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Evolution and the levels of selection

Author: Samir Okasha
Publisher: Oxford : Clarendon Press ; Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2006.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? Samir Okasha provides a comprehensive analysis of the debate in evolutionary biology over the levels of selection, focusing on conceptual, philosophical, and foundational questions. A systematic framework is developed for thinking about natural selection acting at multiple levels of the biological hierarchy; the  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Ebook
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Samir Okasha
ISBN: 0199267979 9780199267972
OCLC Number: 70985413
Awards: Winner of Winner of the Lakatos Award 2009 for outstanding contribution to the philosophy of science.
Description: xi, 263 pages ; 23 cm
Contents: 1. Natural Selection in the Abstract --
Introduction --
1.1 Abstract Formulations of Darwinian Principles --
1.2 Price's Equation --
1.3 Interpretation of Price's Equation --
1.4 Statistical versus Causal Decomposition --
1.4.1 Random Drift and Causal Decomposition --
1.5 Price's Equation and the Lewontin Conditions --
2. Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods --
Introduction --
2.1 Hierarchical Organization --
2.2 Selection at Multiple Levels: Key Concepts --
2.2.1 Particle Characters and Collective Characters --
2.2.2 Life Cycles --
2.2.3 Particle Fitness and Collective Fitness --
2.2.4 The Two Types of Multi-Level Selection --
2.2.5 Particle Heritability and Collective Heritability --
2.3 Price's Equation in a Hierarchical Setting. 2.3.1 The Price Approach to MLS1 --
2.3.2 Applications --
2.3.3 Heritability in MLS1 Revisited --
2.3.4 The Price Approach to MLS2 --
3. Causality and Multi-Level Selection --
Introduction --
3.1 Causes, Correlations, and Cross-Level By-Products --
3.2 Selection on Correlated Characters --
3.3 Cross-Level By-Products in MLS1 --
3.3.1 Contextual Analysis: Further Remarks --
3.4 Contextual Analysis versus Price's Equation --
3.5 Cross-Level By-Products in MLS2 --
3.5.1 Particle. Collective By-Products --
3.5.2 Collective. Particle By-Products --
4. Philosophical Issues in the Levels-of-Selection Debate --
Introduction --
4.1 Emergence and Additivity --
4.1.1 The Emergent Character Requirement --
4.1.2 Additivity and the Wimsatt/Lloyd Approach --
4.1.3 Emergent Relations and the Damuth-Heisler Approach --
4.2 Screening Off and the Levels of Selection --
4.3 Realism versus Pluralism about the Levels of Selection --
4.3.1 Pluralism and Causality --
4.3.2 Pluralism and Hierarchical Organization --
4.3.3 Pluralism and Multiple Representations --
4.4 Reductionism --
5. The Gene's-Eye View and its Discontents --
Introduction. 5.1 The Origins of Gene's-Eye Thinking --
5.2 Genic Selection and the Gene's-Eye View: Process versus Perspective --
5.3 Outlaws and Genetic Conflicts --
5.4 Price's Equation versus Contextual Analysis Revisited --
5.5 Bookkeeping and Causality --
5.5.1 The Limits of Genic Accounting --
5.5.2 Sober and Lewontin's Heterosis Argument --
5.6 Context-Dependence and the Gene's-Eye View --
5.7 Reductionism and Pluralism Revisited --
6. The Group Selection Controversy --
Introduction --
6.1 Origins of the Group Selection Controversy --
6.2 Group Selection and the MLS1/MLS2 Distinction --
6.3 Kin Selection, Reciprocal Altruism, and Evolutionary --
Game Theory --
6.4 Maynard Smith versus Sober and Wilson on Group --
Heritability --
6.5 The Averaging Fallacy --
6.6 Random versus Assortative Grouping, Strong versus Weak Altruism --
6.7 Contextual Analysis versus the Neighbour Approach --
7. Species Selection, Clade Selection, and Macroevolution --
Introduction --
7.1 Origins of Species Selection --
7.2 Genuine Species Selection versus 'Causation from Below' --
7.3 Species versus Avatars: Damuth's Challenge --
7.4 The Concept of Clade Selection --
8. Levels of Selection and the Major Evolutionary Transitions --
Introduction. 8.1 The Transformation of the Levels-of-Selection Question --
8.2 Genic versus Hierarchical Approaches to the Transitions --
8.3 MLS1 versus MLS2 in Relation to Evolutionary Transitions --
8.4 Michod on Fitness Decoupling and the Emergence of Individuality --
8.5 Concluding Remarks.
Responsibility: Samir Okasha.
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Abstract:

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? The question of levels of selection - on which biologists and philosophers have long disagreed  Read more...

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Okasha has written an extremely important book... required reading for anyone working on the levels of selection question * Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews * ...an extremely Read more...

 
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