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GIS based chemical fate modeling : principles and applications

Author: Alberto Pistocchi
Publisher: Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2014]
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:

This book covers the integration of chemical fate modeling for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) functions.

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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Geographic information systems
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Pistocchi, Alberto, 1972-
GIS based chemical fate modeling
(DLC) 2012032882
(OCoLC)812570558
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Alberto Pistocchi
ISBN: 9781118523704 1118523709 1118059972 9781118059975
OCLC Number: 904769431
Description: 1 online resource (1 volume) : illustrations, maps
Contents: Preface xiii Contributors xvii Chapter 1 | Chemicals, Models, and GIS: Introduction 1 1-1 Chemistry, Modeling, and Geography 1 1-2 Mr. Palomar and Models 2 1-3 What Makes a Model Different? 4 1-4 Simple, Complex, or Tiered? 7 Compatibility of Emissions and Concentrations 9 Spatiotemporal Variability 10 Spatial Patterns 12 More Complex Models and the Tale of Horatii and Curiatii 15 1-5 For Whom is this Book Written? 17 References 19 Chapter 2 | Basics of Chemical Compartment Models and Their Implementation with GIS Functions 23 2-1 Introduction 23 2-2 Phase Partitioning 24 Air Compartment 24 Surface Water Compartment 25 Soil Compartment 25 2-3 Diffusion, Dispersion, and Advection 26 2-4 Fluxes at the Interfaces 28 Air Ground Surface Interface 28 Water Air and Water Bottom Sediment Interface 28 Soil Air and Soil Water Interface 29 Parameterization of Advection Velocities and Diffusion/Dispersion Rates 29 2-5 Reactions 32 2-6 Transport Within an Environmental Medium: The Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) 33 Soils 37 Surface Water 38 Atmosphere 39 2-7 Analytical Solutions 40 Example: The Domenico Model 40 Example: Implementation of a River Plug Flow Model in a Spreadsheet 45 2-8 Box Models, Multimedia and Multispecies Fate and Transport 47 Example: Implementing a Box Model of Soil Contamination and Water Pollution Loading in a Spreadsheet 51 2-9 Spatial Models: Implicit, Explicit, Detailed Explicit, and GIS-Based Schemes 57 References 65 Chapter 3 | Basics of GIS Operations 71 3-1 What is GIS? 71 3-2 GIS Data 72 Coordinate Systems 72 Example: Coordinate Transformation 75 Example: Georeference a Map from a Paper Using ArcGIS 77 GIS Formats 81 3-3 GIS Software 92 3-4 GIS Standards 93 Exercise: Browse and Export Geographic Objects in KML and Combine Them with Layers from a WMS 94 3-5 A Classification of GIS Operations for Chemical Fate Modeling 99 3-6 Spatial Thinking 100 3-7 Beyond GIS 103 3-8 Further Progress on GIS 104 References 104 Chapter 4 | Map Algebra 107 4-1 Map Algebra Operators and Syntaxes 109 4-2 Using Map Algebra to Compute a Gaussian Plume 112 Example: Using Map Algebra to Compute Volatilization Rates from Water Bodies 119 4-3 Using Map Algebra to Implement Isolated Box Models 121 References 124 Chapter 5 | Distance Calculations 127 5-1 Concepts of Distance Calculations 127 Example: Feature Buffering 127 Example: Join Based on Distance 129 5-2 Distance Along a Surface and Vertical Distance 134 5-3 Applications of Euclidean Distance in Pollution Problems 135 5-4 Cost Distance 139 Exercise: Euclidean and Cost distance Calculations 140 References 148 Chapter 6 | Spatial Statistics and Neighborhood Modeling in GIS 149 6-1 Variograms: Analyzing Spatial Patterns 149 Exercise: Computing Variograms of Observed Atmospheric Contaminants 154 6-2 Interpolation 160 6-3 Zonal Statistics 163 6-4 Neighborhood Statistics and Filters 164 Exercise: Creating a Population Map from Point and Polygon Data 169 References 170 Chapter 7 | Digital Elevation Models, Topographic Controls, and Hydrologic Modeling in GIS 171 7-1 Basic Surface Analysis 171 7-2 Drainage 178 Example: Pit Filling, Flow Direction, Flow Accumulation, and Flow Length in ArcGIS 178 Example: Catchment Population in India 183 Example: Travel Time 185 7-3 Using GIS Hydrological Functions in Chemical Fate and Transport Modeling 187 7-4 Non-D8 Methods and the TauDEM Algorithms 190 7-5 ESRI s Darcy Flow and Porous Puff Functions 191 References 193 Chapter 8 | Elements of Dynamic Modeling in GIS 195 8-1 Dynamic GIS Models 195 8-2 Studying Time-Dependent Effects With Simple Map Algebra 200 Intermittent Emissions 200 Lagged Release from Historical Stockpiles 201 Stepwise Constant Emission and Removal Processes 202 8-3 Decoupling Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Models: The Mappe Global Approach 203 References 206 Chapter 9 | Metamodeling and Source Receptor Relationship Modeling in GIS 209 9-1 Introduction 209 9-2 Metamodeling 210 9-3 Source Receptor Relationships 213 References 215 Chapter 10 | Spatial Data Management in GIS and the Coupling of GIS and Environmental Models 217 10-1 Introduction 217 10-2 Historical Perspective of Emergence of Spatial Databases in Environmental Domain 218 10-3 Spatial Data Management in GIS: Theory and History 221 Spatial Database Definition 221 Relational Data Model Foundations 221 Object Relational Concepts: A Foundation Model for Spatial Databases