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Environmental geology

Author: Carla W Montgomery
Publisher: Boston : McGraw-Hill, ©2008.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 8th edView all editions and formats
Summary:

Presents the student with a broad overview of environmental geology. This text looks at how the earth developed. It aims to provide the student with a useful foundation for discussing and evaluating  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Montgomery, Carla W., 1951-
Environmental geology.
Boston : McGraw-Hill, ©2008
(OCoLC)752875741
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Carla W Montgomery
ISBN: 9780072826913 0072826916 0077216059 9780077216054 9780071283625 0071283625
OCLC Number: 145732989
Description: xviii, 556 pages : color illustrations, color maps ; 28 cm
Contents: Appendix A. Geologic time, geologic process rates --
Introduction --
Relative dating --
Arranging events in order --
Correlation --
Uniformitarianism --
How old is the Earth? --
Early efforts --
The nineteenth-century view --
Radiometric dating --
The discovery of radioactivity --
Radioactive decay and dating --
Choice of an isotopic system --
Radiometric and relative ages combined --
The geologic time scale --
Geologic process rates --
Examples of rate determination --
The danger of extrapolation --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Suggested readings/references --
Appendix B. Introduction to topographic and geologic maps and satellite imagery --
Maps and scale --
Topographic maps --
Contour lines, contour intervals --
Other features on standard topographic maps --
Obtaining topographic maps --
Geologic maps --
Basic concepts related to geologic maps --
Interpretation from geologic maps, examples --
Cross sections --
Obtaining geologic maps --
Remote sensing and satellite imagery --
Landsat images and applications --
Radar imaging --
Imaging spectroscopy --
Terms to remember --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
Appendix C. Mineral and rock identification --
Mineral identification --
A note on mineral formulas --
Rock identification --
Appendix D. Units of measurement, conversions --
Glossary. Section 1. Foundations --
1. An overview of our planetary environment --
Earth in space and time --
The early Solar System --
The planets --
Earth, then and now --
Life on Earth --
Geology, past and present --
The geologic perspective --
Geology and the scientific method --
The motivation to find answers --
Wheels within wheels : Earth cycles and systems --
Nature and rate of population growth --
Growth rates : causes and consequences --
Growth rate and doubling time --
Impacts of the human population --
Farmland and food supply --
Population and nonfood resources --
Uneven distribution of people and resources --
Disruption of natural systems --
Is extraterrestrial colonization a solution? --
Living geology box 1 : reality in round numbers (or, how many is a crowd?) --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
2. Rocks and minerals, a first look --
Atoms, elements, isotopes, ions, and compounds --
Atomic structure --
Elements and isotopes --
Ions --
Compounds --
Minerals, general --
Minerals defined --
Identifying characteristics of minerals --
Other physical properties of minerals --
Types of minerals --
Silicates --
Nonsilicates --
Rocks --
Living geology box 2 : minerals, risky business? --
The rock cycle --
Igneous rocks --
Sediments and sedimentary rocks --
Metamorphic rocks --
The rock cycle revisited --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes Section 2. Internal processes --
3. Plate tectonics --
Plate tectonics, general principles --
Stress and strain in geologic materials --
Lithosphere and asthenosphere --
Locating plate boundaries --
Plate movements, accumulating evidence --
The topography of the sea floor --
Magnetism in rocks, general --
Paleomagnetism and seafloor spreading --
Age of the ocean floor --
Polar-wander curves --
Other evidence --
Types of plate boundaries --
Divergent plate boundaries --
Transform boundaries --
Convergent plate boundaries --
How fare, how fast, how long, how come? --
Past motions, present velocities --
Living geology box 3 : subduction zones, disposal zones? --
Why do plates move? --
History of plate tectonics --
Plate tectonics and the rock cycle --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
4. Earthquakes --
Earthquakes, basic theory --
Basic terms --
Earthquake locations --
Seismic waves and earthquake severity --
