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The frozen Saqqaq sites of Disko Bay, West Greenland : Qeqertasussuk and Qajaa (2400-900 BC) : studies of Saqqaq material culture in an Eastern Arctic perspective

Author: Bjarne Grønnow
Publisher: Copenhagen, Denmark : Museum Tusculanum Press, [2017] ©2017
Dissertation: University of Copenhagen 2016
Series: Meddelelser om Grønland., Man & society ;, 45.; Meddelelser om Grønland, 356.
Edition/Format:   Thesis/dissertation : Thesis/dissertation : EnglishView all editions and formats
Publication:Meddelelser om Grønland. Man & society, no:45
Summary:
Qeqertasussuk and Qajaa are the only known sites of the Early Arctic Small Tool tradition in the Eastern Arctic, where all kinds of organic materials - wood, bone, baleen, hair, skin - are preserved in permafrozen culture layers. Together, the sites cover the entire Saqqaq era in Greenland (c. 2400-900 BC). Technological and contextual analyses of the excellently preserved archaeological materials from the frozen  Read more...
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Material Type: Thesis/dissertation
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Bjarne Grønnow
ISBN: 9788763535687 8763535688 9788763545617 8763545616
OCLC Number: 982657449
Language Note: English text with Danish and English abstracts.
Description: 490 pages : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 28 cm.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.1. Framework, research topics and perspectives --
1.2. Discovery of the sites and the investigations at Qajaa and Qeqertasussuk --
1.2.1. Qajaa-discovered and re-discovered --
1.2.2. Trial excavations at Qajaa and later investigations --
1.2.2.1. Jorgen Meldgaard's excavation, 1982 --
1.2.2.2. Monitoring of permanently frozen layers at Qajaa --
1.2.3. Analyses, storage of materials and data --
1.2.4. The discovery of Qeqertasussuk --
1.2.5. The investigations at Qeqertasussuk, 1984-87 and 1990 --
1.2.5.1. Surveys, excavation areas and methods --
1.2.5.2. Treatment of finds in the field, registration, storage --
1.2.5.3. Specialist analyses --
2.1. Geography and climate of Disko Bay --
2.2. Ice-scapes and resource dynamics --
2.3. Qajaa in the Kangia (Jakobshavn Icefjord) --
2.3.1. Qajaa at the polynya and its resources --
2.3.2. Site topography and the effects of erosion --
2.4. Qeqertasussuk in the Sydostbugten --
2.4.1. The island and the tombolo --
2.4.2. The topography of the site --
2.4.3. The living resources in the vicinity of Qeqertasussuk --
2.5. Conclusions --
3.1. Sources, theoretical approaches, methodologies and terminology --
3.1.1. Overview: geographical and temporal range of the Saqqaq culture --
3.1.2. The character of the sources --
3.1.3. Theoretical approaches and analytical methods --
3.1.4. Terminology and the starting point for descriptions and analyses of the assemblages --
3.2. The Saqqaq hunting tool kit --
3.2.1. Bows --
3.2.1.1. Bow limbs (Fig. 3.2) --
3.2.1.2. Cable backing (?) --
3.2.1.3. Toy bows (?) (Fig. 3 4) --
3.2.1.4. Steps of the chaine operatoire (Fig. 3.5) --
3.2.2. Arrows --
3.2.2.1. Main shafts (Fig. 3.7) --
3.2.2.2. Foreshafts (Fig. 3.8) --
3.2.2.3. Arrow shaft fragments (Fig. 3.9) --
3.2.2.4. Steps of the chaine operatoire --
3.2.2.5. Arrowheads (Fig. 3.10) --
3.2.3. Darts, leisters and lances --
