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Friendly fire : the accidetal shootdown of U.S. Black Hawks over Northern Iraq

Author: Scott A Snook
Publisher: Princeton : Princeton University Press, 2002
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Den 14 April 1994 nedskød to US Airforce F-15 en US Army Black Hawk helikopter med 26 passagerer over det nordlige Iraq. Uanset de militære luftoperationer blev afviklet under meget strenge sikkerhedsforanstaltninger, blev helikopteren nedskudt af egne fly. Episoden blev gjort til genstand for en undersøgelse, som varede to år uden der kunne påvises konkrete fejl. Forfatteren, som selv har været offer for  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Scott A Snook
ISBN: 0691095183 9780691095189
OCLC Number: 475341813
Awards: Winner of George R. Terry Book Award 2002
Description: xvii, 257 p. : illustrations
Contents: List of Figures ix Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii List of Abbreviations xv 1. Introduction: How In the World Could This Happen? 3 Motivation: To Learn from and Correct Our Mistakes 7 Theoretical Domain: A Normal Accident in a Highly Reliable Organization 10 Data: We Know Exactly "What" Happened 15 Analytical Strategy: Constructing a Causal Map 18 Outline of the Book: An Explanation Across Levels 22 2. The Shootdown: A Thin Description 26 Background: Context Is Important 26 Command and Control: Dense Webs of Crosscutting Guidance 31 The Players: SAVVY, COUGAR, MAD DOG, DUKE, EAGLEs, and TIGERs 40 The Shootdown: A Deadly Dance 52 Multiple Explanations: A Walk Through the Causal Map 65 3. Individual-Level Account: Why Did the F-15 Pilots Misidentify the Black Hawks? 71 Making Sense: Seeing Through the Mind's Eye 75 Ambiguous Stimulus: What Did They Actually See? 76 Expectations: What Did They Expect to See? 80 Desire: What Did They Want to See? 94 Summary: Why They Saw What They Saw 96 4. Group-Level Account: Why Did the AWACS Crew Fail to Intervene? 99 A Weak Team: Overmatched 104 Diffuse Responsibility: When Everyone's Responsible No One Is 119 Summary: The Fallacy of Social Redundancy 135 Organizational-Level Account: Why Wasn't Eagle Flight Integrated into Task Force Operations? 136 Differentiation and Integration: Whatever You Divide, You Have to Put Back Together Again 143 Interdependence: Multiple Failures to Coordinate 152 Summary: How It All Came Apart 177 6. Cross-Levels Account: A Theory of Practical Drift 179 Practical Action: A Core Category 182 Practical Drift: A Theory 186 7. Conclusions: There But by the Grace of God 202 On Theoretical Reminders: Normal Behavior Abnormal Outcome 204 On Practical Drift: Or Is It Sailing? 220 Implications: Let's Build a Library 232 Appendixes 1. Method 237 2. Friendly Fire Applied: Lessons for Your Organization? 239 References 241 Index 251

Abstract:

On April 14, 1994, two US Air Force F-15 fighters accidentally shot down two US Army Black Hawk Helicopters over Northern Iraq, killing all twenty-six peacekeepers onboard. This book attempts to make  Read more...

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Winner of the George Terry Award "The reader will be fascinated... The conclusion is eye-opening and the 'lessons learned' are insightful... A lucid and well-argued book that is a must-read for Read more...

 
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