Seismic waves --
Locating the epicenter --
Magnitude and intensity --
Earthquake-related hazards and their reduction --
Ground motion --
Ground failure --
Tsunamis and coastal effects --
Fire --
Earthquake prediction and forecasting --
Seismic gaps --
Earthquake precursors and prediction --
Current status of earthquake prediction --
The earthquake cycle and forecasting --
Earthquake control? --
Earthquake awareness, public response --
Concerns related to predictions --
Public response to earthquake hazards --
Further thoughts on modern and future U.S. and Canadian earthquakes --
Ares of widely recognized risk --
Living geology box 4 : "earthquake-proof" buildings? --
Other potential problem areas --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
5. Volcanoes --
Magma sources and types --
Kinds and locations of volcanic activity --
Individual volcanoes, locations --
Seafloor spreading ridges, fissure eruptions --
Shield volcanoes --
Volcanic domes --
Cinder cones --
Composite volcanoes --
Hazards related to volcanoes --
Lava --
Pyroclastics --
Lahars --
Pyroclastic flows, nuées ardentes --
Toxic gases --
Steam explosions --
Secondary effects : climate and atmospheric chemistry --
Issues in predicting volcanic eruptions --
Classification of volcanoes by activity --
Volcanic precursors --
Living geology box 5 : all the land's a lava flow... --
Response to eruption predictions --
Present and future volcanic hazards in the United States --
Hawaii --
Cascade Range --
The Aleutians --
Long Valley and Yellowstone Calderas --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes Section 3. Surface processes --
6. Streams and flooding --
The hydrologic cycle --
Streams and their features --
Streams, general --
Sediment transport --
Velocity, gradient, and base level --
Velocity and sediment sorting and deposition --
Channel and floodplain evolution --
Flooding --
Factors governing flood severity --
Flood characteristics --
Stream hydrographs --
Flood-frequency curves --
Consequences of development in floodplains --
Reasons for floodplain occupation --
Effects of development on flood hazards --
Strategies for reducing flood hazards --
Restrictive zoning and "floodproofing" --
Retention ponds, diversion channels --
Channelization --
Living geology box 6 : looking out for the "flash" in "flash floods" --
Levees --
Flood-control dams and reservoirs --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
7. Coastal zones and processes --
Nature of the coastline --
Emergent and submergent coastlines --
Causes of long-term sea-level change --
Signs of changing relative sea level --
Coastal erosion, sediment deposition and transport --
Sand transport and beach erosion --
Cliff erosion --
Especially difficult coastal environments --
Barrier islands --
Estuaries --
Weather, climate, and coastal dynamics --
Present and future sea-level trends --
Storms and coastal erosion --
Costs of construction, and reconstruction, in high-energy environments --
Recognition of coastal hazards --
Living geology box 7 : now you see it, now you don't --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
8. Mass movements --
Factors influencing slope stability --
Effects of slope and materials --
Effects of fluid --
Effects of vegetation --
Earthquakes --
Quick clays --
Types of mass wasting --
Falls --
Slumps and slides --
Flows and avalanches --
Scales and rates of movements --
Consequences of mass movements --
Impact of human activities --
In harm's way #1 : the Vaiont Dam --
In harm's way #2 : the Venezuelan coast --
Possible preventive measures --
Slope reduction --
Retention structures --
Fluid removal --
Other slope-stabilization measures --
Recognizing the hazards --
Landslide warnings? --
Living geology box 8 : watching the slippery slope --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
9. Geology and climate : glaciers, deserts, and global climate trends --
Glaciers and glacial features --
Glacier formation --
Types of glaciers --
Movement and change of glaciers --
Glacial erosion and deposition --
Glaciers as a water source --
Wind and its geologic impacts --
Wind erosion --
Wind deposition --
Dune migration --
Loess --
Deserts and desertification --
Causes of natural deserts --
Desertification --
Causes of desertification --
Desertification in the United States --
Global impact of desertification --
Global climate, past and present --
Living geology box 9 : climate, blowing hot and cold --
Evidence of climates past --
