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Four ages of understanding : the first postmodern survey of philosophy from ancient times to the turn of the twenty-first century

Autor: John N Deely
Editora: Toronto ; Buffalo : University of Toronto Press, ©2001.
Séries: Toronto studies in semiotics.
Edição/Formato   Livro : InglêsVer todas as edições e formatos
Base de Dados:WorldCat
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The first full-scale demonstration of the centrality of the theory of signs to the history of philosophy and a new vantage point from which to review and reinterpret the development of intellectual  Ler mais...

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Gênero/Forma: History
Tipo de Material: Recurso Internet
Tipo de Documento: Livro, Recurso Internet
Todos os Autores / Contribuintes: John N Deely
ISBN: 0802047351 9780802047359
Número OCLC: 44906016
Descrição: xxxiii, 1019 p. : ill., facsims., ports., map ; 26 cm.
Conteúdos: Preface: The Boundary of Time xxix --
1 Society and Civilization: The Prelude to Philosophy 3 --
Part 1 Ancient Philosophy: The Discovery of "Reality" 15 --
2 Philosophy as Physics 17 --
Beginning at the Beginning 17 --
"Monism" 21 --
Thales of Miletus (c.625-c.545BC) 21 --
Anaximander (c.610-545BC) and Anaximenes (c.580-500BC) 24 --
"Pluralism" 25 --
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (c.500-428BC) 25 --
Empedocles of Acragas (c.495-c.435BC) 28 --
"Dualism" 29 --
Leucippus (c.470-390BC; fl.440-435BC) 29 --
Democritus (c.460-c.385/362BC) 30 --
Mathematicism: A Theorem from Pythagoras 32 --
Pythagoras of Crotona (c.570-495BC) 33 --
Requirements and Dilemmas for a Philosophy of Being 34 --
Heraclitus the Obscure, of Ephesus (c.540-c.480BC) 34 --
Parmenides of Elea (c.515-c.450BC) 37 --
Argument with the Sharpest Fang: the Paradoxes of Zeno of Elea (c.495/490-c.430BC) 41 --
First Framing of the Contrast between Sense and Understanding 40 --
3 Golden Age: Philosophy Expands Its Horizon 42 --
Socrates (469-399BC) 42 --
Sophists 43 --
Founder of Moral Philosophy and of the Search for Definitions 44 --
Socratic Method 45 --
Lessons of the Square 52 --
Gadfly 53 --
Plato (c.427-347BC) 53 --
True Being, Eternal and Unchanging 54 --
Dialectic and Language 55 --
Good 58 --
"Let No One Without Geometry Enter Here" 59 --
Relation of Aristotle to Plato 60 --
Aristotle (384-322BC) 61 --
What Philosophy Is Primarily Called On to Account For 62 --
Datum Explanandum 64 --
A Scheme of Causality Adequate to the Datum 64 --
A Lair for Later Nonsense: from Teleology to Teleonomy 65 --
Chance Events 66 --
Neither Monism Nor Dualism but "Trialism": The Triad of Act, Potency, and Privation (What Is, What Could Be, and What Should Be Different) 67 --
Time and Space 70 --
Transcendental Relativity: Substance and Inherent Accidents 72 --
Categories of Aristotle 73 --
Category of Relation 73 --
Basic Categorial Scheme and Its Details 74 --
General Purpose of the Scheme of Categories 77 --
How Mathematics Applies to the Physical Environment 78 --
Abstraction 78 --
De-Fanging the Paradoxes of Zeno of Elea 78 --
Preparing the Way for Galileo and Darwin: Celestial Matter 79 --
Organizing the Sciences 81 --
Understanding the Distinction between Speculative and Practical Knowledge 81 --
"Metaphysics" by Any Other Name ... 82 --
"Unmoved Mover": Summit of Being in Aristotle's Speculative Scheme 83 --
Practical Science 84 --
Subdivisions of Speculative and Practical Thinking 85 --
Goal of Human Life 86 --
Instrument of All the Sciences 87 --
Demonstration, or Proof of a Point 89 --
Place of Logic among the Sciences 91 --