3.2.3.1. Bird darts --
3.2.3.2. Fishing leisters (?) (Fig. 3.16) --
3.2.3.3. Darts (Fig. 3.17) --
3.2.3.4. Light lances (Fig. 3.19) --
3.2.3.5. Heavy lances (Fig. 3.21) --
3.2.3.6. Lithic projectile points for arrows, darts and lances (Fig. 3.22) --
3.2.4. Harpoons --
3.2.4.1. Harpoon heads, Type Qt-A (Fig. 3.25) --
3.2.4.2. Foreshafts for Type Qt-A (Fig. 3.27) --
3.2.4.3. Harpoon heads, Type Qt-B (Fig. 3.28) --
3.2.4.4. Harpoon heads, Type Qt-C (Fig. 3.31) --
3.2.4.5. Harpoon heads, Type Qt-D (Fig. 3.33) --
3.2.4.6. Other harpoon heads --
3.2.4.7. Harpoon endblades (Fig. 3.35) --
3.2.4.8. Accessories: eyelets and harpoon endblade containers --
3.2.5. Hunting implements: shaft fragments --
3.2.5.1. Proximal shaft ends for light darts (Fig. 3.40) --
3.2.5.2. Repair kits (?) (Fig. 3.42) --
3.2.5.3. Shaft fragments from light hunting weapons --
3.2.5.4. Shaft fragments from heavy hunting weapons --
3.2.5.5. Steps of the chaine operatoire --
3.2.5.6. Fragments of weapons with detachable heads (?) --
3.2.6. Throwing boards (Fig. 3.47-Fig. 3.51) --
3.2.7. Sea-going vessels --
3.2.7.1. Ribs for kayak-like vessels (Fig. 3.52) --
3.2.7.2. Paddles (Fig. 3.53) --
3.2.8. Snares and nets? (Fig. 3.54) --
3.2.9. The Perfect Hunter: summary of the finds from Qt and Qa and evidence from other Saqqaq sites --
3.2.9.1. Composite and backed bows. Arrows --
3.2.9.2. Darts --
3.2.9.3. Harpoons --
3.2.9.4. Throwing boards --
3.2.9.5. Lances --
3.2.9.6. Leisters, snares and nets --
3.2.9.7. Sea-going vessels --
3.3. Saqqaq hand tools and household utensils --
3.3.1. Knives with bifacial endblades --
3.3.1.1. Complete knives (Fig. 3.59) --
3.3.1.2. Knife hafts and haft parts (Fig. 3.60a and Fig. 3.60b) --
3.3.1.3. Bifacial knife blades --
3.3.2. Burins --
3.3.2.1. Hafted burins (Fig. 3.63) --
3.3.2.2. Burin hafts (Fig. 3.64) --
3.3.2.3. Burins and burin spalls (Fig. 3.65) --
3.3.3. End scrapers --
3.3.3.1. Hafted end scrapers and end scraper hafts (Fig. 3.67) --
3.3.3.2. End scrapers (Fig. 3.68) --
3.3.4. Side scrapers --
3.3.4.1. Hafted side scraper (Fig. 3.70) --
3.3.4.2. Side scrapers (Fig. 3.71) --
3.3.5. Saws (Fig 3.73) --
3.3.6. Drills --
3.3.6.1. Drill points (Fig. 3.74) --
3.3.6.2. Drill shafts (?) (Fig. 3.75) --
3.3.7. Microblades and cores --
3.3.7.1. Hafted microblades (Fig. 3.76) --
3.3.7.2. Microblade hafts (Fig. 3.77) --
3.3.7.3. Microblades and microblade cores (Fig. 3.78a and Fig. 3.78b) --
3.3.8. Various hand tools and hafts --
3.3.9. Expedient hand tools --
3.3.10. Wedges and chisels (Fig. 3.84) --
3.3.11. Adzes and mattocks (Fig. 3.86) --
3.3.12. Pressure flakers, hafts and hammerheads (Fig. 3.87) --
3.3.13. Grinding and polishing tools (Fig. 3.91) --
3.3.14. Hammerstones --
3.3.15. Needles and needle cases (Fig. 3.93) --
3.3.16. Bodkins, perforators, meat forks --
3.3.17. Toggles and hooks/gaffs --
3.3.18. Fire-making tools (Fig. 3.97) --
3.3.19. Lamps (Fig. 3.98) --
3.3.20. Spoons and ladles (Fig. 3.100) --
3.3.21. Bowls and trays (Fig. 3.101) --
3.3.22. Various hand tools (Fig. 3.102) --
3.3.22.1. Tools with polished distal ends --
3.3.22.2. Multiple function tools --
3.3.23. Saqqaq hand tools and household utensils: summary of the finds from Qt and Qa and evidence from other Saqqaq assemblages --
3.3.23.1. Knives --
3.3.23.2. Burins --
3.3.23.3. End and side scrapers --