Ice ages and their possible causes --
Climate, present and future --
The greenhouse effect and global warming --
Climate change is more than global warming --
Winds and currents, climate and commerce : El Niño --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes Section 4. Resources --
Resources, people, and standards of living --
Projection of resource supply and demand --
10. Water as a resource --
The global water budget --
Fluid storage and movement : porosity and permeability --
Subsurface waters --
Aquifer geometry --
Confined and unconfined aquifers --
Other factors in water availability --
Consequences of groundwater withdrawal --
Lowering the water table --
Compaction and surface subsidence --
Saltwater intrusion --
Other impacts of urbanization on groundwater systems --
Loss of recharge --
Artificial recharge --
Other features involving subsurface water --
Sinkholes --
Karst --
Water quality --
Measures of water quality --
Hard water --
Water use, water supply --
General U.S. water use --
Surface water versus ground water as supply --
Living geology box 10 : what's in the water? --
Regional variations in water use --
Case studies in water consumption --
The Colorado River basin --
The high plains (Ogallala) aquifer system --
The Aral Sea --
Extending the water supply --
Conservation --
Interbasin water transfer --
Desalination --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
11. Soil as a resource --
Soil formation --
Soil-forming processes : weathering --
Soil profiles, soil horizons --
Chemical and physical properties of soils --
Color, texture, and structure of soils --
Soil classification --
Soils and human activities --
Lateritic soil --
Wetland soils --
Soil erosion --
Soil erosion versus soil formation --
Strategies for reducing erosion --
Irrigation and soil chemistry --
The soil resource, the global view --
Living geology box 11 : unintended consequences --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
12. Mineral and rock resources --
Ore deposits --
Definition --
Distribution --
Types of mineral deposits --
Igneous rocks and magmatic deposits --
Hydrothermal ores --
Relationship to plate margins --
Sedimentary deposits --
Other low-temperature ore-forming processes --
Metamorphic deposits --
Mineral and rock resources, examples --
Metals --
Nonmetallic minerals --
Rock resources --
Mineral supply and demand --
U.S. mineral production and consumption --
World mineral supply and demand --
Minerals for the future : some options considered --
New methods in mineral exploration --
Marine mineral resources --
Conservation of mineral resources --
Living geology box 12 : what's in a 12-ounce can? --
Impacts of mining activities --
Underground mines --
Surface mines --
Mineral processing --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
13. Energy resources, fossil fuels --
Oil and natural gas --
Formation of oil and gas deposits --
Oil and gas migration --
The time factor --
Supply and demand for oil and natural gas --
Oil --
U.S. oil supplies --
Natural gas --
Future prospects --
Enhanced oil recovery --
Geopressurized natural gas and other alternative gas sources --
Conservation --
Oil spills --
Living geology box 13 : energy prices, energy uses --
Coal --
Formation of coal deposits --
Coal reserves and resources --
Limitations on coal use --
Gasification --
Liquefaction --
Environmental impacts of coal use --
Sulfur in coal --
Ash --
Coal-mining hazards and environmental impacts --
Oil shale --
Tar sand --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
14. Energy resources, alternative sources --
Nuclear power, fission --
Fission, basic principles --
The geology of uranium deposits --
Extending the nuclear fuel supply --
Concerns related to nuclear reactor safety --
Concerns related to fuel handling --
Radioactive wastes --
Risk assessment, risk projection --
Concluding observations --
Nuclear power, fusion --
Solar energy --
Solar heating --
Solar electricity --
Potential environmental impacts of large-scale commitment to solar electricity --
Solar energy summary --
Geothermal power --
The geothermal resource --
Applications of geothermal energy --
Environmental considerations of geothermal power --
Limitations on geothermal power --
Alternative geothermal sources --
Summary of geothermal potential --
Hydropower --
Limitations on hydropower development --
Tidal power --
Wind energy --
Living geology box 14 : the Educational Bill --
Biomass --
Alcohol as fuel --
Biogas --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes Section 5. Waste disposal --
