RT Book, Whole DB /z-wcorg/ DS http://worldcat.org ID 25200620 LA English T1 From machine shop to industrial laboratory : telegraphy and the changing context of American invention, 1830-1920 A1 Israel, Paul., PB Johns Hopkins University Press PP Baltimore YR 1992 SN 0801843790 9780801843792 AB In the nineteenth century the central institution for the development of new technology was the machine shop. Despite the popular image of the lone inventor, most new technological breakthroughs were the result of cooperative shop invention. In From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory, Paul Israel shows how the rise of engineering science and the advent of scientific management transformed these early cooperative ventures into the familiar industrial laboratories of the twentieth century. The field of telegraphy, Israel explains, offers a primary example of this transition. Although telegraphy is usually perceived as a "high-tech" industry relying on input from science, its technical development was most strongly influenced by the mechanical shop tradition that dominated American invention. As telegraphy progressed, however, growing corporate control of invention created new patterns in the telegraphic shop tradition that would, in turn, be developed more fully in the electrical industries of telephony and electric lighting. While seeking to maintain a tradition of telegraph shop invention, corporate managers began supporting engineering and management practices that would divorce the process of invention from the workplace and foster its decline. Only as they were challenged by the new science-based research - emerging from telephone industry laboratories in the early twentieth century - did telegraph managers begin to adopt new strategies centered on the industrial laboratory. From Machine Shop to Industrial laboratory provides a case study of this fundamental shift in the pattern of American invention.