3.3.23.4. Microblades and microblade cores --
3.3.23.5. Drills, saws, tools for cutting and hammering --
3.3.23.6. Wedges, adzes and shaft straighteners --
3.3.23.7. Pressure flakers --
3.3.23.8. Grinding stones --
3.3.23.4. 'Strike-a-lights' and lamps --
3.3.23.10. Bowls, trays, spoons, ladles and hooks --
3.3.23.11. Needles, needle cases and prongs --
3.4. Indeterminable artefacts --
3.5. Amulets and drums --
3.5.1. Small containers (amulet boxes?) and amulets (Fig. 3.109) --
3.5.2. Inserted bird bones --
3.5.3. Drums (Fig. 3.111) --
3.6. Components of constructions: stakes, poles and pegs --
3.7. Worked skin --
3.8. Strings and knots --
3.8.1. Baleen string knots (Fig. 3.120) --
3.8.2. Knots (sinew thread, thongs of sealskin) --
3.9. Saqqaq raw material utilization and technologies --
3.9.1. Introduction --
3.9.2. Driftwood utilization and wood-working --
3.9.3. Working of antler, bone, ivory and baleen --
3.9.3.1. Antler (Fig. 3.130) --
3.9.3.2. Whalebone (Fig. 3.131) --
3.9.3.3. Bone (other than whalebone) --
3.9.3.4. Ivory --
3.9.3.5. Baleen and knotting --
3.9.4. Lithic technology --
3.9.5. Saqqaq utilization of organic raw materials: summary and comparisons --
3.9.5.1. Summary of Saqqaq wood-processing --
3.9.5.2. Working antler, bone, ivory and baleen --
4.1. Qeqertasussuk --
4.1.1. Sections --
4.1.2. The layers --
4.1.2.1. An overview --
4.1.2.2. Summary of Section C and definition of five stratigraphic horizons: H5-H1 --
4.1.2.3. Section C' --
4.1.3. Other sections in Area C --
4.1.4. Sections in Area B --
4.1.5. Radiocarbon dates --
4.1.5.1. Area C and Section C --
4.1.5.2. Area B --
4.1.5.3. Correlation of the stratified layers in Area C and Area B --
4.1.5.4. Conclusions on the absolute dates of the horizons --
4.2. Qajaa --
4.2.1. Sections and layers --
4.2.1.1. Area D and the D sections --
4.2.1.2. Area K --
4.2.1.3. Area H --
4.2.1.4. Area E and Section E --
4.2.1.5. Section A --
4.2.1.6. Area B and Section B --
4.2.1.7. Area C and Section C --
4.2.1.8. Area F and Section F --
4.2.2. Radiocarbon dates --
4.2.3. Conclusions on datings and stratigraphy at Qa --
4.3. Relative chronology: typological and chronological trends of the Saqqaq culture --
4.3.1. Chronological trends at Qeqertasussuk, Qajaa and beyond --
4.3.1.1. Lithic raw material preferences through time --
4.3.1.2. Microblades --
4.3.1.3. Burins --
4.3.1.4. Harpoon heads --
4.3.1.5. Other chronological trends in the Saqqaq period --
4.3.1.6. Conclusions: the position of the frozen sites in the chronology of the Saqqaq culture --
5.1. Qeqertasussuk --
5.1.1. Area C, H4 --
5.1.1.1. Feature Al: an oval hearth --
5.1.1.2. Feature A2: a heap of dumped fire-cracked rocks --
5.1.1.3. Feature A3-5: a midpassage structure with two fireplaces --
5.1.1.4. Feature A6: a heap of dumped fire-cracked rocks --
5.1.1.5. Feature A7: a heap of dumped fire-cracked rocks --
5.1.1.6. Feature A8: a midpassage structure with a complex history --
5.1.1.7. Feature A9: a midpassage with a central chamber (Fig. 5.6) --
5.1.1.8. Other stone-and turf-built features on the H4 site surface --
5.1.1.9. Summary of the stone-built features of H4: a complex settlement surface (Fig. 5.7) --
5.1.1.10. Evaluation of the temporal sequence of events connected with the H4-surface --
5.1.2. Spatial analyses, H4 --
5.1.2.1. Introduction --