15. Waste disposal --
Solid wastes, general --
Municipal waste disposal --
Open dumps --
Sanitary landfills --
Incineration --
Ocean dumping --
Reducing waste volume --
Handling (nontoxic) organic matter --
Recycling --
Living geology box 15 : decisions, decisions... --
Other options --
Liquid-waste disposal --
Secure landfills --
Deep-well disposal --
Other strategies --
Sewage treatment --
Septic systems --
Municipal sewage treatment --
The ghost of toxins past : Superfund --
Radioactive wastes --
Radioactive decay --
Effects of radiation --
Nature of radioactive wastes --
Historical suggestions : space, ice, and plate tectonics --
Seabed disposal --
Bedrock caverns for liquid waste --
Bedrock disposal of solid high-level wastes --
Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) --
The long road to Yucca Mountain --
No high-level radioactive waste disposal yet --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
16. Water pollution --
General principles --
Geochemical cycles --
Residence time --
Residence time and pollution --
Point and nonpoint pollution sources --
Industrial pollution --
Inorganic pollutants, metals --
Other inorganic pollutants --
Organic compounds --
Problems of control --
Thermal pollution --
Organic matter --
Nature and impacts --
Biochemical oxygen demand --
Eutrophication --
Agricultural pollution --
Fertilizers --
Living geology box 16 : clogging with kindness? --
Sediment pollution --
Herbicides and pesticides --
Reversing the damage, surface water --
Dredging --
Physical isolation or chemical treatment of sediments --
Decontamination : aeration --
Groundwater pollution --
The surface, ground water connection explored --
Reversing the damage, groundwater --
In situ decontamination --
Decontamination after extraction --
Damage control by containment, the Rocky Mountain arsenal --
New technology meets problems from the past : California Gulch Superfund Site, Leadville, Colorado --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
17. Air pollution --
Atmospheric chemistry, cycles and residence times --
Costs of air pollution --
Types and sources of air pollution --
Particulates --
Carbon gases --
Sulfur gases --
Nitrogen gases --
Ozone and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) --
Lead --
Other pollutants --
Acid rain --
The nature of acid rain --
Regional variations in rainfall acidity and impacts --
Living geology box 17 : indoor air pollution? --
Air pollution and weather --
Thermal inversion --
Impact on precipitation --
Toward air-pollution control --
Air-quality standards --
Control methods --
Automobile emissions --
Cost and effect --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes Section 6. Other related topics --
18. Environmental law --
Resource law : water --
Surface-water law --
Groundwater law --
Resource law : minerals and fuels --
Mineral rights --
Mine reclamation --
International resource disputes --
Law of the sea and exclusive economic zones --
Antarctica --
Pollution and its control --
A clean environment, by what right? --
Water pollution --
Air pollution --
Waste disposal --
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency --
Defining limits of pollution --
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act --
International initiatives --
Cost-benefit analysis --
Problems of quantification --
Cost-benefit analysis and the federal government --
Laws relating to geologic hazards --
Construction controls --
Other responses to earthquake hazards --
Flood hazards, flood insurance --
Problems with geologic-hazard mitigation laws --
The National Environmental Policy Act (1969) --
Living geology box 18 : floodplain? What floodplain? --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes --
19. Land-use planning and engineering geology --
Land-use planning, why? --
Conversion of rural land --
Some considerations in planning --
Land-use options --
Multiple use --
Sequential use --
The federal government and land-use planning --
Maps as a planning tool --
Engineering geology, some considerations --
The role of testing and scale modeling --
Case histories, old and new --
The Leaning Tower of Pisa --
Living geology box 19 : how green is my, golf course? --
The Panama Canal --
The Rotterdam Subway, Holland --
Dams and their failures --
The St. Francis Dam --
Other examples and issues --
Summary --
Terms to remember --
Exercises --
Suggested readings/references --
Netnotes
Responsibility: Carla W. Montogomery.
