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Green energetic materials

Author: Tore Brinck
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom : Wiley, 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

This comprehensive book presents a detailed account of research and recent developments in the field of green energetic materials, including pyrotechnics, explosives and propellants.

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Green energetic materials.
Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons Inc., [2014]
(DLC) 2013038434
(OCoLC)858778394
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Tore Brinck
ISBN: 9781119941293 1119941296
OCLC Number: 858672499
Description: xii, 290 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: 1 Introduction to Green Energetic Materials / Tore Brinck Brinck, Tore 1 --
1.1 Introduction 1 --
1.2 Green Chemistry and Energetic Materials 2 --
1.3 Green Propellants in Civil Space Travel 5 --
1.3.1 Green Oxidizers to Replace Ammonium Perchlorate 6 --
1.3.2 Green Liquid Propellants to Replace Hydrazine 8 --
1.3.3 Electric Propulsion 10 --
1.4 Conclusions 10 --
References 11 --
2 Theoretical Design of Green Energetic Materials: Predicting Stability, Detection, Synthesis and Performance / Tore Brinck Brinck, Tore, Martin Rahm Rahm, Martin 15 --
2.1 Introduction 15 --
2.2 Computational Methods 17 --
2.3 Green Propellant Components 20 --
2.3.1 Trinitramide 20 --
2.3.2 Energetic Anions Rich in Oxygen and Nitrogen 24 --
2.3.3 The Pentazolate Anion and its Oxy-Derivatives 27 --
2.3.4 Tetrahedral N₄ 33 --
2.4 Conclusions 38 --
References 39 --
3 Some Perspectives on Sensitivity to Initiation of Detonation / Peter Politzer Politzer, Peter, Jane S. Murray Murray, Jane S. 45 --
3.1 Energetic Materials and Green Chemistry 45 --
3.2 Sensitivity: Some Background 46 --
3.3 Sensitivity Relationships 47 --
3.4 Sensitivity: Some Relevant Factors 48 --
3.4.1 Amino Substituents 48 --
3.4.2 Layered (Graphite-Like) Crystal Lattice 49 --
3.4.3 Free Space in the Crystal Lattice 50 --
3.4.4 Weak Trigger Bonds 50 --
3.4.5 Molecular Electrostatic Potentials 51 --
3.5 Summary 56 --
Acknowledgments 56 --
References 57 --
4 Advances Toward the Development of "Green" Pyrotechnics / Jesse J. Sabatini Sabatini, Jesse J. 63 --
4.1 Introduction 63 --
4.2 The Foundation of "Green" Pyrotechnics 65 --
4.3 Development of Perchlorate-Free Pyrotechnics 67 --
4.3.1 Perchlorate-Free Illuminating Pyrotechnics 67 --
4.3.2 Perchlorate-Free Simulators 72 --
4.4 Removal of Heavy Metals from Pyrotechnic Formulations 75 --
4.4.1 Barium-Free Green-Light Emitting Illuminants 76 --
4.4.2 Barium-Free Incendiary Compositions 78 --
4.4.3 Lead-Free Pyrotechnic Compositions 80 --
4.4.4 Chromium-Free Pyrotechnic Compositions 82 --
4.5 Removal of Chlorinated Organic Compounds from Pyrotechnic Formulations 83 --
4.5.1 Chlorine-Free Illuminating Compositions 83 --
4.6 Environmentally Friendly Smoke Compositions 84 --
4.6.1 Environmentally Friendly Colored Smoke Compositions 84 --
4.6.2 Environmentally Friendly White Smoke Compositions 88 --
4.7 Conclusions 93 --
Acknowledgments 94 --
Abbreviations 95 --
References 97 --
5 Green Primary Explosives / Karl D. Oyler Oyler, Karl D. 103 --
5.1 Introduction 103 --
5.1.1 What is a Primary Explosive? 104 --
5.1.2 The Case for Green Primary Explosives 107 --
5.1.3 Legacy Primary Explosives 108 --
5.2 Green Primary Explosive Candidates 110 --
5.2.1 Inorganic Compounds 111 --
5.2.2 Organic-Based Compounds 116 --
5.3 Conclusions 125 --
Acknowledgments 126 --
