跳到内容
Fuel ethanol : background and public policy issues 预览资料
关闭预览资料
正在查...

Fuel ethanol : background and public policy issues

著者: Brent D Yacobucci; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
出版商: Washington, D.C. : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2006.
丛书: CRS report for Congress, RL33290.
版本/格式:   电子图书 : 文献 : 国家级的政府刊物 : 英语查看所有的版本和格式
数据库:WorldCat
提要:
Ethanol plays a key role in policy discussions about energy, agriculture, taxes, and the environment. In the United States it is mostly made from corn; in other countries it is often made from cane sugar. Fuel ethanol is generally blended in gasoline to reduce emissions, increase octane, and extend gasoline stocks. Recent high oil and gasoline prices have led to increased interest in alternatives to petroleum fuels  再读一些...
评估:

(尚未评估) 0 附有评论 - 争取成为第一个。

主题
更多类似这样的

 

在线查找

与资料的链接

在图书馆查找

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; 正在查找有这资料的图书馆...

详细书目

材料类型: 文献, 政府刊物, 国家级的政府刊物, 互联网资源
文件类型: 互联网资源, 计算机文档
所有的著者/提供者: Brent D Yacobucci; Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
OCLC号码: 64667076
注意: Cover title.
"March 3, 2006."
"Order code RL-33290."
Updates can be received through CRS Web.
描述: 26 pages.
详述: Mode of access: World Wide Web.; System requirements: Adobe Acrobate Reader.
丛书名: CRS report for Congress, RL33290.
其他题名: CRS report for Congress
责任: Brent D. Yacobucci.

摘要:

Ethanol plays a key role in policy discussions about energy, agriculture, taxes, and the environment. In the United States it is mostly made from corn; in other countries it is often made from cane sugar. Fuel ethanol is generally blended in gasoline to reduce emissions, increase octane, and extend gasoline stocks. Recent high oil and gasoline prices have led to increased interest in alternatives to petroleum fuels for transportation. Further, concerns over climate change have raised interest in developing fuels with lower fuel-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions. Supporters of ethanol argue that its use can lead to lower emissions of toxic and ozone-forming pollutants, and greenhouse gases, especially if higher-level blends are used. They further argue that ethanol use displaces petroleum imports, thus promoting energy security. Ethanol's detractors argue that various federal and state policies supporting ethanol distort the market and amount to corporate welfare for corn growers and ethanol producers. Further, they argue that the energy and chemical inputs needed to turn corn into ethanol actually increase emissions and energy consumption, although most recent studies have found modest energy and emissions benefits from ethanol use relative to gasoline. The market for fuel ethanol is heavily dependent on federal incentives and regulations. Ethanol production is encouraged by a federal tax credit of 51 cents per gallon. This incentive allows ethanol -- which has historically been more expensive than conventional gasoline -- to compete with gasoline and other blending components. In addition to the above tax credit, small ethanol producers qualify for an additional production credit. It has been argued that the fuel ethanol industry could scarcely survive without these incentives. In addition to the above tax incentives, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109- 58) established a renewable fuels standard (RFS). This standard requires the use of 4.0 billion gallons of renewable fuels in 2006, increasing each year to 7.5 billion gallons in 2012. Most of this requirement will likely be met with ethanol. In the United States, approximately 3.4 billion gallons of ethanol were consumed in 2004. Thus, the RFS will likely lead to a doubling of the U.S. ethanol market by 2012. Some analysts believe that this program could have serious effects on gasoline suppliers, leading to somewhat higher fuel prices. Thus, the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the program will likely be of continuing concern to Congress. Other issues of Congressional interest include support for purer blends of ethanol as an alternative to gasoline (as opposed to a gasoline blending component), promotion of ethanol vehicles and infrastructure, and imports of ethanol from foreign countries. This report supersedes CRS Report RL30369, Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues (available from author). It will be updated as events warrant.