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    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/912988> ; # Environmental geology
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    schema:bookEdition "8th ed." ;
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    schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/109357702> ; # Carla W. Montgomery
    schema:datePublished "2008" ;
    schema:description "Section 1. Foundations -- 1. An overview of our planetary environment -- Earth in space and time -- The early Solar System -- The planets -- Earth, then and now -- Life on Earth -- Geology, past and present -- The geologic perspective -- Geology and the scientific method -- The motivation to find answers -- Wheels within wheels : Earth cycles and systems -- Nature and rate of population growth -- Growth rates : causes and consequences -- Growth rate and doubling time -- Impacts of the human population -- Farmland and food supply -- Population and nonfood resources -- Uneven distribution of people and resources -- Disruption of natural systems -- Is extraterrestrial colonization a solution? -- Living geology box 1 : reality in round numbers (or, how many is a crowd?) -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 2. Rocks and minerals, a first look -- Atoms, elements, isotopes, ions, and compounds -- Atomic structure -- Elements and isotopes -- Ions -- Compounds -- Minerals, general -- Minerals defined -- Identifying characteristics of minerals -- Other physical properties of minerals -- Types of minerals -- Silicates -- Nonsilicates -- Rocks -- Living geology box 2 : minerals, risky business? -- The rock cycle -- Igneous rocks -- Sediments and sedimentary rocks -- Metamorphic rocks -- The rock cycle revisited -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
    schema:description "Section 2. Internal processes -- 3. Plate tectonics -- Plate tectonics, general principles -- Stress and strain in geologic materials -- Lithosphere and asthenosphere -- Locating plate boundaries -- Plate movements, accumulating evidence -- The topography of the sea floor -- Magnetism in rocks, general -- Paleomagnetism and seafloor spreading -- Age of the ocean floor -- Polar-wander curves -- Other evidence -- Types of plate boundaries -- Divergent plate boundaries -- Transform boundaries -- Convergent plate boundaries -- How fare, how fast, how long, how come? -- Past motions, present velocities -- Living geology box 3 : subduction zones, disposal zones? -- Why do plates move? -- History of plate tectonics -- Plate tectonics and the rock cycle -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 4. Earthquakes -- Earthquakes, basic theory -- Basic terms -- Earthquake locations -- Seismic waves and earthquake severity -- Seismic waves -- Locating the epicenter -- Magnitude and intensity -- Earthquake-related hazards and their reduction -- Ground motion -- Ground failure -- Tsunamis and coastal effects -- Fire -- Earthquake prediction and forecasting -- Seismic gaps -- Earthquake precursors and prediction -- Current status of earthquake prediction -- The earthquake cycle and forecasting -- Earthquake control? -- Earthquake awareness, public response -- Concerns related to predictions -- Public response to earthquake hazards -- Further thoughts on modern and future U.S. and Canadian earthquakes -- Ares of widely recognized risk -- Living geology box 4 : "earthquake-proof" buildings? -- Other potential problem areas -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 5. Volcanoes -- Magma sources and types -- Kinds and locations of volcanic activity -- Individual volcanoes, locations -- Seafloor spreading ridges, fissure eruptions -- Shield volcanoes -- Volcanic domes -- Cinder cones -- Composite volcanoes -- Hazards related to volcanoes -- Lava -- Pyroclastics -- Lahars -- Pyroclastic flows, nuées ardentes -- Toxic gases -- Steam explosions -- Secondary effects : climate and atmospheric chemistry -- Issues in predicting volcanic eruptions -- Classification of volcanoes by activity -- Volcanic precursors -- Living geology box 5 : all the land's a lava flow... -- Response to eruption predictions -- Present and future volcanic hazards in the United States -- Hawaii -- Cascade Range -- The Aleutians -- Long Valley and Yellowstone Calderas -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
