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Fire in South African Mountain Fynbos : Ecosystem, Community and Species Response at Swartboskloof

Author: Brian W Wilgen; David M Richardson; Frederick J Kruger; Hubertus J Hensbergen
Publisher: Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1992.
Series: Ecological Studies, Analysis and Synthesis, 93.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The reader is provided with a comprehensive account of a pre- and post-fire study in a South African mountain fynbos ecosystem. It addresses the interaction between climate and structural features of the vegetation as it determines the incidence and behaviour of fire. The composition and structure of vegetation, the effects of fire on this as well as the responses of the individual species are examined. The  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Brian W Wilgen; David M Richardson; Frederick J Kruger; Hubertus J Hensbergen
ISBN: 9783642761744 3642761747
OCLC Number: 851796506
Description: 1 online resource (xxii, 325 pages 98 illustrations).
Contents: 1 The Swartboskloof Experimental Site.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Location and Physical Site Description.- 1.3 Land-Use History.- 1.4 The Vegetation of Swartboskloof.- 1.4.1 Specialized Hygrophilous Communities.- 1.4.2 Short to Tall Proteoid Shrublands.- 1.4.3 Ericoid-Restioid Shrublands.- 1.4.4 Short Riparian Forest Communities.- 1.4.5 Tall Forests.- 1.5 Fauna.- 1.6 Research Rationale and Design.- 1.7 The Fire of March 1987.- Acknowledgements.- 2 The Climate of Swartboskloof.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Climate of Swartboskloof in a Mediterranean-Climate Context.- 2.3 Important Climatic Parameters.- 2.3.1 Rainfall.- 2.3.2 Temperature and Vapour Pressure Deficit.- 2.3.3 Radiation.- 2.3.4 Evaporation.- 2.3.5 Wind.- 2.3.6 Periods of Drought.- 2.4 The Influence of Climate on Fire.- 2.4.1 Lightning as an Ignition Source.- 2.4.2 Climate and the Probability of Fire.- 2.5 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 3 Fuel Properties of Vegetation in Swartboskloof.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The Description of Vegetation as Fuel.- 3.2.1 Subdivision of Biomass into Fuel Classes.- 3.2.2 Fuel Arrangement.- 3.2.3 Fuel Energy Contents.- 3.2.4 Fuel Models.- 3.2.5 Fuel Buildup and Decay.- 3.3 The Fuel Properties of Vegetation in Swartboskloof.- 3.3.1 Fuel Loads, Fuel Buildup and the Probability of Fire.- 3.3.2 Fuel Arrangement.- 3.3.3 Seasonal Trends in Fuel Moisture Content.- 3.3.4 Live Plants.- 3.3.5 Dead Fuel Moisture.- 3.3.6 Energy and Crude Fat Contents of Selected Species..- 3.4 Fire in Fynbos and Forest Patches in Swartboskloof..- 3.5 The Effects of Invasion by Alien Trees and Shrubs on Fuel Properties.- 3.6 Fuel in Swartboskloof and Other Ecosystems.- 3.7 Conclusions.- 4 Regeneration Strategies in Fynbos Plants and Their Influence on the Stability of Community Boundaries After Fire.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Survival Mechanisms and Vital Attributes of Species.- 4.2.1 Systems for the Classification of Species.- 4.2.2 Selection and Characterization of Species.- 4.3 Results and Discussion.- 4.3.1 Spectra of Fire Response and Vital Attribute Types..- 4.3.2 Age at Maturity.- 4.3.3 Longevity of Individuals and Seed Banks.- 4.3.4 The Timing of Critical Life History Events.- 4.3.5 Differences Between Communities.- 4.3.6 Fire and the Stability of Community Boundaries.- 4.3.7 Comparison to Other Fire-Prone Shrublands.- 4.3.8 Fire, Resilience and Dynamics in Fynbos.- Acknowledgements.- 5 Is Fynbos a Stage in Succession to Forest? Analysis of the Perceived Ecological Distinction Between Two Communities.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Fire and the Stability of Forest/Fynbos Boundaries.- 5.2.1 The Effects of Fire on Forest Boundaries in Swartboskloof.- 5.2.2 Soil Seed Banks.- 5.3 Colonization of Fynbos by Forest Species.