Theoretical Background 224 PostgreSQL/PostGIS Object Relational Support 225 Oracle Object Relational Support 225 10-4 Spatial Database Solutions 226 ESRI Geodatabase 226 PostgreSQL and PostGIS 229 Oracle Locator and Spatial 230 10-5 Simple Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton and GIS: Hands-On Examples 230 Simple PostgreSQL/PostGIS Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton and QuantumGIS 231 Simple Oracle XE Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton 237 10-6 Generalized Environmental Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton and Geographic Mashups 244 Spatiotemporal Database Skeleton 244 Geographic Mashup 246 References 249 Chapter 11 | Soft Computing Methods for the Overlaying of Chemical Data with Other Spatially Varying Parameters 253 11-1 Introduction 253 11-2 Fuzzy Logic and Expert Judgment 258 11-3 Spatial Multicriteria Analysis 262 11-4 An Example of Vulnerability Mapping of Water Resources to Pollution 266 References 276 Chapter 12 | Types of Data Required for Chemical Fate Modeling 279 12-1 Climate and Atmospheric Data 280 12-2 Soil Data 286 12-3 Impervious Surface Area 289 12-4 Vegetation 289 12-5 Hydrological Data 291 12-6 Elevation Data 293 12-7 Hydrography 296 12-8 Lakes 298 12-9 Stream Network Hydraulic Data 298 12-10 Ocean Parameters 299 12-11 Human Activity 301 Land Use/Land Cover 303 Population 305 Stable Lights at Night 306 12-12 Using Satellite Images for the Extraction of Environmental Parameters 306 12-13 Compilations of Data for Chemical Fate and Transport Modeling 307 References 307 Chapter 13 | Retrieval and Analysis of Emission Data 311 13-1 Characterization of Emissions 311 13-2 Emissions based on Production Volumes 312 13-3 Estimation from Usage or Release Inventories 313 13-4 Emission Factors 313 13-5 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Emissions 314 Diffuse Emissions at Local to Regional Scale 317 Example: Estimating Urban Runoff Contaminants from Land Use and Population Data in the Province of Naples, Italy 318 Exercise: Apportionment of Emissions Using a Geographic Pattern 318 13-6 Modeling Traffic Flows 322 References 326 Chapter 14 | Characterization of Environmental Properties and Processes 329 14-1 Physicochemical Properties and Partition Coefficients 329 14-2 Aerosol and Suspended Sediments 330 Exercise: Computing SPM in Rivers Using the Formula of Hakanson and Co-workers 332 14-3 Diffusive Processes 335 14-4 Dispersion 335 14-5 Advective Processes 336 Atmospheric Deposition 336 Soil Water Budget Calculations 338 Soil Erosion 344 14-6 River and Lake Hydraulic Geometry 344 References 350 Chapter 15 | Complex Models, GIS, and Data Assimilation 353 15-1 Atmospheric Transport Models 353 Example: Dispersion Modeling of an Atmospheric Emission in Australia 354 15-2 Transport in Groundwater and the Analytic Element Method 361 15-3 GIS Functions of Modeling Systems and Data Assimilation 361 References 363 Chapter 16 | The Issue of Monitoring Data and the Evaluation of Spatial Models of Chemical Fate 365 16-1 Existing Monitoring Programs 366 16-2 Distributed Sampling 366 16-3 Methods for the Comparison of Measured and Modeled Concentrations 367 Exercise: Comparison of Two PCB Soil Concentration Models 368 References 375 Chapter 17 | From Fate to Exposure and Risk Modeling with GIS 377 17-1 Exposure and Risk for Human Health 377 17-2 Models for the Quantification of Chemical Intake by Humans 382 Exercise: Human Exposure, Intake, and Cancer Risk Related to Ingestion of Aboveground Produce Contaminated by Gas and Dust Deposition of 2,3,7,8-TCDD Emitted from an Industrial Emission Source 386 17-3 Ecological and Environmental Risk Assessment 393 Exercise: Mapping Patch Area and Ecotones in South America 398 17-4 Data for GIS Based Risk Assessment 400 References 401 Chapter 18 | GIS Based Models in Practice: The Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment (MAPPE) Model 405 18-1 Introduction 405 18-2 Environmental Compartments Considered in the Model 407 Atmosphere Compartment 409 Soil Compartment 412 Inland Water Compartment 413 Seawater 415 18-3 Implementation in GIS: Example with Lindane 416 Scalar Input Quantities 416 Maps Describing Landscape and Climate Parameters 418 Air Compartment Calculations 419 Soil Compartment Calculations 422 Inland Water Compartment Calculations 427 Seawater Compartment Calculations 434 18-4 Using the Model For Scenario Assessment 436 References 441 Chapter 19 | Inverse Modeling and Its Application to Water Contaminants 443 19-1 Introduction 443 Exercise: Inverse Modeling of Caffeine in Europe 447 References 451 Chapter 20 | Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators and the Modeling of Contamination Patterns 453 20-1 The Relative Risk Model 453 Example: Relative Risk Assessment for Coastal Ecosystems Due to Wastewater Emission in South Africa 456 20-2 Use of Chemical Fate and Transport Indicators in the Context of Relative Risk Assessment: An Example with Contaminants Applied to Soil 459 Example: Generic Modeling of Sewage Sludge Soil Application in Mexico 464 References 472 Chapter 21 | Perspectives: The Challenge of Cumulative Impacts and Planetary Boundaries 475 References 478 Index 481
Responsibility: Alberto Pistocchi, GECOsistema srl Cesena, Italy.
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