Looking Forward to Latinity, First Aspect 91 --
4 Final Greek Centuries and the Overlap of Neoplatonism with Christianity 93 --
Founding of Stoicism, and, as Background Thereto, Cynicism 93 --
Zeno of Citium (c.336-260BC) 94 --
Cynicism (Antisthenes of Cyrene, 444-365BC) 95 --
Diogenes the Cynic (c.412-323BC) 95 --
Stoicism 96 --
Stoic Development 96 --
Stoicism's Main Theoretician, Chrysippus of Soli (c.280-206BC) 96 --
Stoic Organization of Life and Knowledge 97 --
Quarrel between Stoics and Peripatetics over the Place of Logic among the Sciences 99 --
Skepticism and Epicureanism 99 --
Origins of Skepticism 99 --
Epicurus of Samos (341-270BC) 100 --
"Epicure" and Epicurism vs. "Epicurean" and Epicureanism 101 --
Freedom from Fear the Highest Wisdom 102 --
Metrodorus (c.330-277BC) and the Belly 103 --
Swerve 103 --
Role of Sign in Epicurus' Thought 106 --
Counterpoint of Stoicism and Epicureanism in the Last Greek Centuries 108 --
Stoic vs. Epicurean Polemic over Signs and Inference 108 --
Neoplatonism 112 --
Circumstances of Neoplatonism 113 --
Temporary Overlap of Greek and Latin Antiquity 115 --
Henology vs. Ontology 117 --
Question for Neoplatonism: Outward to Things or7 Inward to the Soul's Source and Origin? The "flight of the alone to the Alone" 119 --
How to Read Plotinus? 120 --
How to Interpret Ultimate Potentiality? 122 --
How to Deal with Contradictions? 125 --
Intellectual Discourse vs. Mystical Experience 126 --
Toward the Idea of a Creative God or "Source of Being" 128 --
Neoplatonic Influences on the Latin Age 129 --
Pseudo-Dionysius and Other Unknown Authors of Christian Neoplatonism 130 --
John Scotus Erigena (c.AD810-c.877) 135 --
Scotus Erigena, Natura Naturans, and Natura Naturata 137 --
Finale of Pagan Neoplatonism 140 --
Proclus (AD410-485) and Pagan Theology 141 --
A Double Finale 141 --
Tree of Porphyry 144 --
Roots of Porphyry's Tree 144 --
Trunk of Porphyry's Tree 147 --
An Example of Scholastic Commentary 148 --
Division and Analysis of the Text 148 --
Outline of the Isagoge as a Whole 150 --
Porphyry's Achievement in the Isagoge 153 --
Famous "Praeteritio" 154 --
Looking Forward to Latinity, Second Aspect: The Greek Notion of [characters not reproducible] as "Natural Sign" 154 --
Part 2 Latin Age: Philosophy of Being 159 --
5 Geography of the Latin Age 161 --
Political Geography: The Latin Lebenswelt 161 --
Separation of Roman Civilization into a Latin West and a Greek East 165 --
Back to the Future: The First Christian Emperor 165 --
Forward to the Past: The Last Pagan Emperor 168 --
Final Separation of East from West 169 --
Dissolution in Some Detail of Imperial Rule over the Latins, AD396-c.479 171 --
Onset of the Latin Age 174 --
Breaking of Christianity over a Vowel 176 --
Further Breaking over a Word 180 --
Philosophy in the Latin Age 181 --
Proposal to Date Events from the Birth of Christ: The "Christian Calendar" 182 --
Origin of the Liberal Arts 183 --
First Medieval Source: Cassiodorus in Italy 183 --
Seven Liberal Arts 184 --
Second Medieval Source: Isidore in Spain 185 --
On the Vitality of Mongrel Strains 185 --
Contribution of Islam to Philosophy in the Latin Age 186 --
Where the Light Was When Europe Went Dark 186 --
One of the Most Astonishing Events in the History of Thought: The Arab Mediation of Greek Intellectual Freedom to Latin European Civilization 188 --
Islam Beheads Itself 188 --
Role of Mythology in the Shaping of the Latin Age 193 --
Mythical Donation of Constantine 195 --
"Holy" Roman Empire 196 --
Mythical Decretals ("Decretales Pseudoisidorianae") 200 --
Fate of the Forgeries 201 --