评论

用户提供的评论
正在获取GoodReads评论...
正在检索DOGObooks的评论

标签

争取是第一个!
确认申请

你可能已经申请过这份资料。如果还是想申请,请选确认。

链接数据


Primary Entity

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/64667076> # Fuel ethanol background and public policy issues
    a schema:CreativeWork, schema:Book, schema:MediaObject ;
    library:oclcnum "64667076" ;
    library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/dcu> ;
    library:placeOfPublication <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Place/washington_d_c> ; # Washington, D.C.
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/910029> ; # Energy crops--Government policy
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1204155> ; # United States
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/alcohol_as_fuel_government_policy_united_states> ; # Alcohol as fuel--Government policy--United States
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/gasoline_anti_knock_and_anti_knock_mixtures_government_policy_united_states> ; # Gasoline--Anti-knock and anti-knock mixtures--Government policy--United States
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/804311> ; # Alcohol as fuel--Government policy
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/energy_crops_government_policy_united_states> ; # Energy crops--Government policy--United States
    schema:alternateName "CRS report for Congress" ;
    schema:bookFormat schema:EBook ;
    schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/123920740> ; # Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
    schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/19105513> ; # Brent D. Yacobucci
    schema:datePublished "2006" ;
    schema:description "Ethanol plays a key role in policy discussions about energy, agriculture, taxes, and the environment. In the United States it is mostly made from corn; in other countries it is often made from cane sugar. Fuel ethanol is generally blended in gasoline to reduce emissions, increase octane, and extend gasoline stocks. Recent high oil and gasoline prices have led to increased interest in alternatives to petroleum fuels for transportation. Further, concerns over climate change have raised interest in developing fuels with lower fuel-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions. Supporters of ethanol argue that its use can lead to lower emissions of toxic and ozone-forming pollutants, and greenhouse gases, especially if higher-level blends are used. They further argue that ethanol use displaces petroleum imports, thus promoting energy security. Ethanol's detractors argue that various federal and state policies supporting ethanol distort the market and amount to corporate welfare for corn growers and ethanol producers. Further, they argue that the energy and chemical inputs needed to turn corn into ethanol actually increase emissions and energy consumption, although most recent studies have found modest energy and emissions benefits from ethanol use relative to gasoline. The market for fuel ethanol is heavily dependent on federal incentives and regulations. Ethanol production is encouraged by a federal tax credit of 51 cents per gallon. This incentive allows ethanol -- which has historically been more expensive than conventional gasoline -- to compete with gasoline and other blending components. In addition to the above tax credit, small ethanol producers qualify for an additional production credit. It has been argued that the fuel ethanol industry could scarcely survive without these incentives. In addition to the above tax incentives, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109- 58) established a renewable fuels standard (RFS). This standard requires the use of 4.0 billion gallons of renewable fuels in 2006, increasing each year to 7.5 billion gallons in 2012. Most of this requirement will likely be met with ethanol. In the United States, approximately 3.4 billion gallons of ethanol were consumed in 2004. Thus, the RFS will likely lead to a doubling of the U.S. ethanol market by 2012. Some analysts believe that this program could have serious effects on gasoline suppliers, leading to somewhat higher fuel prices. Thus, the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the program will likely be of continuing concern to Congress. Other issues of Congressional interest include support for purer blends of ethanol as an alternative to gasoline (as opposed to a gasoline blending component), promotion of ethanol vehicles and infrastructure, and imports of ethanol from foreign countries. This report supersedes CRS Report RL30369, Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues (available from author). It will be updated as events warrant."@en ;
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/6134327> ;
    schema:genre "Government publication"@en ;
    schema:genre "National government publication"@en ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isPartOf <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Series/crs_report_for_congress> ; # CRS report for Congress ;
    schema:name "Fuel ethanol background and public policy issues"@en ;
    schema:productID "64667076" ;
    schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/64667076#PublicationEvent/washington_d_c_congressional_research_service_library_of_congress_2006> ;
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Agent/congressional_research_service_library_of_congress> ; # Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
    schema:url <http://library.nps.navy.mil/uhtbin/hyperion/CRS-RL33290.pdf> ;
    schema:url <http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL33290.pdf> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/64667076> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Agent/congressional_research_service_library_of_congress> # Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress
    a bgn:Agent ;
    schema:name "Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Place/washington_d_c> # Washington, D.C.
    a schema:Place ;
    schema:name "Washington, D.C." ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Series/crs_report_for_congress> # CRS report for Congress ;
    a bgn:PublicationSeries ;
    schema:hasPart <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/64667076> ; # Fuel ethanol background and public policy issues
    schema:name "CRS report for Congress ;" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/alcohol_as_fuel_government_policy_united_states> # Alcohol as fuel--Government policy--United States
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:hasPart <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85003274> ;
    schema:name "Alcohol as fuel--Government policy--United States"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/energy_crops_government_policy_united_states> # Energy crops--Government policy--United States
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:hasPart <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85043133> ;
    schema:name "Energy crops--Government policy--United States"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/6134327#Topic/gasoline_anti_knock_and_anti_knock_mixtures_government_policy_united_states> # Gasoline--Anti-knock and anti-knock mixtures--Government policy--United States
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:hasPart <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85053419> ;
    schema:name "Gasoline--Anti-knock and anti-knock mixtures--Government policy--United States"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1204155> # United States
    a schema:Place ;
    schema:name "United States" ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/804311> # Alcohol as fuel--Government policy
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Alcohol as fuel--Government policy"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/910029> # Energy crops--Government policy
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Energy crops--Government policy"@en ;
    .

<http://viaf.org/viaf/123920740> # Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
    a schema:Organization ;
    schema:name "Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service." ;
    .

<http://viaf.org/viaf/19105513> # Brent D. Yacobucci
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:familyName "Yacobucci" ;
    schema:givenName "Brent D." ;
    schema:name "Brent D. Yacobucci" ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

关闭窗口

请登入WorldCat 

没有张号吗?很容易就可以 建立免费的账号.