5.1.2.2. Wood-working --
5.1.2.3. Bone and antler working --
5.1.2.4. Stone knapping/resharpening of lithic tools and clearing of the dwelling floor --
5.1.2.5. Repair of hunting gear --
5.1.2.6. Food processing and consumption --
5.1.2.7. Various spatial patterns --
5.1.2.8. Summary and conclusions: activities on a complex settlement surface --
5.1.3. Spatial analyses: supplementary information from Areas A and B --
5.2. Qajaa --
5.2.1. Stone-built structures --
5.3. Architecture and spatial organization: comparative perspectives --
5.3.1. Complex Saqqaq dwellings --
5.3.2. Spatial organization of 'cold season dwellings' --
5.3.3. Dwelling floor size --
5.4. Temporal dynamics of the frozen sites --
5.4.1. Qeqertasussuk-subsistence periods and archaeological evidence Note continued: 5.4.1.1. Introduction --
5.4.1.2. An overview of the subsistence periods at Qt (Fig. 5.40) --
5.4.1.3. Archaeological evidence and the subsistence periods --
5.4.1.4. Conclusions: activities at Qeqertasussuk through time --
5.4.2. Temporal dynamics at Qajaa --
6.1. Human bones and hair from Qt: evidence from morphology and aDNA --
6.2. On the track of space and gender at Qt --
6.3. Where are the children? --
6.4. Saqqaq identity --
6.5. Saqqaq cosmology --
7.1. Introduction --
7.2. Comparative studies: Early ASTt tool kits and technology --
7.2.1. Hunting tool kits --
7.2.1.1. Bow and arrow technology --
7.2.1.2. Darts --
7.2.1.3. Harpoon heads and harpoon accessories --
7.2.1.4. Throwing boards --
7.2.1.5. Lances and other hunting gear --
7.2.2. Hand tools, skin working and household tool kits --
7.2.2.1. Knives, scrapers and burins --
7.2.2.2. Expedient cutting tools, saws, hammerstones, drills and grinding stones --
7.2.2.3. Wedges and adzes --
7.2.2.4. Pressure flakers --
7.2.2.5. Strike-a-lights and blubber lamps/stone vessels --
7.2.2.6. Bowls, spoons and ladles --
7.2.2.7. Sewing gear, worked skin and microblades --
7.2.2.8. Amulet boxes, drums and symbolic representations --
7.2.3. Raw materials and processing --
7.2.3.1. Organic matter --
7.2.3.2. Lithic raw materials --
7.3. A comparative perspective on Saqqaq architecture and spatial organization --
7.3.1. Architectural components, complexity and variation --
7.3.2. Size of dwelling floor areas --
7.3.3. Spatial distribution of artefacts and refuse --
7.3.4. Comparisons of Early ASTt camp types and settlement patterns --
7.4. The place of the Saqqaq culture in the Early ASTt chronology and the peopling of the Eastern Arctic --
7.4.1. Introduction --
7.4.2. Application of radiocarbon dates --
7.4.3. Saqqaq beginnings and the pioneer phase in the Eastern Arctic --
7.4.3.1. Timing of the Saqqaq beginnings --
7.4.3.2. Dating the earliest Independence I --
7.4.3.3. Saqqaq roots? Dating the beginning of Pre-Dorset --
7.4.3.4. Conclusions on the timing and character of the initial ASTt phase --
7.4.4. The end of the Saqqaq culture in relation to the development in the Eastern Arctic --
7.4.4.1. The abandonment of the High Arctic c. 3600 BP and concentration of Saqqaq occupations in West Greenland --
7.4.4.2. The Saqqaq/Early Dorset transition in West and South Greenland --
7.4.4.3. The Saqqaq/Dorset shift and some remarks on the Early to Late ASTt transition in the Eastern Arctic --
8.1. Introduction: Saqqaq life in Disko Bay --