A Footnote on the Greek Contribution to Latin Europe as Mainly Mediated by Arabic Islam 202 --
Intellectual Geography: Seeing Latinity Whole 205 --
Hodge-Podge Standard Treatment in Late Modern Times 205 --
A Proper Outline 207 --
Anticipating the Two Destinies 209 --
Language and the Ages of Understanding 210 --
6 So-Called Dark Ages 212 --
Augustine of Hippo (AD354-430) 212 --
First Latin Initiative in Philosophy: Sign in General 214 --
Illumination Theory of Knowledge 218 --
Scope of Signs in Knowing 219 --
Original Interest in Signs 220 --
Book I on Christian Doctrine 221 --
Book II on Christian Doctrine 221 --
A Notion Pregnant with Problems 222 --
Strength of Augustine's Signum 223 --
Boethius (c.AD480-524) 224 --
Boethius On the Trinity and the Division of Speculative Knowledge 225 --
Boethius' Terminology for Aristotle's Difficulties with Relation 226 --
Aristotle's Difficulties 227 --
Transcendental Relation 228 --
Categorial Relation 229 --
Purely Objective Relations 229 --
Ontological Peculiarity of Relations Anywhere 230 --
Tunnel to Latin Scholasticism 232 --
Lights at the End of the Tunnel: Anselm of Canterbury (c.1033-1109), Peter Abaelard (c.1079-1142), Peter Lombard (c.1095-1160) 232 --
Medieval Philosophy at Its Christian Extreme 233 --
Ontological Argument 234 --
Peter Abaelard (c.1079-1142) 242 --
c.1117-1142: Heloise (c.1098-1164) and Abaelard 242 --
In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time 243 --
"Problem of Universals" and the First Florescence of Nominalism 243 --
Possible Nominalistic Character of Augustine's Proposal of Signum 247 --
Sic et Non (c.1122) of Peter Abaelard and the Sentences (c.1150) of Peter Lombard 248 --
Abaelard's Sic et Non 249 --
Lombard's Sentences 249 --
7 Cresting a Wave: The Second Stage 251 --
Albertus Magnus (c.1201-1280) 252 --
"The Splendor of the Latins" 255 --
Aquinas vis-a-vis Aristotle and Lombard 255 --
Idea of Theology as Sacra Doctrina to Displace "Christian Philosophy" 257 --
Cosmology in Aquinas 263 --
Subject of Theology and the Existence of God; the "Metaphysics of Esse" 266 --
Quinque Viae: The Reasoning of the "Five Ways" 267 --
Divine Names and "Negative Theology": "Of God We Can Know Only That He Is and What He Is Not" 272 --
Ipsum Esse Subsistens 282 --
"God Is More Intimate to Created Beings than They Are to Themselves" 284 --
"After Creation, There Are More Beings But No More Being" 287 --
A Note on the Distinction between Essence and Existence 290 --
Theology as a Systematic Exercise of Reason 297 --
Human Soul and Mortality 299 --
"Preambles to Faith" 304 --
Free Will and Freedom of Choice 305 --
Starting Point of Metaphysics 308 --
"Three Degrees of Abstraction" 309 --
"Negative Judgment of Separation" 310 --
Compatibility of the Two Doctrines 312 --
Question of Analogy 313 --
Analogy in the Texts of St Thomas Aquinas: A Function of Naming 313 --
Analogy in Thomistic Tradition: A "Concept of Being" 323 --
Beyond the Analogy of Names and Concept: "Analogy of Being" 328 --
Problem of Sign in Aquinas 331
Título da Série: Toronto studies in semiotics.
Responsabilidade: John Deely.
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"semiosis escapes idealism [...] saves the epistemology of Aristotle"

por Geremia10 (Usuário WorldCat publicado 2011-06-29) Excelente Permalink

I include here in full The Thomist journal's 2003 review--by Benedict Ashley, O.P., author of the excellent The Way toward Wisdom--of Deely's masterpiece:

Some histories of philosophy, like the admirable one of Frederick Copleston, only attempt to give an accurate account of...
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