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The fundamentals of imaging : from particles to galaxies

Author: M M Woolfson
Publisher: Singapore ; London : World Scientific, 2011.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
It is through images that we understand the form and function of material objects, from the fundamental particles that are the constituents of matter to galaxies that are the constituents of the Universe. Imaging must be thought of in a flexible way as varying from just the detection of objects - a blip on a screen representing an aircraft or a vapour trail representing the passage of an exotic particle - to  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: M M Woolfson
ISBN: 1848166869 9781848166868 1280349050 9781280349058
OCLC Number: 860530467
Description: 1 online resource (xiv, 360 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Preface; 1. The Human Visual System; 1.1 The Optical System; 1.2 The Photoreceptors; 1.3 The Way that Nerve Cells Operate and Communicate; 1.4 The Neural Network of the Eye; 1.5 The Visual Cortex; 2. The Evolution of the Eye; 2.1 Plants and Light; 2.2 Different Forms of Eye; 2.3 The Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye; 3. Waves and Image Formation; 3.1 What is Light?; 3.2 Huygens' Wavelets; 3.3 Reflection and Refraction; 3.4 Stereoscopy; 3.5 Holography; 4. Seeing Small Objects; 4.1 Resolution of the Visual System; 4.2 A Simple Microscope --
the Magnifying Glass. 4.3 The Compound Microscope4.4 Phase-Contrast Microscopy; 4.5 Electron Microscopy; 4.5.1 The transmission electron microscope; 4.5.2 The scanning electron microscope; 4.5.3 The scanning transmission electron microscope; 4.5.4 The scanning tunnelling microscope; 5. Photography and the Recording of Images; 5.1 The Origins of the Camera; 5.2 Recording and Storing Monochrome Images; 5.2.1 Joseph Nicephore Niepce; 5.2.2 Daguerreotypes; 5.2.3 William Henry Fox Talbot; 5.2.4 From the wet collodion process to modern film; 5.3 The Beginning of Colour Photography; 5.3.1 Louis Ducos du Hauron. 5.3.2 The Lippmann process5.4 Modern Colour Photography; 5.4.1 The autochrome process; 5.4.2 The modern era of colour photography; 5.5 The Basic Construction of a Camera; 5.6 Digital Cameras; 6. Detecting and Imaging with Infrared Radiation; 6.1 The Radiation from Hot Bodies; 6.2 The Detection of Infrared Radiation; 6.2.1 The effectiveness of infrared and heat detectors; 6.2.2 Thermocouples and thermopiles; 6.2.3 Bolometers; 6.2.4 Golay cells; 6.2.5 Pyroelectric detectors; intruder alarms; 6.3 Infrared Imaging; 6.3.1 A night-vision device; 6.3.2 Thermography: thermal imaging; 7. Radar. 7.1 The Origin of Radar7.2 Determining the Distance; 7.3 The Basic Requirements of a Radar System; 7.4 Generators of Radio Frequency Radiation; 7.4.1 The klystron amplifier; 7.4.2 The cavity magnetron; 7.5 Transmitting the Pulses; 7.5.1 A simple dipole; 7.5.2 The parabolic reflector; 7.5.3 Multiple-dipole-array antennae; 7.5.4 Phased-array radar; 7.6 Reception and Presentation; 7.7 Doppler Radar; 7.7.1 The Doppler effect; 7.7.2 Pulsed-Doppler radar; 7.8 Synthetic Aperture Radar; 7.8.1 A simple illustration of SAR; 7.8.2 More complex SAR applications; 7.9 Other Radar Applications. 7.9.1 Secondary radar7.9.2 Ground penetrating radar; 8. Imaging the Universe with Visible and Near-Visible Radiation; 8.1 Optical Telescopes; 8.2 Refracting Telescopes; 8.3 Reflecting Telescopes; 8.4 Infrared Astronomy; 8.5 Adaptive Optics; 8.5.1 The Keck telescopes; 8.5.2 Flexible mirror systems; 9. Imaging the Universe with Longer Wavelengths; 9.1 Observations in the Far Infrared; 9.1.1 COBE results; 9.2 Radio Telescopes; 9.2.1 The beginning of radio astronomy; 9.2.2 Big-dish radio telescopes; 9.2.3 Radio interferometers; 9.2.4 Radio telescope images.
Responsibility: by Michael M. Woolfson.

Abstract:

It is through images that we understand the form and function of material objects, from the fundamental particles that are the constituents of matter to galaxies that are the constituents of the Universe. Imaging must be thought of in a flexible way as varying from just the detection of objects - a blip on a screen representing an aircraft or a vapour trail representing the passage of an exotic particle - to displaying the fine detail in the eye of an insect or the arrangement of atoms within or on the surface of a solid. The range of imaging tools, both in the type of wave phenomena used and in the devices that utilize them, is vast. This book will illustrate this range, with wave phenomena covering the entire electromagnetic spectrum and ultrasound, and devices that vary from those that just detect the presence of objects to those that image objects in exquisite detail. The word 'fundamentals' in the title has meaning for this book. There will be no attempt to delve into the fine technical details of the construction of specific devices but rather the book aims to give an understanding of the principles behind the imaging process and a general account of how those principles are utilized.

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