- 5.3.1 Post-Fire Seed Deposition.- 5.3.2 Germination Requirements.- 5.3.3 Development of Forest in Fynbos Between Fires.- 5.4 Factors Influencing Forest Development.- 5.4.1 The Role of Nutrients in Forest Development.- 5.4.2 Soil Moisture.- 5.4.3 Historical Factors.- 5.5 Synthesis.- 5.5.1 Fynbos Succession.- 5.5.2 Determinants of the Rate of Succession.- Acknowledgements.- 6 Coexistence of Seeders and Sprouters in a Fire-Prone Environment: the Role of Ecophysiology and Soil Moisture.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Ecophysiological Characteristics of Seeders and Sprouters in Swartboskloof.- 6.3 Comparison of Swartboskloof with Other Regions.- 6.3.1 Other Fynbos Areas.- 6.3.2 Californian Chaparral.- 6.3.3 Australian Kwongan.- 6.4 Community Composition Along a Moisture Gradient.- 6.5 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 7 The Relative Advantages of Seeding and Sprouting in Fire-Prone Environments: a Comparison of Life Histories of Protea neriifolia and Protea nitida.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Evolution of Seed Regeneration in Mediterranean Shrublands.- 7.1.2 Trade-Offs Linked to Seeding and Sprouting.- 7.1.3 Hypotheses.- 7.2 Population Growth after Fire.- 7.3 Mortality Rates.- 7.3.1 Protea neriifolia.- 7.3.2 Protea nitida.- 7.4 Age at Maturity.- 7.5 Seed Production and Seed Banks.- 7.5.1 Protea neriifolia.- 7.5.2 Protea nitida.- 7.6 Seed Germination.- 7.7 Recruitment Between Fires.- 7.8 Effects of Fire Frequency.- 7.9 Coexistence of Seeders and Sprouters.- 7.10 Implications for Management.- 7.11 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 8 Life Cycles and Fire-Stimulated Flowering in Geophytes.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 Factors that Stimulate Flowering After Fires.- 8.1.2 Factors Favouring the Evolution of Fire-Stimulated Flowering.- 8.2 The Life Cycle of Watsonia borbonica (Iridaceae).- 8.3 The Life Cycle of Cyrtanthus ventricosus (Amaryllidaceae).- 8.4 Fire Season and the Flowering Response of Watsonia borbonica.- 8.5 Proximate Cues for Flowering.- 8.6 Factors Favouring the Evolution of Fire-Stimulated Flowering.- 8.7 Geophyte Life Cycles and the Type of Flowering Response.- 8.8 Effect of Frequent Fires on Watsonia borbonica.- 8.9 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 9 Why Is Mountain Fynbos Invasible and Which Species Invade?.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 What Makes Terrestrial Plant Communities Invasible?.- 9.3 Plant Invasions in Mountain Fynbos: Why and How?.- 9.3.1 Invasions by Trees and Shrubs.- 9.3.2 Why is Mountain Fynbos Invasible?.- 9.3.3 How is Mountain Fynbos Invaded?.- 9.4 Which Species Invade?.- 9.4.1 Describing a Good Invader.- 9.4.2 Those That Have Made It: Pines and Hakeas.- 9.5 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 10 Do Small Mammals Govern Vegetation Recovery After Fire in Fynbos?.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Methods.- 10.2.1 Factors Affecting the Distribution and Size of Small Mammal Populations.- 10.2.2 Vegetation Factors Affecting Habitat Selection by Small Mammals.- 10.2.3 The Effect of Small Mammals on Plant Regeneration.- 10.2.3.1 Factors Affecting Plant Establishment in Mature Fynbos.- 10.2.3.2 Factors Affecting Plant Establishment After Fire in Fynbos.- 10.3 Results.- 10.3.1 Post-Fire Development of Small Mammal Communities.- 10.3.2 Vegetation Factors Affecting Habitat Selection by Small Mammals.- 10.3.2.1 The Relationship Between Floristic Communities and Small Mammal Occurrence.- 10.3.2.2 The Relationship Between Structure of the Vegetation and Small Mammal Densities.- 10.3.2.3 Survival and Recolonization Strategies of Small Mammals.- 10.3.3 The Effect of Small Mammals on Plant Regeneration.- 10.3.3.1 Factors Affecting Plant Establishment in Mature Fynbos.- 10.3.3.2 Factors Affecting Plant Establishment in Burnt Fynbos.- 10.4 Discussion.