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Forest measurements

Author: Thomas Eugene Avery; Harold E Burkhart
Publisher: Boston : McGraw-Hill, ©2002.
Series: McGraw-Hill series in forest resources.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 5th edView all editions and formats

Emphasis is on the measurement of timber, with detailed coverage on measuring products cut from tree boles, measuring attributes of standing trees, inventorying volumes of forest stands, and  Read more...


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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Avery, Thomas Eugene.
Forest measurements.
Boston : McGraw-Hill, ©2002
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Thomas Eugene Avery; Harold E Burkhart
ISBN: 0073661767 9780073661766 9780071130059 0071130055
OCLC Number: 45610287
Description: xxiii, 456 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: Preface1 Introduction1-1 Purpose of Book1-2 Need for Measurements1-3 Measurement Cost Considerations1-4 Abbreviations and SymbolsNumerical Considerations1-5 Scales of Measurement1-6 Significant Digits and Rounding Off1-7 English Versus Metric SystemsPresenting Information1-8 Preparation of Graphs1-9 Preparation of Technical Reports1-10 Reviews of Technical LiteratureProblems2 Statistical Methods2-1 Introduction2-2 Bias, Accuracy, and Precision2-3 Calculating Probabilities2-4 Factorial Notation, Permutations, and CombinationsStatistical Concepts2-5 Analysis of Data2-6 Populations, Parameters, and Variables2-7 Frequency DistributionsStatistical Computations2-8 Mode, Median, and Mean2-9 The Range and Average Deviation2-10 Variance and Standard Deviation2-11 Coefficient of Variation2-12 Standard Error of the Mean2-13 Confidence Limits2-14 Covariance2-15 Simple Correlation Coefficient2-16 Expansion of Means and Standard Errors2-17 Mean and Variance of Linear FunctionsSimple Linear Regression2-18 Definitions2-19 A Linear Equation2-20 A Sample Problem2-21 Indicators of Fit2-22 Regression Through the Origin2-23 Hazards of Interpretation2-24 Multiple RegressionProblemsReferences3 Sampling Designs3-1 Introduction3-2 Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration3-3 The Sampling FrameSimple Random and Systematic Sampling3-4 Simple Random Sampling3-5 Sampling Intensity3-6 Effect of Plot Size on Variability3-7 Systematic SamplingStratified Random Sampling3-8 Stratifying the Population3-9 Proportional Allocation of Field Plots3-10 Optimum Allocation of Field Plots3-11 Sample Size for Stratified SamplingRegression and Ratio Estimation3-12 Regression Estimation3-13 Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling3-14 Ratio EstimationDouble Sampling3-15 Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators3-16 Double Sampling for StratificationCluster and Two-Stage Sampling3-17 Cluster Sampling3-18 Two-Stage SamplingSampling for Discrete Variables3-19 Simple Random Sampling for Attributes3-20 Cluster Sampling for Attributes3-21 Relative Efficiencies of Sampling PlansProblemsReferences4 Land Measurements4-1 Applications of SurveyingMeasuring Distances4-2 Pacing Horizontal Distances4-3 Chaining Horizontal Distances4-4 Methods of Tape Graduation4-5 Electronic Distance MeasurementUsing Magnetic Compasses4-6 Nomenclature of the Compass4-7 Magnetic Declination4-8 Allowance for Declination4-9 Use of the CompassArea Determination4-10 Simple Closed Traverse4-11 Graphical Area Determination4-12 DOT Grids4-13 Planimeters4-14 Transects4-15 Topographic MapsColonial Land Subdivision4-16 Metes and Bounds SurveysThe U.S. Public Land Survey4-17 History4-18 The