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Geoecology of Antarctic ice-free coastal landscapes : with 59 tables

Author: Lothar Beyer
Publisher: Berlin : Springer, 2002.
Series: Ecological studies, 154.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

Research in Antarctica in the past two decades has fundamentally changed our perceptions of the southern continent. It includes aspects of climate change, soil development and biology, as well as  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Aufsatzsammlung
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Lothar Beyer
ISBN: 3540422684 9783540422686
OCLC Number: 174814470
Description: XXIII, 427 Seiten : Illustrationen, Diagramme ; 25 cm.
Contents: I The Environment.- Preface.- Antarctic Coastal Landscapes: Characteristics, Ecology and Research.- The Antarctic Environments and Ecosystems.- Characteristics of Antarctic Coastal regions.- The Former Use of `Oasis' as a Synonym for Ice-Free Landscapes.- Characteristics of Antarctic Coastal Landscapes.- Localities and Topography.- Soils of Antarctic Coasts.- Conditions for Colonisation of Soils.- Development and Maturation.- Research Programmes and Objectives.- References.- Maritime and Continental Antarctic: The Sites of Investigation in Context 17.- Geography and Geology.- Climate.- The Effects on Soil Ecosystems.- References.- King George Island - South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctic.- Geographical Features.- Cartographic and Topographic Features.- Surroundings.- Shores.- The Sea Basin.- Changes of Climate.- Temperature.- Radiation.- Climatic Differentiations.- Climatological Effects.- Periglacial Features and Processes.- Variability in the Terrestrial Ecosystem.- References.- Wilkes Land (Casey Station).- The Windmill Islands - Physical.- Geology and Geomorphology.- Holocene Emergence.- Climate.- References 46.- Dronning Maud Land and Its Environments.- Geographical Zone of Dronning Maud Land.- Climatic Zonations.- Distribution of Mosses, Lichens and Soil Algae.- Soil Properties.- Particle Size Distributions.- Electrical Conductivity and pH(H20).- Water Availability.- Nutrients.- Environmental Monitoring.- Human Activity and Long-Range Dispersal.- References.- II Soils, Soil Development and Soil Properties.- Preface.- Glacial Changes in the Areas of Admiralty Bay, Potter Cove, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.- Climate Change Indications in the of the Antarctic Peninsula.- Satellite Images and Historical Maps.- Glacier Retreat in Admiralty Bay and Potter Cove.- Tidewater Glaciers.- Glaciers Terminating on Land.- Possible Reasons for the Differences in Glacier Retreat of the Tidewater Glaciers in Admiralty Bay.- Conclusion.- References.- Soils and Soilscapes.- Sites and Analyses.- Soil Conditions.- Windmill Islands (Casey Area).- King George Island (Arctowski Area).- Soil Classifications.- Soilscapes.- Windmill Islands.- King George Island.- Conclusions.- References.- Weathering and Soil Formation.- Sites and Methodology.- Soil Analyses.- Lithology of the Sites and Mineralogy of Soils.- Soil Forming Processes and Their Products.- Weathering, Acidification and Mineral Formation.- Humus Accumulation and Biotic Aggregation.- Podzolisation.- Carbonisation, Salinisation and Alkalisation.- Redoximorphism.- Conclusions.- References.- Refractory Soil Organic Matter - Formation, Accumulation, Translocation and Transformation.- Sites and Analyses.- Soil Organic Matter - Distribution and Accumulation.- Soil Formation and SOM Translocation.- 13C-NMR Spectroscopy.- PyGC/MS Analysis.- Soil Formation and SOM Transformation.- Conclusions.- References 156.- Ornithogenic Ecosystems in the Maritime Antarctic Formation, Development and Disintegration.- Colonisation of Antarctic Coast by Sea Vertebrates.- Marine Vertebrates in the Maritime Antarctic Paleoecosystem.- Colonisation of Land by Sea Vertebrates During Glacial/ Interglacial Cycles.- Impact of Sea Animals on Terrestrial Ecosystem Formation.- Ornithogenic (Penguin) Soils in the Maritime Antarctic.- Mineralisation of Guano.- Ornithogenic Waters.- Phosphatisation - the Main Ornithogenic Soil Forming Process in the Maritime Antarctic.- Ornithogenic Soils of Active Rookeries.- Ornithogenic Soils of Abandoned Rookeries.- Development of Terrestrial Ornithogenic Ecosystems.- Biogeochemical Cycle of Ornithogenic Matter on the Land/Sea Boundary.