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Forest genetics

Author: Timothy L White; W T Adams; David B Neale
Publisher: Wallingford, UK ; Cambridge, MA : CABI, ©2007.
Series: CAB books.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This book, which contains 20 chapters, integrates the varied subdisciplines of genetics and their applications in gene conservation, tree improvement and biotechnology. Topics covered include: genetic variation in natural forests, the application of genetics in tree improvement and breeding programmes, and genomic sequences and molecular technologies. This book will be a valuable resource for students, scientists  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
White, Timothy L., 1951-
Forest genetics.
Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK ; Cambridge, MA : CABI Pub., 2007
(DLC) 2007007721
(OCoLC)85813910
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Timothy L White; W T Adams; David B Neale
ISBN: 9781845932862 1845932862
OCLC Number: 166270722
Description: 1 online resource (xx, 682 pages) : illustrations.
Contents: Ch. 13. Phenotypic mass selection : genetic gain, choice of traits and indirect response --
General concepts and their application to mass selection --
The process of selection --
Mass selection in first-generation tree improvement programs --
Methods of mass selection --
predicting genetic gain from mass selection --
Equations for predicting genetic gain --
Selection intensity --
Factors affecting genetic gain from mass selection --
Indirect mass selection --
Definition and uses of indirect selection --
Comparison of indirect and direct selection --
Selection methods for multiple traits --
Defining the breeding objective --
Choosing which traits to measure --
Index selection --
Independent culling, tandem selection and two-stage selection --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 14. Genetic testing : mating designs, field designs and test implementation --
Types, objectives and functions of genetic tests --
Defining genetic architecture --
Progeny testing --
Establishing advanced-generation base populations --
Quantifying realized gains --
Mating designs --
Incomplete-pedigree mating designs --
Complete pedigree (full-sib) family mating designs --
Variations of classical mating designs --
Field designs --
Plot conformation --
Statistical design (field layout) at each location --
Selection of sites --
Including additional trees (borders, fillers and controls) --
Test implementation --
Breeding and nursery, phases of test implementation --
Site preparation and test establishment --
Test maintenance and measurement --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 15. Data analysis : mixed models, variance components and breeding values --
Preliminary steps prior to data analysis --
Editing and cleaning of data --
Transformations and standardization --
Exploratory data analysis --
Linear statistical models --
Parental versus individual tree models --
Multivariate linear models --
Concepts and applications of mixed model methods --
Estimation of fixed effects --
Estimation of variance components and genetic parameters --
Prediction of genetic values --
Implementation and limitations of mixed model analyses --
Selection indices : combining information across relatives and traits --
Concepts of selection indices --
Calculating selection indices --
Making selections and calculating genetic gain --
Spatial variation and spatial analysis in genetic trials --
Concepts of spatial variation --
Methods of spatial analysis --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 16. Deployment : open-pollinated varieties, full-sib families and clones --
Interim options for meeting immediate seed needs --
Seed production areas --
Directed seed collections --
Seed orchards --
Clonal seed orchards --
Seedling seed orchards --
Considerations common to both clonal and seedling seed orchards --
Family forestry --
Family forestry based on control-pollinated (CP) seedlings --
Family forestry using plantlets from vegetative multiplication --
Clonal forestry --
Advantages of clonal forestry --
Issues and concerns about clonal forestry --
Operational deployment of clones --
Genetic diversity considerations in deployment options --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 17. Advanced-generation breeding strategies : breeding population size, structure and management --
General concepts of advanced-generation breeding strategies --
Organization of a breeding strategy --
Principles of recurrent selection --
Management of genetic diversity and inbreeding --
Placing more emphasis on better material --
Breeding population size --
Guidelines for breeding population sizes from theoretical studies --
Further considerations about size of breeding populations --
Recommendations for sizes of breeding populations --
Breeding population structure --
Structures that promote emphasis on superior material --
Multiple populations --
Sublines or breeding groups --
Examples of breeding population structures --
Mating designs for advanced-generation breeding --
Open-pollinated (OP) management of the breeding population --
Full-sib (FS) and complementary mating designs for managing the breeding population --
Making advanced-generation selections --
Within-family selection --