8.1.1. Qeqertasussuk during the H4 period --
8.1.1.1. The surface of the site area --
8.1.1.2. The Saqqaq dome --
8.1.1.3. The heart of the dwelling: the midpassage, its 'life' and connected activities --
8.1.1.4. Food consumption and blubber lamps --
8.1.1.5. Disposal of refuse and craft activities --
8.1.2. Technology, tool kits and designs --
8.1.2.1. Raw materials and crafts --
8.1.2.2. Hunting tool kits, living resources, and gathering --
8.1.3. Catchment areas and regional perspectives --
8.1.3.1. A yearly cycle in Sydostbugten --
8.1.3.2. Evidence from raw materials about external connections --
8.1.3.3. The position of Qt and Qa in the Disko Bay settlement patterns --
8.2. The frozen sites in their Eastern Arctic context --
8.2.1. Technology and intercultural contacts --
8.2.2. Architecture --
8.2.3. Spatial organization, camps and settlement patterns --
8.2.4. Saqqaq's place among the pioneer cultures --
8.3. Alaskan and Siberian connections --
8.3.1. Introduction --
8.3.2. Saqqaq and Denbigh Flint Complex material culture and chronology --
8.3.3. The aDNA trail back to Alaska and Siberia --
8.3.4. Analogies to hunting technologies in the historic Western Arctic --
8.4. Implications of the study-and future research --
8.4.1. Frozen sites as important 'stepping stones' and indicators of site dynamics --
8.4.2. Learnings from dynamic technological studies --
8.4.3. Features and spatial analyses --
8.4.4. The Early ASTt peopling of the Eastern Arctic.
Series Title: Meddelelser om Grønland., Man & society ;, 45.; Meddelelser om Grønland, 356.
Responsibility: Bjarne Grønnow.

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Covers the contiguous languages - and cultures - across the northern Pacific rim from Van-couver Island in Canada to Hokkaido in northern Japan, and the adjacent Arctic coasts of Alaska and Chukotka.  Read more...

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    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/982657449> ; # The frozen Saqqaq sites of Disko Bay, West Greenland : Qeqertasussuk and Qajaa (2400-900 BC) : studies of Saqqaq material culture in an Eastern Arctic perspective
    schema:issn "0025-6676" ;
    schema:name "Meddelelser om Grønland ;" ;
    schema:name "Monographs on Greenland," ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/issn/0106-1062> # Meddelelser om Grønland.
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/982657449> ; # The frozen Saqqaq sites of Disko Bay, West Greenland : Qeqertasussuk and Qajaa (2400-900 BC) : studies of Saqqaq material culture in an Eastern Arctic perspective
    schema:issn "0106-1062" ;
    schema:name "Meddelelser om Grønland." ;
    schema:name "Man & society," ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/982657449>
    a genont:InformationResource, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource ;
    schema:about <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/982657449> ; # The frozen Saqqaq sites of Disko Bay, West Greenland : Qeqertasussuk and Qajaa (2400-900 BC) : studies of Saqqaq material culture in an Eastern Arctic perspective
    schema:dateModified "2018-06-08" ;
    void:inDataset <http://purl.oclc.org/dataset/WorldCat> ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

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