    schema:description "Section 6. Other related topics -- 18. Environmental law -- Resource law : water -- Surface-water law -- Groundwater law -- Resource law : minerals and fuels -- Mineral rights -- Mine reclamation -- International resource disputes -- Law of the sea and exclusive economic zones -- Antarctica -- Pollution and its control -- A clean environment, by what right? -- Water pollution -- Air pollution -- Waste disposal -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency -- Defining limits of pollution -- The Canadian Environmental Protection Act -- International initiatives -- Cost-benefit analysis -- Problems of quantification -- Cost-benefit analysis and the federal government -- Laws relating to geologic hazards -- Construction controls -- Other responses to earthquake hazards -- Flood hazards, flood insurance -- Problems with geologic-hazard mitigation laws -- The National Environmental Policy Act (1969) -- Living geology box 18 : floodplain? What floodplain? -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 19. Land-use planning and engineering geology -- Land-use planning, why? -- Conversion of rural land -- Some considerations in planning -- Land-use options -- Multiple use -- Sequential use -- The federal government and land-use planning -- Maps as a planning tool -- Engineering geology, some considerations -- The role of testing and scale modeling -- Case histories, old and new -- The Leaning Tower of Pisa -- Living geology box 19 : how green is my, golf course? -- The Panama Canal -- The Rotterdam Subway, Holland -- Dams and their failures -- The St. Francis Dam -- Other examples and issues -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
    schema:description "Section 3. Surface processes -- 6. Streams and flooding -- The hydrologic cycle -- Streams and their features -- Streams, general -- Sediment transport -- Velocity, gradient, and base level -- Velocity and sediment sorting and deposition -- Channel and floodplain evolution -- Flooding -- Factors governing flood severity -- Flood characteristics -- Stream hydrographs -- Flood-frequency curves -- Consequences of development in floodplains -- Reasons for floodplain occupation -- Effects of development on flood hazards -- Strategies for reducing flood hazards -- Restrictive zoning and "floodproofing" -- Retention ponds, diversion channels -- Channelization -- Living geology box 6 : looking out for the "flash" in "flash floods" -- Levees -- Flood-control dams and reservoirs -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 7. Coastal zones and processes -- Nature of the coastline -- Emergent and submergent coastlines -- Causes of long-term sea-level change -- Signs of changing relative sea level -- Coastal erosion, sediment deposition and transport -- Sand transport and beach erosion -- Cliff erosion -- Especially difficult coastal environments -- Barrier islands -- Estuaries -- Weather, climate, and coastal dynamics -- Present and future sea-level trends -- Storms and coastal erosion -- Costs of construction, and reconstruction, in high-energy environments -- Recognition of coastal hazards -- Living geology box 7 : now you see it, now you don't -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 8. Mass movements -- Factors influencing slope stability -- Effects of slope and materials -- Effects of fluid -- Effects of vegetation -- Earthquakes -- Quick clays -- Types of mass wasting -- Falls -- Slumps and slides -- Flows and avalanches -- Scales and rates of movements -- Consequences of mass movements -- Impact of human activities -- In harm's way #1 : the Vaiont Dam -- In harm's way #2 : the Venezuelan coast -- Possible preventive measures -- Slope reduction -- Retention structures -- Fluid removal -- Other slope-stabilization measures -- Recognizing the hazards -- Landslide warnings? -- Living geology box 8 : watching the slippery slope -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 9. Geology and climate : glaciers, deserts, and global climate trends -- Glaciers and glacial features -- Glacier formation -- Types of glaciers -- Movement and change of glaciers -- Glacial erosion and deposition -- Glaciers as a water source -- Wind and its geologic impacts -- Wind erosion -- Wind deposition -- Dune migration -- Loess -- Deserts and desertification -- Causes of natural deserts -- Desertification -- Causes of desertification -- Desertification in the United States -- Global impact of desertification -- Global climate, past and present -- Living geology box 9 : climate, blowing hot and cold -- Evidence of climates past -- Ice ages and their possible causes -- Climate, present and future -- The greenhouse effect and global warming -- Climate change is more than global warming -- Winds and currents, climate and commerce : El Niño -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