Method of Subdivision4-19 The 24-Mile Tracts4-20 Townships4-21 Establishment of Sections and Lots4-22 Survey Field Notes4-23 Marking Land Survey LinesGlobal Positioning Systems4-24 Purpose of GPS4-25 How GPS Works4-26 GPS Accuracy4-27 Differential Correction4-28 GPS Data4-29 GPS ReceiversProblems References5 Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling5-1 Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units5-2 Computing Cross-Sectional Areas5-3 Log Volumes and Geometric Solids5-4 Scaling by the Cubic Foot5-5 Inscribed Square TimbersMeasuring Stacked Wood5-6 The Cord5-7 Solid Contents of Stacked Wood5-8 An Ideal MeasureWeight Scaling of Pulpwood5-9 The Appeal of Weight Scaling5-10 Variations in Weight5-11 Wood Density and Weight Ratios5-12 Advantages of Weight ScalingProblemsReferences6 Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products6-1 Log Rules6-2 General Features of Board-Foot Log RulesDerivation of Log Rules6-3 Mill-Tally Log Rules6-4 Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios6-5 Scribner Log Rule6-6 Doyle Log Rule6-7 International Log Rule6-8 Overrun and Underrun6-9 Board-Foot Volume ConversionsBoard-Foot Log Scaling6-10 Scaling Straight, Sound Logs6-11 Log Defects6-12 Board-Foot Deduction Methods6-13 Cull Percent Deduction Methods6-14 Merchantable Versus Cull Logs6-15 Scaling Records6-16 Log ScanningLog Grading6-17 Need for Log Grading6-18 Hardwood Log Grading6-19 Softwood Log GradingWeight Scaling of Sawlogs6-20 Advantages and Limitations6-21 Volume-Weight Relationships for SawlogsSpecialty Wood Products6-22 Specialty Products Defined6-23 Veneer Logs6-24 Poles and Piling6-25 Fence Posts6-26 Railroad Ties6-27 Mine Timbers6-28 Stumps for the Wood Naval-Stores Industry6-29 Bolts and Billets6-30 Fuel WoodProblemsReferences7 Measuring Standing Trees7-1 Tree Diameters7-2 Diameter at Breast Height for Irregular Trees7-3 Measuring Bark Thickness7-4 Tree Diameter Classes7-5 Basal Area and Mean Diameter7-6 Upper-Stem DiametersTree Heights7-7 Height Poles7-8 Height Measurement Principles7-9 Merritt Hypsometer7-10 Total Versus Merchantable Heights7-11 Sawlog Merchantability for Irregular StemsTree Form Expressions7-12 Form Factors and Quotients7-13 Girard Form Class7-14 Form MeasurementsTree Crowns7-15 Importance of Crown Measures7-16 Crown Width7-17 Crown Length7-18 Crown Surface Area and VolumeTree Age7-19 Definitions7-20 Age From Annual Rings7-21 Age Without Annual RingsProblemsReferences8 Volumes and Weights of Standing Trees8-1 Purpose of Volume and Weight Equations8-2 Types of Tree Volume and Weight EquationsMultiple-Entry Volume Tables8-3 Form-Class Versus Non-Form-Class Equations8-4 Compilation of MEsavage-Girard Form-Class Tables8-5 Constructing Multiple-Entry Volume Equations8-6 Selecting a Multiple-Entry Volume Equation8-7 Making Allowances for Various Utilization Standards8-8 Tree Volumes From Taper Equations8-9 Integrating Taper FunctionsSingle-Entry Volume Equations8-10 Advantages and Limitations8-11 Constructing a Single-Entry Equation from Measurements of Felled Trees8-12 Derivation from a Multiple-Entry Equation8-13 Tarif TablesTree Weight Equations8-14 Field Tallies by Weight8-15 Weight Equations for Tree Boles8-16 Biomass EquationsProblemsReferences9 Forest Inventory9-1 Introduction9-2 Classes of Timber Surveys9-3 Inventory Planning9-4 Forest Inventory and AnalysisSpecial Inventory Considerations9-5 Tree Tallies9-6 Electronic Data Recorders9-7 Tree-Defect Estimation9-8 The Complete Tree Tally9-9 Organizing the Complete Tree Tally9-10 Timber Inventory as a Sampling ProcessSummaries of Cruise Data9-11 Stand and