Cloning the base population --
Selections from overlapping generations --
Selection indices and other methods of selection --
Balancing genetic gain and genetic diversity --
Optimum selection age --
Summary and conclusions --
Section 4 : Biotechnology --
ch. 18. Genomics : discovery and functional analysis of genes --
Structural genomics --
Gene discovery --
Genetic mapping --
Gene mapping by bulked segregant analysis --
Functional genomics --
Comparative sequencing --
Gene expression analysis --
Forward and reverse genetic approaches --
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping --
Positional cloning of QTLs --
Association genetics --
Comparative genomics --
Bioinformatics and databases --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 19. Marker-assisted selection and breeding : indirect selection, direct selection and breeding applications --
concepts of marker-assisted selection (MAS) --
Definitions and concepts related to MAS --
Benefits, limitations and challenges of MAS --
Indirect selection based on markers linked to QTLs --
Marker-assisted early selection (MAES) versus mature phenotypic selection --
Marker-assisted early selection (MAES) versus early phenotype selection --
Combined phenotypic and marker-assisted early index selection versus early phenotypic selection --
Marker-assisted selection and combined within-family and family selection versus combined within-family and family selection alone --
Direct selection based on genes coding for target traits --
Marker-assisted breeding --
Quality control in tree improvement programs --
Breeding and mating designs --
Propagation populations and deployment --
Hybrid breeding --
Smart and ideotype breeding --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 20. Genetic engineering : target traits, transformation and regeneration --
Target traits for genetic engineering --
Methods for gene transfer --
Indirect gene transfer --
Direct gene transfer --
Vector design and selectable markers --
Regeneration methods --
Organogenesis --
Somatic embryogenesis --
Applications of genetic engineering in forest trees --
Lignin modification --
Herbicide tolerance --
Pest and disease resistance --
Flowering control --
Transgene expression and stability --
Commercialization, regulation and biosafety --
Summary and conclusions --
References --
Index. Ch. 4. Genetic markers : morphological, biochemical and molecular markers --
Uses and characteristics of genetic markers --
Morphological markers --
Biochemical markers --
Monoterpenes --
Allozymes --
Other protein markers --
Molecular markers --
DNA-DNA hybridization : restriction fragment length polymorphism --
Molecular markers based on the polymerase chain reaction --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 5. Population genetics : gene frequencies, inbreeding and forces of evolution --
Quantifying the genetic composition of populations --
Genotype and allele frequencies --
Hardy-Weinberg principle --
Mating systems and inbreeding --
Influence of inbreeding on genotypic frequencies --
Inbreeding coefficient and regular systems of inbreeding --
Inbreeding depression --
Forces that change allele frequencies --
Mutation --
Migration --
Selection --
Genetic drift --
Joint effects of evolutionary forces --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 6. Quantitative genetics : polygenic traits, heritabilities and genetic correlations --
The nature and study of polygenic traits --
Characteristics of polygenic traits --
Studying polygenic traits --
Modeling phenotypes of parents and offspring --
Clonal value and breeding value --
Estimating the average performance of offspring --
Genetic variances and heritabilities --
Definitions and concepts --
Estimates of heritabilities for forest trees --
Uses and importance of heritability estimates in forest tree populations --
Genetic correlations --
Definitions and concepts --
Trait-trait correlations --
Age-age correlations --
Genotype x environment interaction --
Definitions and concepts --
Importance of G x E interaction in forest trees --
Estimating genetic parameters --
Mating design --
Field design --
Study implementation, data cleaning and standardization --
Data analyses --
Parameter estimation and interpretation --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 8. Geographic variation : races, clines and ecotypes --
Definitions and concepts related to geographic variation --
Provenances, seed sources and races --
Clines and ecotypes --
Varieties and subspecies --
Provenance x environment interaction --
Experimental methods used to study geographic variation --
Genetic markers for studying geographic variation --
Long-term provenance trials in field experiments --
Patterns of geographic variation in forest trees --
Racial variation associated with environmental differences --
Racial variation not associated with environmental differences --
Species with little or no racial variation --
Geographic patterns of genetic diversity --
Implications of geographic variation for seed transfer --
Setting explicit objectives of provenance selection --
Lessons learned from previous provenance studies --
A decision tree to guide seed transfer decisions --
Types of seed transfer guidelines and logistics of implementation --
Summary and conclusions. Ch. 9. Evolutionary genetics : divergence, speciation and hybridization --