- 10.4.1 Post-Fire Development of Small Mammal Communities.- 10.4.2 Factors Affecting Habitat Selection by Small Mammals.- 10.4.3 Do Small Mammals Limit Protea Regeneration from Seed?.- 10.5 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 11 The Influence of Fire, Vegetation Age and Argentine Ants (Iridomyrmex humilis) on Ant Communities in Swartboskloof.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Methods.- 11.2.1 Locality of Study Sites.- 11.2.2 Extent and Rate of Invasion by Argentine Ants in Swartboskloof.- 11.2.3 Ant Surveys.- 11.2.4 Data Analysis.- 11.3 Results and Discussion.- 11.3.1 Extent and Rate of Invasion by Argentine Ants in Swartboskloof.- 11.3.2 Ant Species Collected.- 11.3.3 Similarity of Ant Species Composition.- 11.3.4 Ant Diversity Patterns.- 11.3.5 Impact of Fire.- Acknowledgements.- 12 The Effects of Fire on Soil Water Repellency, Catchment Sediment Yields and Streamflow.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Methods and Results.- 12.2.1 Studies at the Whole Catchment Level.- 12.2.1.1 Effects of Fire on Streamflow.- 12.2.1.2 Effects of Fire on Catchment Sediment Yields.- 12.2.2 Surface Runoff Plots.- 12.2.3 Water-Repellent Soils.- 12.3 Discussion.- 12.3.1 Studies at the Whole Catchment Level.- 12.3.1.1 Effects of Fire on Streamflow.- 12.3.1.2 Effects of Fire on Catchment Sediment Yields.- 12.3.2 Surface Runoff Plots.- 12.3.3 Water-Repellent Soils.- 12.3.4 Integration of Catchment, Plot and Profile Level Studies.- 12.4 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 13 Fire and Catchment Chemical Budgets.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Approach and Methods.- 13.2.1 Data Collection and Analysis.- 13.2.2 Statistical Treatment of Data.- 13.3 Atmospheric Deposition.- 13.4 Stream Water Chemistry.- 13.5 Mineral Nutrient Budgets.- 13.6 The Effect of Fire.- 13.7 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 14 Soil Microorganisms and Activities in Relation to Season, Soil Factors and Fire.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Soil Chemical, Physical and Microbiological Investigations.- 14.2.1 Experimental Soils.- 14.2.2 Soil pH.- 14.2.3 Soil Moisture.- 14.2.4 Soil Microbial Respiratory Activity.- 14.2.5 Soil Microbial ATP.- 14.2.6 Fungal, Actinomycete and Non-Actinomycete Bacterial Biomass.- 14.2.7 Post-Fire Soil Populations of Fungi and Bacteria by Plate Count.- 14.2.8 Post-Fire Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Bacteria and Apparent Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria by Plate Count.- 14.3 Effects of Season.- 14.4 Effects of Soil Type and Depth.- 14.5 Effects of Fire.- 14.6 Rhizosphere Stimulation of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Post-Fire Soils in Relation to General Rhizosphere Effect.- 14.7 Intercontinental Comparisons.- 14.7.1 Microbial Activity and Biomass in Relation to Seasonal Factors.- 14.7.2 Microbial Activity and Biomass in Relation to Soil Factors.- 14.7.3 Effects of Fire on Soil Microorganisms and Their Activities.- 14.7.4 Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Mediterranean Regions in Relation to Fire.- 14.8 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- 15 Ecosystem, Community and Species Response to Fire in Mountain Fynbos: Conclusions from the Swartboskloof Experiment.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Population-Level Effects of Fire.- 15.3 Community-Level Effects of Fire.- 15.4 Ecosystem-Level Effects of Fire.- 15.5 Managing Fire in Mountain Fynbos.- References.
Series Title: Ecological Studies, Analysis and Synthesis, 93.
Responsibility: edited by Brian W. Wilgen, David M. Richardson, Frederick J. Kruger, Hubertus J. Hensbergen.

Abstract:

Ecologists are increasingly being drawn into the task of addressing problems of environmental degradation. In doing so, the robustness of the science becomes increasingly important, and the problem  Read more...

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