Stock Tables9-12 Timber Volumes From Stump DiametersSales of Standing Timber9-13 Stumpage Value9-14 Methods of Selling Standing Timber9-15 Timber-Sale ContractsProblemsReferences10 Inventories with Sample Strips or Plots10-1 Fixed-Area Sampling UnitsStrip System of Cruising10-2 Strip-Cruise Layout10-3 Computing Tract Acreage From Sample Strips10-4 Field Procedure for Strip Cruising10-5 Pros and Cons of Strip CruisingLine-Plot System of Cruising10-6 The Traditional Approach10-7 Plot Cruise Example10-8 Sampling Intensity and Design10-9 Cruising Techniques10-10 Boundary Overlap10-11 Merits of the Plot SystemUse of Permanent Sample Plots10-12 Criteria for Inventory Plots10-13 Sample Units: Size, Shape, and Number10-14 Field-Plot Establishment10-15 Field-Plot Measurements10-16 Periodic ReinventoriesRegeneration Surveys with Sample Plots10-17 Need for Regeneration Surveys10-18 Stocked-Quadrat Method10-19 Plot-Count Method10-20 Staked-Point MethodProblems References 11 Inventories with Point Samples11-1 The Concept of Point Sampling11-2 Nomenclature and Variants11-3 Selecting a Sighting Angle11-4 Plot Radius FactorHow Point Sampling Works11-5 Imaginary Tree Zones11-6 Equality of Tree Basal Area on a Per-Acre BasisImplementing Point Sampling11-7 The Stick-Type Angle Gauge11-8 The Spiegel Relascope11-9 The Wedge Prism11-10 Calibration of Prisms or Angle Gauges11-11 Corrections for Slope11-12 Doubtful Trees, Limiting Distances, and Bias11-13 Boundary Overlap11-14 Choice of InstrumentsVolume Calculations11-15 Example of Computational Procedures11-16 Basal Area Per Acre11-17 Trees Per Acre11-18 Volume Per Acre by the Volume-Factor Approach11-19 Volume Per Acre by the Volume/Basal-Area Ratios Approach11-20 Estimating Precision11-21 Field Tally by Height Class11-22 Point Sampling in a Double-Sampling Context11-23 Estimating Growth from Permanent PointsPoint-Sample Cruising Intensity11-24 Comparisons with Conventional Plots11-25 Number of Sampling Points Needed11-26 Point Samples Versus Plots11-27 Attributes and LimitationsProblemsReferences12 Inventories with 3P Sampling12-1 Introduction12-2 Components of 3P InventoryHow 3P is Applied12-3 Timber-Sale Example12-4 Preliminary Steps12-5 Field Procedure12-6 Sample-Tree Measurement12-7 3P Computations12-8 Numerical ExampleExtensions, Attributes, and Limitations of Basic 3P Sampling12-9 Extensions of Basic 3P Sampling12-10 Attributes and Limitations of 3P SamplingProblemsReferences13 Using Aerial Photographs13-1 Purpose of Chapter13-2 Types of Aerial Photographs13-3 Black-and-White Aerial Films13-4 Color Aerial Films13-5 Seasons for Aerial Photography13-6 Determining Photographic Scales13-7 Photogeometry13-8 Aligning Prints for Stereoscopic StudyCover-Type Identificaion and Mapping13-9 Forest Type Recognition13-10 Identifying Individual Species13-11 Timber Type Maps13-12 Using Photos for Field TravelBasic Forest Measurements13-13 Measuring Area and Distance13-14 Measuring Heights by Parallax13-15 Parallax-Measuring Devices13-16 Tree-Crown Diameters13-17 Tree Counts13-18 Individual-Tree Volumes13-19 Aerial Stand-Volume Tables13-20 Crown Closure13-21 Stand-Volume Estimates13-22 Adjusting Photo Volumes by Field ChecksObtaining Aerial Photographs13-23 The Options13-24 Photography from Commercial Firms13-25 Photography from the U.S. Government13-26 Photography from the Canadian Government13-27 Taking Your Own Pictures13-28 Contracting For New Photography13-29 Other Remote-Sensing ToolsProblemsReferences14 Geographic Information Systems14-1 What is a GIS?GIS Data Structures14-2 Data Formats14-3 Raster Data14-4 Vector Data14-5 Raster Versus Vector