    schema:description "Section 4. Resources -- Resources, people, and standards of living -- Projection of resource supply and demand -- 10. Water as a resource -- The global water budget -- Fluid storage and movement : porosity and permeability -- Subsurface waters -- Aquifer geometry -- Confined and unconfined aquifers -- Other factors in water availability -- Consequences of groundwater withdrawal -- Lowering the water table -- Compaction and surface subsidence -- Saltwater intrusion -- Other impacts of urbanization on groundwater systems -- Loss of recharge -- Artificial recharge -- Other features involving subsurface water -- Sinkholes -- Karst -- Water quality -- Measures of water quality -- Hard water -- Water use, water supply -- General U.S. water use -- Surface water versus ground water as supply -- Living geology box 10 : what's in the water? -- Regional variations in water use -- Case studies in water consumption -- The Colorado River basin -- The high plains (Ogallala) aquifer system -- The Aral Sea -- Extending the water supply -- Conservation -- Interbasin water transfer -- Desalination -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 11. Soil as a resource -- Soil formation -- Soil-forming processes : weathering -- Soil profiles, soil horizons -- Chemical and physical properties of soils -- Color, texture, and structure of soils -- Soil classification -- Soils and human activities -- Lateritic soil -- Wetland soils -- Soil erosion -- Soil erosion versus soil formation -- Strategies for reducing erosion -- Irrigation and soil chemistry -- The soil resource, the global view -- Living geology box 11 : unintended consequences -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 12. Mineral and rock resources -- Ore deposits -- Definition -- Distribution -- Types of mineral deposits -- Igneous rocks and magmatic deposits -- Hydrothermal ores -- Relationship to plate margins -- Sedimentary deposits -- Other low-temperature ore-forming processes -- Metamorphic deposits -- Mineral and rock resources, examples -- Metals -- Nonmetallic minerals -- Rock resources -- Mineral supply and demand -- U.S. mineral production and consumption -- World mineral supply and demand -- Minerals for the future : some options considered -- New methods in mineral exploration -- Marine mineral resources -- Conservation of mineral resources -- Living geology box 12 : what's in a 12-ounce can? -- Impacts of mining activities -- Underground mines -- Surface mines -- Mineral processing -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 13. Energy resources, fossil fuels -- Oil and natural gas -- Formation of oil and gas deposits -- Oil and gas migration -- The time factor -- Supply and demand for oil and natural gas -- Oil -- U.S. oil supplies -- Natural gas -- Future prospects -- Enhanced oil recovery -- Geopressurized natural gas and other alternative gas sources -- Conservation -- Oil spills -- Living geology box 13 : energy prices, energy uses -- Coal -- Formation of coal deposits -- Coal reserves and resources -- Limitations on coal use -- Gasification -- Liquefaction -- Environmental impacts of coal use -- Sulfur in coal -- Ash -- Coal-mining hazards and environmental impacts -- Oil shale -- Tar sand -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 14. Energy resources, alternative sources -- Nuclear power, fission -- Fission, basic principles -- The geology of uranium deposits -- Extending the nuclear fuel supply -- Concerns related to nuclear reactor safety -- Concerns related to fuel handling -- Radioactive wastes -- Risk assessment, risk projection -- Concluding observations -- Nuclear power, fusion -- Solar energy -- Solar heating -- Solar electricity -- Potential environmental impacts of large-scale commitment to solar electricity -- Solar energy summary -- Geothermal power -- The geothermal resource -- Applications of geothermal energy -- Environmental considerations of geothermal power -- Limitations on geothermal power -- Alternative geothermal sources -- Summary of geothermal potential -- Hydropower -- Limitations on hydropower development -- Tidal power -- Wind energy -- Living geology box 14 : the Educational Bill -- Biomass -- Alcohol as fuel -- Biogas -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