- References.- III Soil Microbes, Plants and Soil Fauna.- Preface.- Heterotrophic Soil Microbes, Microbial and Enzymatic Activity in Antarctic Soils.- The Microbial Community.- Bacterial Counts.- Bacterial Biomass.- Fungi and Yeasts.- Microbial Activity.- Bacterial Activity.- Turnover Times of Glucose.- Respiration of Glucose.- Biomass Production Based on Glucose Metabolism.- Enzymatic Activity.- CO2 Evolution and O2-Consumption.- Driving Factors of Microbial Activity.- Environmental Conditions.- Dissolved Organic Matter.- Mineralisation of Guano.- References.- Plant Communities on King George Island.- Comments on the Flora.- A Review of Important Plant Communities on King George Island.- Communities of Rock Substrates.- Nitrophobic Communities.- Halophilous and Nitrophilous Communities.- Terricolous Communities.- Communities with Vascular Plants.- Communities with a Predominance of Bryophytes.- Communities with a Predominance of Lichens.- The role of Animals in Antarctic Terrestrial Ecosystems.- Distribution of the Principal Terrestrial Ecosystems.- References.- Plant Communities at Wilkes Land.- Flora and Vegetation of the Windmill Islands.- Geology, Geomorphology and Vegetation Patterns.- Plants in the Terrestrial Ecosystem.- Ecophysiological Adaptations of the Flora.- Environmental Impacts and Conservation Issues.- References.- Plant Communities at Dronning Maud Land.- Vegetation in Dronning Maud Land.- Vascular Plants.- Cryptogamic Organisms.- Moss Habitats and Communities.- Soil Algal Communities in the Vicinities of Syowa Station, East Dronning Maud Land.- References.- Soil Fauna of Antarctic Coastal Landscapes.- Faunal Composition.- Ecology and Physiology.- Interhabitat Dispersal and Population Genetic Structure.- Potential Responses to Environmental Change.- Further Research.- References.- IV Integrating Aspects for Soil Ecology in Antarctic Coastal Landscapes.- Preface.- Soils as Habitats for microorganisms.- The Microbial Environment.- The Stone Sphere.- The Aggregate Sphere.- Resource Competition.- Water as a Controlling Factor.- Consequences of Changing Water Availability.- Osmotic Stress.- Physical Effects on the Habitat While Freezing and Thawing.- Ecological Rating of Habitats - An Example from Antarctic Sites.- Adaptation - A Clue to Survival in Harsh Environments?.- References.- Ecological Classification of Terrestrial Algal Communities in Polar Environments.- Environmental Constraints.- Climate.- Hydrology and Permafrost.- Habitat Classification.- Hydro-Terrestrial Environments.- Terrestrial Environments.- Conclusion.- References.- Plants and Lichens in the Antarctic, Their Way of Life and Their Relevance to Soil Formation.- Vascular Plants.- Immigration and Distribution in Antarctica.- Physiological Properties Allow Existence in Antarctica.- Relevance of Vascular Plants for Soil Formation.- Bryophytes.- Bryophytes, as a Component of Antarctic Vegetation.- Physiological Properties That Enable Bryophytes to Live in Antarctica.- Productivity and Growth.- Growth Forms and Strategies.- Phytomass.- Other Organisms Attached to Bryophytes.- Decomposition and Mineralisation.- Catchment of Debris, Detritus, Airborne Particles, Air Spora and Trace Substances.- Nutrient Cycling.- Lichens.- Floristic Remarks.- Physiological Properties That Enable Lichens to Exist in Antarctica.- Growth and Growth Forms.- Colonisation and Succession.- Relations to the Substratum.- Ion Uptake.- Contribution to Pedogenetic Processes.- Conclusions.- References.- Soil Ecology in Relation to Plant Patterns.- Sites and Environmental Constraints.- Soils - Texture and Nutrients.- Vegetation Patterns.- Relationships Between Soils and Vegetation.- Snow and Water as Structural Components.- Conclusion and Needs for Future Research.- References.- Uses, Preservation and Protection of Antarctic Coastal Regions.- Ecological Background.- Ecosystem Development.- Colonisation by Seabirds and Seals.- Occupation, Uses and Impacts by Man.- Research Installations.- Tourism.- Disturbance and Remediation.- A Terminology for Disturbance and Damage.- Remediation.- Coastal Landscapes and Global Change.- Conservation of Coastal Landscapes.- References.- Concluding Remarks.- Taxonomic Index.- Geographical Index.
Series Title: Ecological studies, 154.
Responsibility: L. Beyer ... (ed.).
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