashire ; Standard crops: grains, wheat, barley, rye, pease, beans ; New crops: grasses, turnips, potatoes, carrots, cabbages ; Rotation ; New rotations ; Tullian tillage ; Implements: drills, ploughs, reaping cradle ; Manures: marle the principal dependence, lime, mixing soils, paring and burning, barnyard dung ; Drainage ; Live stock ; Early part of the century ; Bakewell ; Cattle, sheep, horses, amount of stock on farms --
Economic structure of farming, I. Land tenure, size of farms, enclosures: Growth in spirit of individualism ; Four main features ; Land tenure ; Feudal survivals ; Tithes ; Concentration of rights ; Copyhold ; Leases for lives ; Leases for years ; Rack rents and tenancy at will ; Covenants ; Size of farms: in Lancashire ; Small holdings ; Connection with manufactures ; Enclosures ; Methods ; Amount of enclosure ; Transition to legislative enclosure ; Enclosure in Lancashire ; Why an absence of enclosure by act of Parliament in Lancashire ; Summary --
III. Economic structure of farming, II. Markets, prices, and transport of produce: Markets ; Method varied with the produce ; Growth of the middleman ; Corn and corn products ; Sampling ; Export corn regulations ; Functions of the corn buyer ; Factors ; Jobbers ; Merchant ; Millers ; Maltster, mealman, and flourman ; Bakers ; Brewers, Distillers ; Taverners ; Markets and prices ; Meats ; Butter and cheese ; Wool ; Transport ; Pack-trains ; Roads ; Turnpikes --
IV. Economic structure of farming, III. Social conditions and labour: Classes: landowners, gentry and yeomanry, tenant farmers, farm servants, cottagers, squatters, agricultural population ; Houses ; Wages ; Food: oats, porridge, oat-cakes, proportions eating wheat, milk, potatoes, meats and soups, beverages ; Clothing ; Disturbing forces ; Changes in method accompanied by enclosures ; Immobility of labour partly due to settlement laws ; Expenditure items on poor relief. pt. II. Industry and commerce. V. Introductory, distribution of industry and population: Introductory ; Industry in S. and E. Lancashire ; Coal ; Metals ; Potteries ; Chemical industry ; Cottons round Manchester ; Woollens [sic] on eastern borders ; Commerce at Liverpool, Warrington, Manchester, Lancaster ; Trade routes: land and water ; Population: Liverpool, Manchester, other parts ; General industrial distribution ; Minerals and metals ; Clothing areas ; Northward tendency of industry ; Linen ; Hosiery ; Influence of the London market ; Coast trade ; River trade ; Land carriage ; Northward tendency of population clearly marked by 1760, why? --
VI. Industrial technique: Most industry on domestic basis ; Minerals and other exceptions ; Two main heads: mines and metals, and textiles ; Minerals: lead, iron, charcoal, copper ; Watch-making ; Coal ; Early methods ; Pillar system in Lancashire ; Fire-damp ; Ventilation ; Drainage ; Pumping ;By-products ; Railways ; Smelting iron ; Tin ; Pumping by steam ; Pottery ; Glass ; Textiles: cotton ; Jersey wheel ; Saxony wheel ; Roller spinning ; Weaving ; Kay's fly shuttle ; Drop box ; Draw boy ; Mixture of cotton and linen ; Textile printing ; Wool ; Carding ; Combing ; Spinning ; Weaving ; Fulling ; Tentering ; Linen ; Silk ; Hats --
VII. Economic organization of production: Course of economic evolution ; In England ; Industrial revolution a transition ; Industry domestic in eighteenth century ; Middleman brings commercial capital ; Into the woollen industry ; Into cotton industry ; Yorkshire domestic industry ; Industrial capital extends control ; Clothier in the south-west and east ; Merchant in the north ; Fixed capital ; Domestic industry and agriculture ; Town workers ; Management ; Advantages of domestic system ; Disadvantages ; Summary ; State regulation ; Under Stuarts ; Eighteenth century ; Linen and cotton --
VIII. Economic organization of distribution: Cloth markets ; Brig market at Leeds ; Cloth halls ; Making to order growing up ; Buyers in the Leeds market ; Fairs ; Merchants ; Supercargoes ; Factors ; Commission houses ; Branch houses ; London the distributing centre ; Blackwell Hall ; Travelling merchants ; Pack-horse trains ; Riders ; The retail trade ; In markets ; Shops ; Chapen ; Street hawking ; Chap books ; Coal trade ; Owner ; Keelman ; Fitter ; Ship master ; Lighterman at London ; First and second buyers ; Salt and metal trades ; Post office ; Newspapers --
IX. Industrial labour and social conditions: Classification of workers ; Wages ; Assessments ; Truck system ; Bonding of miners ; Conditions of labour ; Hours ; Freedom from supervision ; Canal labour ; Blast funaces ; Mines ; Child labour ; Apprenticeship ; Labour organization ; Unions of better paid workers ; Woollens ; Small wares weavers ; Check weavers ; Wool combers ; Miners ; Living conditions: clothing ; Food ; Public health ; Pauperism ; Increase in the poor rate ; Poor relief legislation ; Contemporary opinions ; Friendly societies --
Appendices.
Responsibility: Louis W. Moffit.

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