    schema:description "Appendix A. Geologic time, geologic process rates -- Introduction -- Relative dating -- Arranging events in order -- Correlation -- Uniformitarianism -- How old is the Earth? -- Early efforts -- The nineteenth-century view -- Radiometric dating -- The discovery of radioactivity -- Radioactive decay and dating -- Choice of an isotopic system -- Radiometric and relative ages combined -- The geologic time scale -- Geologic process rates -- Examples of rate determination -- The danger of extrapolation -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Suggested readings/references -- Appendix B. Introduction to topographic and geologic maps and satellite imagery -- Maps and scale -- Topographic maps -- Contour lines, contour intervals -- Other features on standard topographic maps -- Obtaining topographic maps -- Geologic maps -- Basic concepts related to geologic maps -- Interpretation from geologic maps, examples -- Cross sections -- Obtaining geologic maps -- Remote sensing and satellite imagery -- Landsat images and applications -- Radar imaging -- Imaging spectroscopy -- Terms to remember -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- Appendix C. Mineral and rock identification -- Mineral identification -- A note on mineral formulas -- Rock identification -- Appendix D. Units of measurement, conversions -- Glossary."@en ;
    schema:description "Section 5. Waste disposal -- 15. Waste disposal -- Solid wastes, general -- Municipal waste disposal -- Open dumps -- Sanitary landfills -- Incineration -- Ocean dumping -- Reducing waste volume -- Handling (nontoxic) organic matter -- Recycling -- Living geology box 15 : decisions, decisions... -- Other options -- Liquid-waste disposal -- Secure landfills -- Deep-well disposal -- Other strategies -- Sewage treatment -- Septic systems -- Municipal sewage treatment -- The ghost of toxins past : Superfund -- Radioactive wastes -- Radioactive decay -- Effects of radiation -- Nature of radioactive wastes -- Historical suggestions : space, ice, and plate tectonics -- Seabed disposal -- Bedrock caverns for liquid waste -- Bedrock disposal of solid high-level wastes -- Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- The long road to Yucca Mountain -- No high-level radioactive waste disposal yet -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 16. Water pollution -- General principles -- Geochemical cycles -- Residence time -- Residence time and pollution -- Point and nonpoint pollution sources -- Industrial pollution -- Inorganic pollutants, metals -- Other inorganic pollutants -- Organic compounds -- Problems of control -- Thermal pollution -- Organic matter -- Nature and impacts -- Biochemical oxygen demand -- Eutrophication -- Agricultural pollution -- Fertilizers -- Living geology box 16 : clogging with kindness? -- Sediment pollution -- Herbicides and pesticides -- Reversing the damage, surface water -- Dredging -- Physical isolation or chemical treatment of sediments -- Decontamination : aeration -- Groundwater pollution -- The surface, ground water connection explored -- Reversing the damage, groundwater -- In situ decontamination -- Decontamination after extraction -- Damage control by containment, the Rocky Mountain arsenal -- New technology meets problems from the past : California Gulch Superfund Site, Leadville, Colorado -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes -- 17. Air pollution -- Atmospheric chemistry, cycles and residence times -- Costs of air pollution -- Types and sources of air pollution -- Particulates -- Carbon gases -- Sulfur gases -- Nitrogen gases -- Ozone and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) -- Lead -- Other pollutants -- Acid rain -- The nature of acid rain -- Regional variations in rainfall acidity and impacts -- Living geology box 17 : indoor air pollution? -- Air pollution and weather -- Thermal inversion -- Impact on precipitation -- Toward air-pollution control -- Air-quality standards -- Control methods -- Automobile emissions -- Cost and effect -- Summary -- Terms to remember -- Exercises -- Suggested readings/references -- Netnotes"@en ;
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