References 126 --
6 Energetic Tetrazole N-oxides / Thomas M. Klapötke Klapötke, Thomas M., Jörg Stierstorfer Stierstorfer, Jörg 133 --
6.1 Introduction 133 --
6.2 Rationale for the Investigation of Tetrazole N-oxides 133 --
6.3 Synthetic Strategies for the Formation of Tetrazole N-oxides 136 --
6.3.1 HOF CH₃ CN 136 --
6.3.2 Oxone® 137 --
6.3.3 CF₃COOH/H₂O₂ 138 --
6.3.4 Cyclization of Azido-Oximes 139 --
6.4 Recent Examples of Energetic Tetrazole N-oxides 139 --
6.4.1 Tetrazole AT-oxides 140 --
6.4.2 Bis(tetrazole-N-oxides) 150 --
6.4.3 5,5'-Azoxytetrazolates 164 --
6.4.4 Bis(tetrazole)dihydrotetrazine and Bis(tetrazole)tetrazine N-oxides 170 --
6.5 Conclusion 173 --
Acknowledgments 174 --
References 174 --
7 Green Propellants Based on Dinitramide Salts: Mastering Stability and Chemical Compatibility Issues / Martin Rahm Rahm, Martin, Tore Brinck Brinck, Tore 179 --
7.1 The Promises and Problems of Dinitramide Salts 179 --
7.2 Understanding Dinitramide Decomposition 181 --
7.2.1 The Dinitramide Anion 182 --
7.2.2 Dinitraminic Acid 184 --
7.2.3 Dinitramide Salts 185 --
7.3 Vibrational Sum-Frequency Spectroscopy of ADN and KDN 189 --
7.4 Anomalous Sohd-State Decomposition 192 --
7.5 Dinitramide Chemistry 194 --
7.5.1 Compatibility and Reactivity of ADN 194 --
7.5.2 Dinitramides in Synthesis 196 --
7.6 Dinitramide Stabilization 198 --
7.7 Conclusions 200 --
References 201 --
8 Binder Materials for Green Propellants / Carina Eldsater Eldsater, Carina, Eva Malmström Malmström, Eva 205 --
8.1 Binder Properties 208 --
8.2 Inert Polymers for Binders 210 --
8.2.1 Polybutadiene 210 --
8.2.2 Polyethers 212 --
8.2.3 Polyesters and Polycarbonates 213 --
8.3 Energetic Polymers 215 --
8.3.1 Nitrocellulose 215 --
8.3.2 Poly(glycidyl azide) 216 --
8.3.3 Poly(3-nitratomethyl-3-methyloxetane) 220 --
8.3.4 Poly(glycidyl nitrate) 221 --
8.3.5 Poly[3,3-bis(azidomethyl)oxetane] 222 --
8.4 Energetic Plasticisers 223 --
8.5 Outlook for Design of New Green Binder Systems 223 --
8.5.1 Architecture of the Binder Polymer 224 --
8.5.2 Chemical Composition and Crosslinking Chemistries 224 --
References 226 --
9 The Development of Environmentally Sustainable Manufacturing Technologies for Energetic Materials / David E. Chavez Chavez, David E. 235 --
9.1 Introduction 235 --
9.2 Explosives 236 --
9.2.1 Sustainable Manufacturing of Explosives 236 --
9.2.2 Environmentally Friendly Materials for Initiation 240 --
9.2.3 Synthesis of Explosive Precursors 244 --
9.3 Pyrotechnics 246 --
9.3.1 Commercial Pyrotechnics Manufacturing 246 --
9.3.2 Military Pyrotechnics 248 --
9.4 Propellants 249 --
9.4.1 The "Green Missile" Program 249 --
9.4.2 Other Rocket Propellant Efforts 250 --
9.4.3 Gun Propellants 251 --
9.5 Formulation 253 --
9.6 Conclusions 254 --
Acknowledgments 254 --
Abbreviations and Acronyms 255 --
References 256 --
10 Electrochemical Methods for Synthesis of Energetic Materials and Remediation of Waste Water / Lynne Wallace Wallace, Lynne 259 --
10.1 Introduction 259 --
10.2 Practical Aspects 260 --
10.3 Electrosynthesis 262 --
10.3.1 Electrosynthesis of EM and EM Precursors 262 --
10.3.2 Electrosynthesis of Useful Reagents 265 --
10.4 Electrochemical Remediation 266 --
10.4.1 Direct Electrolysis 267 --
10.4.2 Indirect Electrolytic Methods 269 --
10.4.3 Electrokinetic Remediation of Soils 272 --
10.4.4 Electrodialysis 273 --
10.5 Current Developments and Future Directions 273 --
References 275.
Responsibility: editor, Tore Brinck, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

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