SystemsGeographic Coordinate Systems14-6 Types of Coordinate Systems14-7 The Latitude and Longitude System14-8 The Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System14-9 The State Plane Coordinate SystemGIS Data Sources, Entry, and Quality14-10 Deriving Digital Maps14-11 Existing Map Data14-12 Digitizing and Scanning14-13 Field and Image Data14-14 Errors and AccuracyGIS Analysis Functions14-15 Analysis-The Power of GIS14-16 Spatial Analysis Functions14-17 Cartographic ModelingProblemsReferences15 Site, Stocking, and Stand Density15-1 The Concepts of Site15-2 Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity15-3 Tree Height as a Measure of Site Quality15-4 Field Measurement of Site Index15-5 Construction of Site-Index Curves15-6 Interspecies Site-Index Relationships15-7 Periodic Height Growth15-8 Physical-Factors Approach15-9 Indicator-Plant Approach15-10 Limitations of Site IndexStocking and Stand Density15-11 Definitions15-12 Measures of Stocking15-13 Basal Area Per Acre15-14 Trees Per Acre15-15 Stand-Density Index15-16 3/2 Law of Self-Thinning15-17 Relative Spacing15-18 Crown Competition Factor15-19 Stocking Guides15-20 Measures of Point DensityProblemsReferences16 Tree-Growth and Stand-Table Projection16-1 Increases in Tree Diameter16-2 Increases in Tree Height16-3 Periodic and Mean Annual Growth16-4 Past Growth From Complete Stem Analysis16-5 Tree Growth as a Percentage Value16-6 Predictions of Tree Growth16-7 Future Yields from Growth Percentage16-8 Growth Prediction from Diameter and Height IncreasesStand-Table Projection16-9 Components of Stand Growth16-10 Characteristics of Stand-Table Projection16-11 Diameter Growth16-12 Stand Mortality and Ingrowth16-13 A Sample Stand ProjectionProblemsReferences17 Growth and Yield Models17-1 Introduction17-2 Growth and Yield Relationships17-3 Mathematical Relationships Between Growth and YieldGrowth and Yield Models for Even-Aged Stands17-4 Normal Yield Tables17-5 Empirical Yield Tables17-6 Variable-Density Growth and Yield Equations17-7 Size-Class Distribution Models17-8 Example of Computatins for Size-Class Distribution Model17-9 Individual-Tree Models for Even-Aged StandsGrowth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands17-10 Special Considerations in Modeling Uneven-Aged Stands17-11 Growth and Yield Equations Based on Elasped Time17-12 Size-Class Distribution Models Using Stand-Table Projection17-13 Individual-Tree Models that Include Uneven-Aged StandsApplying Growth and Yield Models17-14 Enhancing Output from Growth and Yield Models17-15 Choosing an Appropriate Growth and Yield Model17-16 A Word of CautionProblemsReferences18 Assessing Rangeland, Wildlife, Water,and Recreational Resources18-1 Purpose of ChapterMeasuring Rangeland Resources18-2 Forage Resources18-3 Planning Range Measurements18-4 Sampling Considerations18-5 Determining Grazing Capacity18-6 Clipped-Plot Technique18-7 Range-Utilization Estimates18-8 Range Condition and TrendMeasuring Wildlife Resources18-9 Animal Populations and Habitat18-10 Population Estimates18-11 Habitat MeasurementMeasuring Water Resources18-12 Importance of Water18-13 Factors Affecting Runoff18-14 Physical Characteristics of a Watershed18-15 Measurement of Water Quantity18-16 Measurement of Water QualityMeasuring Recreational Resources18-17 The Problem18-18 Visitor Use of Recreational Facilities18-19 Assessing Potential Recreational SitesProblemsReferencesAnswers to Selected ProblemsGlossay
Series Title: McGraw-Hill series in forest resources.
Responsibility: Thomas Eugene Avery, Harold E. Burkhart.
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