Divergence, speciation and hybridization --
Species concepts --
Mechanisms of speciation --
Hybridization and introgression --
Evolutionary history and phylogeny --
Evolutionary history --
Phylogenetics --
Molecular mechanisms of genome evolution --
Mutation and nucleotide diversity --
Gene duplication and gene families --
Polypoloidy --
Coevolution --
Pines and rust fungi --
White pines and corvids --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 10. Gene conservation : in situ, ex situ and sampling strategies --
Threats to genetic diversity --
Habitat loss, deforestation, and fragmentation --
Pathogens, insects, exotic species and movement of genetic material --
Pollution and global climate change --
Strategies to conserve genetic diversity --
In situ gene conservation --
Ex situ gene conservation --
Population sizes for gene conservation --
Number and location of populations for gene conservation --
Effects of forest management practices and domestication of genetic diversity --
Summary and conclusion. Acknowledgments --
Preface --
ch. 1. Forest genetics : concepts, scope, history and importance --
Global scope and importance of natural and managed forests --
The role of plantations as forest ecosystems --
Concepts and sources of variation in forests --
Separating genotypic and environmental influences on phenotypic variation --
Environmental sources of variation --
Genetic sources of variation --
Historical perspective on forest genetics --
General genetics --
Forest genetics --
Why study forest genetics? --
Section 1 : Basic principles --
ch. 2. Molecular basis of inheritance : genome organization, gene structure and regulation --
Genome organization --
The DNA molecule --
Cellular organization of genomes --
Genome size --
Chromosomes and polypoloidy --
Karyotype analysis --
Repetitive DNA --
Gene structure and regulation --
The central dogma and the genetic code --
Transcription and translation --
Structural organization of a gene --
Regulation of gene expression --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 3. Transmission genetics : chromosomes, recombination and linkage --
Mendelian genetics --
Mendel's crossing experiments with peas --
Mendelian inheritance of traits in forest trees --
Statistical tests for Mendelian inheritance --
Transmission and inheritance of chromosomes --
Mitosis and cell division --
Meiosis and sexual reproduction --
Extensions to Mendel's laws --
Partial dominance --
Codominance --
Epistasis --
Genetic linkage --
Organelle genome inheritance --
Summary and conclusions. Section 2 : Genetic variation in natural populations --
ch. 7. Within-population variation : genetic diversity, mating systems and stand structure --
Quantifying genetic variation --
Measures of genetic variation based on genetic markers --
Measures of genetic variation based on quantitative traits --
Genetic diversity in forest trees --
Estimates of genetic diversity from genetic markers --
Estimates of genetic diversity from quantitative traits --
Factors promoting genetic diversity within populations --
Large population size --
Longevity --
High levels of outcrossing --
Strong migration between populations --
Balancing selection --
Mating system dynamics in forest trees --
Factors leading to unusually low levels of outcrossing --
Patterns of cross-fertilization within populations --
Spatial and temporal genetic structure within populations --
Spatial genetic structure --
Temporal genetic structure --
Practical implications of within-population genetic diversity --
Genetic improvements under natural regeneration systems --
Seed collections in natural populations --
Summary and conclusions. Section 3 : Tree improvement --
ch. 11. Tree improvement programs : structure, concepts and importance --
Scope and structure of tree improvement programs --
The breeding cycle of forest tree improvement programs --
Base population --
Selected population --
Breeding population --
Propagation population --
Infusions from external populations --
Genetic testing --
Genetic gains and economic value of tree improvement programs --
Genetic gain concepts and types of gains estimates --
Genetic gains achieved for different traits --
Economic analysis of tree improvement programs --
Summary and conclusions --
ch. 12. Base populations : species, hybrids, seed sources and breeding zones --
Types of taxa and their attributes for plantations --
Species and interspecific hybrids --
Subspecies, varieties, provenances and land races --
Choosing species, hybrids and seed sources for plantation forestry --
Identifying candidate species, hybrids and seed sources for plantation forestry --
Multiphase field trials for testing species, hybrids and seed sources --
Using available information to make taxa decisions for plantation forestry --
Defining base populations for tree improvement programs --
Number and size of breeding units --
Composition of base populations --
Summary and conclusions.
Series Title: CAB books.
Responsibility: Timothy L. White, W. Thomas Adams, David B. Neale.

Abstract:

Winner of a 2009 Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) award ! Trees continue to maintain a unique significance in the social, ecological and economic systems of the world - as large, long-lived  Read more...

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