The first part of this paper gives a brief overview of Central Asian Islam in history and politics, focusing on the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Section Two provides a general picture of Central Asian students who travel abroad to study Islam. It outlines why they choose to study abroad, how they get there, how that experience shapes their attitudes toward Islam, and the shared political and social environment from which they hail and to which most of them return. While there is no single profile of these students in terms of educational background, motivation, ideological orientation, or future occupation, problems with reintegration after the students return home are often shared. These problems include non-recognition of an overseas education, dearth of related employment opportunities, and disagreements over acceptable Islamic practices between returning students and religious leaders whose Islamic education is entirely local. Tensions and debates over "authentic" Islam play out in mosques, schools, family life, media, and on the street. The combined state effort to control Islam and the lack of societal consensus even on whether multiple approaches to Islam should be tolerated lead to the politicization of nearly everything associated with religion. The third section looks at the distinctiveness of the political and social environment in each of the three countries -- the historical setting since independence, state policies concerning religious organizations and Islamic education and practice, and the Islamic revival's potential to change society. Section Four concludes the article with an assessment of the implications of the growth of different kinds of knowledge about Islam for Central Asian societies, with particular attention paid to the emergent post-Soviet generation's attitudinal changes concerning Islam. What assumptions about belief and religiosity do those who grew up after the demise of the Soviet Union bring to their social relations, the workplace, and politics? What is the future of secularism in these societies? What is the future of tolerance for plural manifestations of Islam?